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From h...@apache.org
Subject [18/52] [abbrv] [partial] incubator-hawq git commit: HAWQ-707. Remove gtest/gmock dependency from libyarn/libhdfs3
Date Mon, 09 May 2016 10:12:03 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/a5b68bab/depends/googletest/googletest/docs/DevGuide.md
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-
-
-If you are interested in understanding the internals of Google Test,
-building from source, or contributing ideas or modifications to the
-project, then this document is for you.
-
-# Introduction #
-
-First, let's give you some background of the project.
-
-## Licensing ##
-
-All Google Test source and pre-built packages are provided under the [New BSD License](http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php).
-
-## The Google Test Community ##
-
-The Google Test community exists primarily through the [discussion group](http://groups.google.com/group/googletestframework) and the GitHub repository.
-You are definitely encouraged to contribute to the
-discussion and you can also help us to keep the effectiveness of the
-group high by following and promoting the guidelines listed here.
-
-### Please Be Friendly ###
-
-Showing courtesy and respect to others is a vital part of the Google
-culture, and we strongly encourage everyone participating in Google
-Test development to join us in accepting nothing less. Of course,
-being courteous is not the same as failing to constructively disagree
-with each other, but it does mean that we should be respectful of each
-other when enumerating the 42 technical reasons that a particular
-proposal may not be the best choice. There's never a reason to be
-antagonistic or dismissive toward anyone who is sincerely trying to
-contribute to a discussion.
-
-Sure, C++ testing is serious business and all that, but it's also
-a lot of fun. Let's keep it that way. Let's strive to be one of the
-friendliest communities in all of open source.
-
-As always, discuss Google Test in the official GoogleTest discussion group.
-You don't have to actually submit code in order to sign up. Your participation
-itself is a valuable contribution.
-
-# Working with the Code #
-
-If you want to get your hands dirty with the code inside Google Test,
-this is the section for you.
-
-## Compiling from Source ##
-
-Once you check out the code, you can find instructions on how to
-compile it in the [README](../README.md) file.
-
-## Testing ##
-
-A testing framework is of no good if itself is not thoroughly tested.
-Tests should be written for any new code, and changes should be
-verified to not break existing tests before they are submitted for
-review. To perform the tests, follow the instructions in
-[README](../README.md) and verify that there are no failures.
-
-# Contributing Code #
-
-We are excited that Google Test is now open source, and hope to get
-great patches from the community. Before you fire up your favorite IDE
-and begin hammering away at that new feature, though, please take the
-time to read this section and understand the process. While it seems
-rigorous, we want to keep a high standard of quality in the code
-base.
-
-## Contributor License Agreements ##
-
-You must sign a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) before we can
-accept any code.  The CLA protects you and us.
-
-  * If you are an individual writing original source code and you're sure you own the intellectual property, then you'll need to sign an [individual CLA](http://code.google.com/legal/individual-cla-v1.0.html).
-  * If you work for a company that wants to allow you to contribute your work to Google Test, then you'll need to sign a [corporate CLA](http://code.google.com/legal/corporate-cla-v1.0.html).
-
-Follow either of the two links above to access the appropriate CLA and
-instructions for how to sign and return it.
-
-## Coding Style ##
-
-To keep the source consistent, readable, diffable and easy to merge,
-we use a fairly rigid coding style, as defined by the [google-styleguide](http://code.google.com/p/google-styleguide/) project.  All patches will be expected
-to conform to the style outlined [here](http://google-styleguide.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/cppguide.xml).
-
-## Updating Generated Code ##
-
-Some of Google Test's source files are generated by the Pump tool (a
-Python script).  If you need to update such files, please modify the
-source (`foo.h.pump`) and re-generate the C++ file using Pump.  You
-can read the PumpManual for details.
-
-## Submitting Patches ##
-
-Please do submit code. Here's what you need to do:
-
-  1. A submission should be a set of changes that addresses one issue in the [issue tracker](https://github.com/google/googletest/issues). Please don't mix more than one logical change per submittal, because it makes the history hard to follow. If you want to make a change that doesn't have a corresponding issue in the issue tracker, please create one.
-  1. Also, coordinate with team members that are listed on the issue in question. This ensures that work isn't being duplicated and communicating your plan early also generally leads to better patches.
-  1. Ensure that your code adheres to the [Google Test source code style](#Coding_Style.md).
-  1. Ensure that there are unit tests for your code.
-  1. Sign a Contributor License Agreement.
-  1. Create a Pull Request in the usual way.
-
-## Google Test Committers ##
-
-The current members of the Google Test engineering team are the only
-committers at present. In the great tradition of eating one's own
-dogfood, we will be requiring each new Google Test engineering team
-member to earn the right to become a committer by following the
-procedures in this document, writing consistently great code, and
-demonstrating repeatedly that he or she truly gets the zen of Google
-Test.
-
-# Release Process #
-
-We follow a typical release process:
-
-  1. A release branch named `release-X.Y` is created.
-  1. Bugs are fixed and features are added in trunk; those individual patches are merged into the release branch until it's stable.
-  1. An individual point release (the `Z` in `X.Y.Z`) is made by creating a tag from the branch.
-  1. Repeat steps 2 and 3 throughout one release cycle (as determined by features or time).
-  1. Go back to step 1 to create another release branch and so on.
-
----
-
-This page is based on the [Making GWT Better](http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/makinggwtbetter.html) guide from the [Google Web Toolkit](http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/) project.  Except as otherwise [noted](http://code.google.com/policies.html#restrictions), the content of this page is licensed under the [Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/a5b68bab/depends/googletest/googletest/docs/Documentation.md
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-This page lists all documentation wiki pages for Google Test **(the SVN trunk version)**
--- **if you use a released version of Google Test, please read the
-documentation for that specific version instead.**
-
-  * [Primer](Primer.md) -- start here if you are new to Google Test.
-  * [Samples](Samples.md) -- learn from examples.
-  * [AdvancedGuide](AdvancedGuide.md) -- learn more about Google Test.
-  * [XcodeGuide](XcodeGuide.md) -- how to use Google Test in Xcode on Mac.
-  * [Frequently-Asked Questions](FAQ.md) -- check here before asking a question on the mailing list.
-
-To contribute code to Google Test, read:
-
-  * [DevGuide](DevGuide.md) -- read this _before_ writing your first patch.
-  * [PumpManual](PumpManual.md) -- how we generate some of Google Test's source files.
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/a5b68bab/depends/googletest/googletest/docs/FAQ.md
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-
-
-If you cannot find the answer to your question here, and you have read
-[Primer](Primer.md) and [AdvancedGuide](AdvancedGuide.md), send it to
-googletestframework@googlegroups.com.
-
-## Why should I use Google Test instead of my favorite C++ testing framework? ##
-
-First, let us say clearly that we don't want to get into the debate of
-which C++ testing framework is **the best**.  There exist many fine
-frameworks for writing C++ tests, and we have tremendous respect for
-the developers and users of them.  We don't think there is (or will
-be) a single best framework - you have to pick the right tool for the
-particular task you are tackling.
-
-We created Google Test because we couldn't find the right combination
-of features and conveniences in an existing framework to satisfy _our_
-needs.  The following is a list of things that _we_ like about Google
-Test.  We don't claim them to be unique to Google Test - rather, the
-combination of them makes Google Test the choice for us.  We hope this
-list can help you decide whether it is for you too.
-
-  * Google Test is designed to be portable: it doesn't require exceptions or RTTI; it works around various bugs in various compilers and environments; etc.  As a result, it works on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows and several embedded operating systems.
-  * Nonfatal assertions (`EXPECT_*`) have proven to be great time savers, as they allow a test to report multiple failures in a single edit-compile-test cycle.
-  * It's easy to write assertions that generate informative messages: you just use the stream syntax to append any additional information, e.g. `ASSERT_EQ(5, Foo(i)) << " where i = " << i;`.  It doesn't require a new set of macros or special functions.
-  * Google Test automatically detects your tests and doesn't require you to enumerate them in order to run them.
-  * Death tests are pretty handy for ensuring that your asserts in production code are triggered by the right conditions.
-  * `SCOPED_TRACE` helps you understand the context of an assertion failure when it comes from inside a sub-routine or loop.
-  * You can decide which tests to run using name patterns.  This saves time when you want to quickly reproduce a test failure.
-  * Google Test can generate XML test result reports that can be parsed by popular continuous build system like Hudson.
-  * Simple things are easy in Google Test, while hard things are possible: in addition to advanced features like [global test environments](AdvancedGuide.md#global-set-up-and-tear-down) and tests parameterized by [values](AdvancedGuide.md#value-parameterized-tests) or [types](docs/AdvancedGuide.md#typed-tests), Google Test supports various ways for the user to extend the framework -- if Google Test doesn't do something out of the box, chances are that a user can implement the feature using Google Test's public API, without changing Google Test itself.  In particular, you can:
-    * expand your testing vocabulary by defining [custom predicates](AdvancedGuide.md#predicate-assertions-for-better-error-messages),
-    * teach Google Test how to [print your types](AdvancedGuide.md#teaching-google-test-how-to-print-your-values),
-    * define your own testing macros or utilities and verify them using Google Test's [Service Provider Interface](AdvancedGuide.md#catching-failures), and
-    * reflect on the test cases or change the test output format by intercepting the [test events](AdvancedGuide.md#extending-google-test-by-handling-test-events).
-
-## I'm getting warnings when compiling Google Test.  Would you fix them? ##
-
-We strive to minimize compiler warnings Google Test generates.  Before releasing a new version, we test to make sure that it doesn't generate warnings when compiled using its CMake script on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.
-
-Unfortunately, this doesn't mean you are guaranteed to see no warnings when compiling Google Test in your environment:
-
-  * You may be using a different compiler as we use, or a different version of the same compiler.  We cannot possibly test for all compilers.
-  * You may be compiling on a different platform as we do.
-  * Your project may be using different compiler flags as we do.
-
-It is not always possible to make Google Test warning-free for everyone.  Or, it may not be desirable if the warning is rarely enabled and fixing the violations makes the code more complex.
-
-If you see warnings when compiling Google Test, we suggest that you use the `-isystem` flag (assuming your are using GCC) to mark Google Test headers as system headers.  That'll suppress warnings from Google Test headers.
-
-## Why should not test case names and test names contain underscore? ##
-
-Underscore (`_`) is special, as C++ reserves the following to be used by
-the compiler and the standard library:
-
-  1. any identifier that starts with an `_` followed by an upper-case letter, and
-  1. any identifier that containers two consecutive underscores (i.e. `__`) _anywhere_ in its name.
-
-User code is _prohibited_ from using such identifiers.
-
-Now let's look at what this means for `TEST` and `TEST_F`.
-
-Currently `TEST(TestCaseName, TestName)` generates a class named
-`TestCaseName_TestName_Test`.  What happens if `TestCaseName` or `TestName`
-contains `_`?
-
-  1. If `TestCaseName` starts with an `_` followed by an upper-case letter (say, `_Foo`), we end up with `_Foo_TestName_Test`, which is reserved and thus invalid.
-  1. If `TestCaseName` ends with an `_` (say, `Foo_`), we get `Foo__TestName_Test`, which is invalid.
-  1. If `TestName` starts with an `_` (say, `_Bar`), we get `TestCaseName__Bar_Test`, which is invalid.
-  1. If `TestName` ends with an `_` (say, `Bar_`), we get `TestCaseName_Bar__Test`, which is invalid.
-
-So clearly `TestCaseName` and `TestName` cannot start or end with `_`
-(Actually, `TestCaseName` can start with `_` -- as long as the `_` isn't
-followed by an upper-case letter.  But that's getting complicated.  So
-for simplicity we just say that it cannot start with `_`.).
-
-It may seem fine for `TestCaseName` and `TestName` to contain `_` in the
-middle.  However, consider this:
-``` cpp
-TEST(Time, Flies_Like_An_Arrow) { ... }
-TEST(Time_Flies, Like_An_Arrow) { ... }
-```
-
-Now, the two `TEST`s will both generate the same class
-(`Time_Files_Like_An_Arrow_Test`).  That's not good.
-
-So for simplicity, we just ask the users to avoid `_` in `TestCaseName`
-and `TestName`.  The rule is more constraining than necessary, but it's
-simple and easy to remember.  It also gives Google Test some wiggle
-room in case its implementation needs to change in the future.
-
-If you violate the rule, there may not be immediately consequences,
-but your test may (just may) break with a new compiler (or a new
-version of the compiler you are using) or with a new version of Google
-Test.  Therefore it's best to follow the rule.
-
-## Why is it not recommended to install a pre-compiled copy of Google Test (for example, into /usr/local)? ##
-
-In the early days, we said that you could install
-compiled Google Test libraries on `*`nix systems using `make install`.
-Then every user of your machine can write tests without
-recompiling Google Test.
-
-This seemed like a good idea, but it has a
-got-cha: every user needs to compile his tests using the _same_ compiler
-flags used to compile the installed Google Test libraries; otherwise
-he may run into undefined behaviors (i.e. the tests can behave
-strangely and may even crash for no obvious reasons).
-
-Why?  Because C++ has this thing called the One-Definition Rule: if
-two C++ source files contain different definitions of the same
-class/function/variable, and you link them together, you violate the
-rule.  The linker may or may not catch the error (in many cases it's
-not required by the C++ standard to catch the violation).  If it
-doesn't, you get strange run-time behaviors that are unexpected and
-hard to debug.
-
-If you compile Google Test and your test code using different compiler
-flags, they may see different definitions of the same
-class/function/variable (e.g. due to the use of `#if` in Google Test).
-Therefore, for your sanity, we recommend to avoid installing pre-compiled
-Google Test libraries.  Instead, each project should compile
-Google Test itself such that it can be sure that the same flags are
-used for both Google Test and the tests.
-
-## How do I generate 64-bit binaries on Windows (using Visual Studio 2008)? ##
-
-(Answered by Trevor Robinson)
-
-Load the supplied Visual Studio solution file, either `msvc\gtest-md.sln` or
-`msvc\gtest.sln`. Go through the migration wizard to migrate the
-solution and project files to Visual Studio 2008. Select
-`Configuration Manager...` from the `Build` menu. Select `<New...>` from
-the `Active solution platform` dropdown.  Select `x64` from the new
-platform dropdown, leave `Copy settings from` set to `Win32` and
-`Create new project platforms` checked, then click `OK`. You now have
-`Win32` and `x64` platform configurations, selectable from the
-`Standard` toolbar, which allow you to toggle between building 32-bit or
-64-bit binaries (or both at once using Batch Build).
-
-In order to prevent build output files from overwriting one another,
-you'll need to change the `Intermediate Directory` settings for the
-newly created platform configuration across all the projects. To do
-this, multi-select (e.g. using shift-click) all projects (but not the
-solution) in the `Solution Explorer`. Right-click one of them and
-select `Properties`. In the left pane, select `Configuration Properties`,
-and from the `Configuration` dropdown, select `All Configurations`.
-Make sure the selected platform is `x64`. For the
-`Intermediate Directory` setting, change the value from
-`$(PlatformName)\$(ConfigurationName)` to
-`$(OutDir)\$(ProjectName)`. Click `OK` and then build the
-solution. When the build is complete, the 64-bit binaries will be in
-the `msvc\x64\Debug` directory.
-
-## Can I use Google Test on MinGW? ##
-
-We haven't tested this ourselves, but Per Abrahamsen reported that he
-was able to compile and install Google Test successfully when using
-MinGW from Cygwin.  You'll need to configure it with:
-
-`PATH/TO/configure CC="gcc -mno-cygwin" CXX="g++ -mno-cygwin"`
-
-You should be able to replace the `-mno-cygwin` option with direct links
-to the real MinGW binaries, but we haven't tried that.
-
-Caveats:
-
-  * There are many warnings when compiling.
-  * `make check` will produce some errors as not all tests for Google Test itself are compatible with MinGW.
-
-We also have reports on successful cross compilation of Google Test
-MinGW binaries on Linux using
-[these instructions](http://wiki.wxwidgets.org/Cross-Compiling_Under_Linux#Cross-compiling_under_Linux_for_MS_Windows)
-on the WxWidgets site.
-
-Please contact `googletestframework@googlegroups.com` if you are
-interested in improving the support for MinGW.
-
-## Why does Google Test support EXPECT\_EQ(NULL, ptr) and ASSERT\_EQ(NULL, ptr) but not EXPECT\_NE(NULL, ptr) and ASSERT\_NE(NULL, ptr)? ##
-
-Due to some peculiarity of C++, it requires some non-trivial template
-meta programming tricks to support using `NULL` as an argument of the
-`EXPECT_XX()` and `ASSERT_XX()` macros. Therefore we only do it where
-it's most needed (otherwise we make the implementation of Google Test
-harder to maintain and more error-prone than necessary).
-
-The `EXPECT_EQ()` macro takes the _expected_ value as its first
-argument and the _actual_ value as the second. It's reasonable that
-someone wants to write `EXPECT_EQ(NULL, some_expression)`, and this
-indeed was requested several times. Therefore we implemented it.
-
-The need for `EXPECT_NE(NULL, ptr)` isn't nearly as strong. When the
-assertion fails, you already know that `ptr` must be `NULL`, so it
-doesn't add any information to print ptr in this case. That means
-`EXPECT_TRUE(ptr != NULL)` works just as well.
-
-If we were to support `EXPECT_NE(NULL, ptr)`, for consistency we'll
-have to support `EXPECT_NE(ptr, NULL)` as well, as unlike `EXPECT_EQ`,
-we don't have a convention on the order of the two arguments for
-`EXPECT_NE`. This means using the template meta programming tricks
-twice in the implementation, making it even harder to understand and
-maintain. We believe the benefit doesn't justify the cost.
-
-Finally, with the growth of Google Mock's [matcher](../../googlemock/docs/CookBook.md#using-matchers-in-google-test-assertions) library, we are
-encouraging people to use the unified `EXPECT_THAT(value, matcher)`
-syntax more often in tests. One significant advantage of the matcher
-approach is that matchers can be easily combined to form new matchers,
-while the `EXPECT_NE`, etc, macros cannot be easily
-combined. Therefore we want to invest more in the matchers than in the
-`EXPECT_XX()` macros.
-
-## Does Google Test support running tests in parallel? ##
-
-Test runners tend to be tightly coupled with the build/test
-environment, and Google Test doesn't try to solve the problem of
-running tests in parallel.  Instead, we tried to make Google Test work
-nicely with test runners.  For example, Google Test's XML report
-contains the time spent on each test, and its `gtest_list_tests` and
-`gtest_filter` flags can be used for splitting the execution of test
-methods into multiple processes.  These functionalities can help the
-test runner run the tests in parallel.
-
-## Why don't Google Test run the tests in different threads to speed things up? ##
-
-It's difficult to write thread-safe code.  Most tests are not written
-with thread-safety in mind, and thus may not work correctly in a
-multi-threaded setting.
-
-If you think about it, it's already hard to make your code work when
-you know what other threads are doing.  It's much harder, and
-sometimes even impossible, to make your code work when you don't know
-what other threads are doing (remember that test methods can be added,
-deleted, or modified after your test was written).  If you want to run
-the tests in parallel, you'd better run them in different processes.
-
-## Why aren't Google Test assertions implemented using exceptions? ##
-
-Our original motivation was to be able to use Google Test in projects
-that disable exceptions.  Later we realized some additional benefits
-of this approach:
-
-  1. Throwing in a destructor is undefined behavior in C++.  Not using exceptions means Google Test's assertions are safe to use in destructors.
-  1. The `EXPECT_*` family of macros will continue even after a failure, allowing multiple failures in a `TEST` to be reported in a single run. This is a popular feature, as in C++ the edit-compile-test cycle is usually quite long and being able to fixing more than one thing at a time is a blessing.
-  1. If assertions are implemented using exceptions, a test may falsely ignore a failure if it's caught by user code:
-``` cpp
-try { ... ASSERT_TRUE(...) ... }
-catch (...) { ... }
-```
-The above code will pass even if the `ASSERT_TRUE` throws.  While it's unlikely for someone to write this in a test, it's possible to run into this pattern when you write assertions in callbacks that are called by the code under test.
-
-The downside of not using exceptions is that `ASSERT_*` (implemented
-using `return`) will only abort the current function, not the current
-`TEST`.
-
-## Why do we use two different macros for tests with and without fixtures? ##
-
-Unfortunately, C++'s macro system doesn't allow us to use the same
-macro for both cases.  One possibility is to provide only one macro
-for tests with fixtures, and require the user to define an empty
-fixture sometimes:
-
-``` cpp
-class FooTest : public ::testing::Test {};
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, DoesThis) { ... }
-```
-or
-``` cpp
-typedef ::testing::Test FooTest;
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, DoesThat) { ... }
-```
-
-Yet, many people think this is one line too many. :-) Our goal was to
-make it really easy to write tests, so we tried to make simple tests
-trivial to create.  That means using a separate macro for such tests.
-
-We think neither approach is ideal, yet either of them is reasonable.
-In the end, it probably doesn't matter much either way.
-
-## Why don't we use structs as test fixtures? ##
-
-We like to use structs only when representing passive data.  This
-distinction between structs and classes is good for documenting the
-intent of the code's author.  Since test fixtures have logic like
-`SetUp()` and `TearDown()`, they are better defined as classes.
-
-## Why are death tests implemented as assertions instead of using a test runner? ##
-
-Our goal was to make death tests as convenient for a user as C++
-possibly allows.  In particular:
-
-  * The runner-style requires to split the information into two pieces: the definition of the death test itself, and the specification for the runner on how to run the death test and what to expect.  The death test would be written in C++, while the runner spec may or may not be.  A user needs to carefully keep the two in sync. `ASSERT_DEATH(statement, expected_message)` specifies all necessary information in one place, in one language, without boilerplate code. It is very declarative.
-  * `ASSERT_DEATH` has a similar syntax and error-reporting semantics as other Google Test assertions, and thus is easy to learn.
-  * `ASSERT_DEATH` can be mixed with other assertions and other logic at your will.  You are not limited to one death test per test method. For example, you can write something like:
-``` cpp
-    if (FooCondition()) {
-      ASSERT_DEATH(Bar(), "blah");
-    } else {
-      ASSERT_EQ(5, Bar());
-    }
-```
-If you prefer one death test per test method, you can write your tests in that style too, but we don't want to impose that on the users.  The fewer artificial limitations the better.
-  * `ASSERT_DEATH` can reference local variables in the current function, and you can decide how many death tests you want based on run-time information.  For example,
-``` cpp
-    const int count = GetCount();  // Only known at run time.
-    for (int i = 1; i <= count; i++) {
-      ASSERT_DEATH({
-        double* buffer = new double[i];
-        ... initializes buffer ...
-        Foo(buffer, i)
-      }, "blah blah");
-    }
-```
-The runner-based approach tends to be more static and less flexible, or requires more user effort to get this kind of flexibility.
-
-Another interesting thing about `ASSERT_DEATH` is that it calls `fork()`
-to create a child process to run the death test.  This is lightening
-fast, as `fork()` uses copy-on-write pages and incurs almost zero
-overhead, and the child process starts from the user-supplied
-statement directly, skipping all global and local initialization and
-any code leading to the given statement.  If you launch the child
-process from scratch, it can take seconds just to load everything and
-start running if the test links to many libraries dynamically.
-
-## My death test modifies some state, but the change seems lost after the death test finishes. Why? ##
-
-Death tests (`EXPECT_DEATH`, etc) are executed in a sub-process s.t. the
-expected crash won't kill the test program (i.e. the parent process). As a
-result, any in-memory side effects they incur are observable in their
-respective sub-processes, but not in the parent process. You can think of them
-as running in a parallel universe, more or less.
-
-## The compiler complains about "undefined references" to some static const member variables, but I did define them in the class body. What's wrong? ##
-
-If your class has a static data member:
-
-``` cpp
-// foo.h
-class Foo {
-  ...
-  static const int kBar = 100;
-};
-```
-
-You also need to define it _outside_ of the class body in `foo.cc`:
-
-``` cpp
-const int Foo::kBar;  // No initializer here.
-```
-
-Otherwise your code is **invalid C++**, and may break in unexpected ways. In
-particular, using it in Google Test comparison assertions (`EXPECT_EQ`, etc)
-will generate an "undefined reference" linker error.
-
-## I have an interface that has several implementations. Can I write a set of tests once and repeat them over all the implementations? ##
-
-Google Test doesn't yet have good support for this kind of tests, or
-data-driven tests in general. We hope to be able to make improvements in this
-area soon.
-
-## Can I derive a test fixture from another? ##
-
-Yes.
-
-Each test fixture has a corresponding and same named test case. This means only
-one test case can use a particular fixture. Sometimes, however, multiple test
-cases may want to use the same or slightly different fixtures. For example, you
-may want to make sure that all of a GUI library's test cases don't leak
-important system resources like fonts and brushes.
-
-In Google Test, you share a fixture among test cases by putting the shared
-logic in a base test fixture, then deriving from that base a separate fixture
-for each test case that wants to use this common logic. You then use `TEST_F()`
-to write tests using each derived fixture.
-
-Typically, your code looks like this:
-
-``` cpp
-// Defines a base test fixture.
-class BaseTest : public ::testing::Test {
-  protected:
-   ...
-};
-
-// Derives a fixture FooTest from BaseTest.
-class FooTest : public BaseTest {
-  protected:
-    virtual void SetUp() {
-      BaseTest::SetUp();  // Sets up the base fixture first.
-      ... additional set-up work ...
-    }
-    virtual void TearDown() {
-      ... clean-up work for FooTest ...
-      BaseTest::TearDown();  // Remember to tear down the base fixture
-                             // after cleaning up FooTest!
-    }
-    ... functions and variables for FooTest ...
-};
-
-// Tests that use the fixture FooTest.
-TEST_F(FooTest, Bar) { ... }
-TEST_F(FooTest, Baz) { ... }
-
-... additional fixtures derived from BaseTest ...
-```
-
-If necessary, you can continue to derive test fixtures from a derived fixture.
-Google Test has no limit on how deep the hierarchy can be.
-
-For a complete example using derived test fixtures, see
-[sample5](../samples/sample5_unittest.cc).
-
-## My compiler complains "void value not ignored as it ought to be." What does this mean? ##
-
-You're probably using an `ASSERT_*()` in a function that doesn't return `void`.
-`ASSERT_*()` can only be used in `void` functions.
-
-## My death test hangs (or seg-faults). How do I fix it? ##
-
-In Google Test, death tests are run in a child process and the way they work is
-delicate. To write death tests you really need to understand how they work.
-Please make sure you have read this.
-
-In particular, death tests don't like having multiple threads in the parent
-process. So the first thing you can try is to eliminate creating threads
-outside of `EXPECT_DEATH()`.
-
-Sometimes this is impossible as some library you must use may be creating
-threads before `main()` is even reached. In this case, you can try to minimize
-the chance of conflicts by either moving as many activities as possible inside
-`EXPECT_DEATH()` (in the extreme case, you want to move everything inside), or
-leaving as few things as possible in it. Also, you can try to set the death
-test style to `"threadsafe"`, which is safer but slower, and see if it helps.
-
-If you go with thread-safe death tests, remember that they rerun the test
-program from the beginning in the child process. Therefore make sure your
-program can run side-by-side with itself and is deterministic.
-
-In the end, this boils down to good concurrent programming. You have to make
-sure that there is no race conditions or dead locks in your program. No silver
-bullet - sorry!
-
-## Should I use the constructor/destructor of the test fixture or the set-up/tear-down function? ##
-
-The first thing to remember is that Google Test does not reuse the
-same test fixture object across multiple tests. For each `TEST_F`,
-Google Test will create a fresh test fixture object, _immediately_
-call `SetUp()`, run the test body, call `TearDown()`, and then
-_immediately_ delete the test fixture object.
-
-When you need to write per-test set-up and tear-down logic, you have
-the choice between using the test fixture constructor/destructor or
-`SetUp()/TearDown()`. The former is usually preferred, as it has the
-following benefits:
-
-  * By initializing a member variable in the constructor, we have the option to make it `const`, which helps prevent accidental changes to its value and makes the tests more obviously correct.
-  * In case we need to subclass the test fixture class, the subclass' constructor is guaranteed to call the base class' constructor first, and the subclass' destructor is guaranteed to call the base class' destructor afterward. With `SetUp()/TearDown()`, a subclass may make the mistake of forgetting to call the base class' `SetUp()/TearDown()` or call them at the wrong moment.
-
-You may still want to use `SetUp()/TearDown()` in the following rare cases:
-  * If the tear-down operation could throw an exception, you must use `TearDown()` as opposed to the destructor, as throwing in a destructor leads to undefined behavior and usually will kill your program right away. Note that many standard libraries (like STL) may throw when exceptions are enabled in the compiler. Therefore you should prefer `TearDown()` if you want to write portable tests that work with or without exceptions.
-  * The assertion macros throw an exception when flag `--gtest_throw_on_failure` is specified. Therefore, you shouldn't use Google Test assertions in a destructor if you plan to run your tests with this flag.
-  * In a constructor or destructor, you cannot make a virtual function call on this object. (You can call a method declared as virtual, but it will be statically bound.) Therefore, if you need to call a method that will be overriden in a derived class, you have to use `SetUp()/TearDown()`.
-
-## The compiler complains "no matching function to call" when I use ASSERT\_PREDn. How do I fix it? ##
-
-If the predicate function you use in `ASSERT_PRED*` or `EXPECT_PRED*` is
-overloaded or a template, the compiler will have trouble figuring out which
-overloaded version it should use. `ASSERT_PRED_FORMAT*` and
-`EXPECT_PRED_FORMAT*` don't have this problem.
-
-If you see this error, you might want to switch to
-`(ASSERT|EXPECT)_PRED_FORMAT*`, which will also give you a better failure
-message. If, however, that is not an option, you can resolve the problem by
-explicitly telling the compiler which version to pick.
-
-For example, suppose you have
-
-``` cpp
-bool IsPositive(int n) {
-  return n > 0;
-}
-bool IsPositive(double x) {
-  return x > 0;
-}
-```
-
-you will get a compiler error if you write
-
-``` cpp
-EXPECT_PRED1(IsPositive, 5);
-```
-
-However, this will work:
-
-``` cpp
-EXPECT_PRED1(*static_cast<bool (*)(int)>*(IsPositive), 5);
-```
-
-(The stuff inside the angled brackets for the `static_cast` operator is the
-type of the function pointer for the `int`-version of `IsPositive()`.)
-
-As another example, when you have a template function
-
-``` cpp
-template <typename T>
-bool IsNegative(T x) {
-  return x < 0;
-}
-```
-
-you can use it in a predicate assertion like this:
-
-``` cpp
-ASSERT_PRED1(IsNegative*<int>*, -5);
-```
-
-Things are more interesting if your template has more than one parameters. The
-following won't compile:
-
-``` cpp
-ASSERT_PRED2(*GreaterThan<int, int>*, 5, 0);
-```
-
-
-as the C++ pre-processor thinks you are giving `ASSERT_PRED2` 4 arguments,
-which is one more than expected. The workaround is to wrap the predicate
-function in parentheses:
-
-``` cpp
-ASSERT_PRED2(*(GreaterThan<int, int>)*, 5, 0);
-```
-
-
-## My compiler complains about "ignoring return value" when I call RUN\_ALL\_TESTS(). Why? ##
-
-Some people had been ignoring the return value of `RUN_ALL_TESTS()`. That is,
-instead of
-
-``` cpp
-return RUN_ALL_TESTS();
-```
-
-they write
-
-``` cpp
-RUN_ALL_TESTS();
-```
-
-This is wrong and dangerous. A test runner needs to see the return value of
-`RUN_ALL_TESTS()` in order to determine if a test has passed. If your `main()`
-function ignores it, your test will be considered successful even if it has a
-Google Test assertion failure. Very bad.
-
-To help the users avoid this dangerous bug, the implementation of
-`RUN_ALL_TESTS()` causes gcc to raise this warning, when the return value is
-ignored. If you see this warning, the fix is simple: just make sure its value
-is used as the return value of `main()`.
-
-## My compiler complains that a constructor (or destructor) cannot return a value. What's going on? ##
-
-Due to a peculiarity of C++, in order to support the syntax for streaming
-messages to an `ASSERT_*`, e.g.
-
-``` cpp
-ASSERT_EQ(1, Foo()) << "blah blah" << foo;
-```
-
-we had to give up using `ASSERT*` and `FAIL*` (but not `EXPECT*` and
-`ADD_FAILURE*`) in constructors and destructors. The workaround is to move the
-content of your constructor/destructor to a private void member function, or
-switch to `EXPECT_*()` if that works. This section in the user's guide explains
-it.
-
-## My set-up function is not called. Why? ##
-
-C++ is case-sensitive. It should be spelled as `SetUp()`.  Did you
-spell it as `Setup()`?
-
-Similarly, sometimes people spell `SetUpTestCase()` as `SetupTestCase()` and
-wonder why it's never called.
-
-## How do I jump to the line of a failure in Emacs directly? ##
-
-Google Test's failure message format is understood by Emacs and many other
-IDEs, like acme and XCode. If a Google Test message is in a compilation buffer
-in Emacs, then it's clickable. You can now hit `enter` on a message to jump to
-the corresponding source code, or use `C-x `` to jump to the next failure.
-
-## I have several test cases which share the same test fixture logic, do I have to define a new test fixture class for each of them? This seems pretty tedious. ##
-
-You don't have to. Instead of
-
-``` cpp
-class FooTest : public BaseTest {};
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Abc) { ... }
-TEST_F(FooTest, Def) { ... }
-
-class BarTest : public BaseTest {};
-
-TEST_F(BarTest, Abc) { ... }
-TEST_F(BarTest, Def) { ... }
-```
-
-you can simply `typedef` the test fixtures:
-``` cpp
-typedef BaseTest FooTest;
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Abc) { ... }
-TEST_F(FooTest, Def) { ... }
-
-typedef BaseTest BarTest;
-
-TEST_F(BarTest, Abc) { ... }
-TEST_F(BarTest, Def) { ... }
-```
-
-## The Google Test output is buried in a whole bunch of log messages. What do I do? ##
-
-The Google Test output is meant to be a concise and human-friendly report. If
-your test generates textual output itself, it will mix with the Google Test
-output, making it hard to read. However, there is an easy solution to this
-problem.
-
-Since most log messages go to stderr, we decided to let Google Test output go
-to stdout. This way, you can easily separate the two using redirection. For
-example:
-```
-./my_test > googletest_output.txt
-```
-
-## Why should I prefer test fixtures over global variables? ##
-
-There are several good reasons:
-  1. It's likely your test needs to change the states of its global variables. This makes it difficult to keep side effects from escaping one test and contaminating others, making debugging difficult. By using fixtures, each test has a fresh set of variables that's different (but with the same names). Thus, tests are kept independent of each other.
-  1. Global variables pollute the global namespace.
-  1. Test fixtures can be reused via subclassing, which cannot be done easily with global variables. This is useful if many test cases have something in common.
-
-## How do I test private class members without writing FRIEND\_TEST()s? ##
-
-You should try to write testable code, which means classes should be easily
-tested from their public interface. One way to achieve this is the Pimpl idiom:
-you move all private members of a class into a helper class, and make all
-members of the helper class public.
-
-You have several other options that don't require using `FRIEND_TEST`:
-  * Write the tests as members of the fixture class:
-``` cpp
-class Foo {
-  friend class FooTest;
-  ...
-};
-
-class FooTest : public ::testing::Test {
- protected:
-  ...
-  void Test1() {...} // This accesses private members of class Foo.
-  void Test2() {...} // So does this one.
-};
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Test1) {
-  Test1();
-}
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Test2) {
-  Test2();
-}
-```
-  * In the fixture class, write accessors for the tested class' private members, then use the accessors in your tests:
-``` cpp
-class Foo {
-  friend class FooTest;
-  ...
-};
-
-class FooTest : public ::testing::Test {
- protected:
-  ...
-  T1 get_private_member1(Foo* obj) {
-    return obj->private_member1_;
-  }
-};
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Test1) {
-  ...
-  get_private_member1(x)
-  ...
-}
-```
-  * If the methods are declared **protected**, you can change their access level in a test-only subclass:
-``` cpp
-class YourClass {
-  ...
- protected: // protected access for testability.
-  int DoSomethingReturningInt();
-  ...
-};
-
-// in the your_class_test.cc file:
-class TestableYourClass : public YourClass {
-  ...
- public: using YourClass::DoSomethingReturningInt; // changes access rights
-  ...
-};
-
-TEST_F(YourClassTest, DoSomethingTest) {
-  TestableYourClass obj;
-  assertEquals(expected_value, obj.DoSomethingReturningInt());
-}
-```
-
-## How do I test private class static members without writing FRIEND\_TEST()s? ##
-
-We find private static methods clutter the header file.  They are
-implementation details and ideally should be kept out of a .h. So often I make
-them free functions instead.
-
-Instead of:
-``` cpp
-// foo.h
-class Foo {
-  ...
- private:
-  static bool Func(int n);
-};
-
-// foo.cc
-bool Foo::Func(int n) { ... }
-
-// foo_test.cc
-EXPECT_TRUE(Foo::Func(12345));
-```
-
-You probably should better write:
-``` cpp
-// foo.h
-class Foo {
-  ...
-};
-
-// foo.cc
-namespace internal {
-  bool Func(int n) { ... }
-}
-
-// foo_test.cc
-namespace internal {
-  bool Func(int n);
-}
-
-EXPECT_TRUE(internal::Func(12345));
-```
-
-## I would like to run a test several times with different parameters. Do I need to write several similar copies of it? ##
-
-No. You can use a feature called [value-parameterized tests](AdvancedGuide.md#Value_Parameterized_Tests) which
-lets you repeat your tests with different parameters, without defining it more than once.
-
-## How do I test a file that defines main()? ##
-
-To test a `foo.cc` file, you need to compile and link it into your unit test
-program. However, when the file contains a definition for the `main()`
-function, it will clash with the `main()` of your unit test, and will result in
-a build error.
-
-The right solution is to split it into three files:
-  1. `foo.h` which contains the declarations,
-  1. `foo.cc` which contains the definitions except `main()`, and
-  1. `foo_main.cc` which contains nothing but the definition of `main()`.
-
-Then `foo.cc` can be easily tested.
-
-If you are adding tests to an existing file and don't want an intrusive change
-like this, there is a hack: just include the entire `foo.cc` file in your unit
-test. For example:
-``` cpp
-// File foo_unittest.cc
-
-// The headers section
-...
-
-// Renames main() in foo.cc to make room for the unit test main()
-#define main FooMain
-
-#include "a/b/foo.cc"
-
-// The tests start here.
-...
-```
-
-
-However, please remember this is a hack and should only be used as the last
-resort.
-
-## What can the statement argument in ASSERT\_DEATH() be? ##
-
-`ASSERT_DEATH(_statement_, _regex_)` (or any death assertion macro) can be used
-wherever `_statement_` is valid. So basically `_statement_` can be any C++
-statement that makes sense in the current context. In particular, it can
-reference global and/or local variables, and can be:
-  * a simple function call (often the case),
-  * a complex expression, or
-  * a compound statement.
-
-Some examples are shown here:
-
-``` cpp
-// A death test can be a simple function call.
-TEST(MyDeathTest, FunctionCall) {
-  ASSERT_DEATH(Xyz(5), "Xyz failed");
-}
-
-// Or a complex expression that references variables and functions.
-TEST(MyDeathTest, ComplexExpression) {
-  const bool c = Condition();
-  ASSERT_DEATH((c ? Func1(0) : object2.Method("test")),
-               "(Func1|Method) failed");
-}
-
-// Death assertions can be used any where in a function. In
-// particular, they can be inside a loop.
-TEST(MyDeathTest, InsideLoop) {
-  // Verifies that Foo(0), Foo(1), ..., and Foo(4) all die.
-  for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
-    EXPECT_DEATH_M(Foo(i), "Foo has \\d+ errors",
-                   ::testing::Message() << "where i is " << i);
-  }
-}
-
-// A death assertion can contain a compound statement.
-TEST(MyDeathTest, CompoundStatement) {
-  // Verifies that at lease one of Bar(0), Bar(1), ..., and
-  // Bar(4) dies.
-  ASSERT_DEATH({
-    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
-      Bar(i);
-    }
-  },
-  "Bar has \\d+ errors");}
-```
-
-`googletest_unittest.cc` contains more examples if you are interested.
-
-## What syntax does the regular expression in ASSERT\_DEATH use? ##
-
-On POSIX systems, Google Test uses the POSIX Extended regular
-expression syntax
-(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regular_expression#POSIX_Extended_Regular_Expressions).
-On Windows, it uses a limited variant of regular expression
-syntax. For more details, see the
-[regular expression syntax](AdvancedGuide.md#Regular_Expression_Syntax).
-
-## I have a fixture class Foo, but TEST\_F(Foo, Bar) gives me error "no matching function for call to Foo::Foo()". Why? ##
-
-Google Test needs to be able to create objects of your test fixture class, so
-it must have a default constructor. Normally the compiler will define one for
-you. However, there are cases where you have to define your own:
-  * If you explicitly declare a non-default constructor for class `Foo`, then you need to define a default constructor, even if it would be empty.
-  * If `Foo` has a const non-static data member, then you have to define the default constructor _and_ initialize the const member in the initializer list of the constructor. (Early versions of `gcc` doesn't force you to initialize the const member. It's a bug that has been fixed in `gcc 4`.)
-
-## Why does ASSERT\_DEATH complain about previous threads that were already joined? ##
-
-With the Linux pthread library, there is no turning back once you cross the
-line from single thread to multiple threads. The first time you create a
-thread, a manager thread is created in addition, so you get 3, not 2, threads.
-Later when the thread you create joins the main thread, the thread count
-decrements by 1, but the manager thread will never be killed, so you still have
-2 threads, which means you cannot safely run a death test.
-
-The new NPTL thread library doesn't suffer from this problem, as it doesn't
-create a manager thread. However, if you don't control which machine your test
-runs on, you shouldn't depend on this.
-
-## Why does Google Test require the entire test case, instead of individual tests, to be named FOODeathTest when it uses ASSERT\_DEATH? ##
-
-Google Test does not interleave tests from different test cases. That is, it
-runs all tests in one test case first, and then runs all tests in the next test
-case, and so on. Google Test does this because it needs to set up a test case
-before the first test in it is run, and tear it down afterwords. Splitting up
-the test case would require multiple set-up and tear-down processes, which is
-inefficient and makes the semantics unclean.
-
-If we were to determine the order of tests based on test name instead of test
-case name, then we would have a problem with the following situation:
-
-``` cpp
-TEST_F(FooTest, AbcDeathTest) { ... }
-TEST_F(FooTest, Uvw) { ... }
-
-TEST_F(BarTest, DefDeathTest) { ... }
-TEST_F(BarTest, Xyz) { ... }
-```
-
-Since `FooTest.AbcDeathTest` needs to run before `BarTest.Xyz`, and we don't
-interleave tests from different test cases, we need to run all tests in the
-`FooTest` case before running any test in the `BarTest` case. This contradicts
-with the requirement to run `BarTest.DefDeathTest` before `FooTest.Uvw`.
-
-## But I don't like calling my entire test case FOODeathTest when it contains both death tests and non-death tests. What do I do? ##
-
-You don't have to, but if you like, you may split up the test case into
-`FooTest` and `FooDeathTest`, where the names make it clear that they are
-related:
-
-``` cpp
-class FooTest : public ::testing::Test { ... };
-
-TEST_F(FooTest, Abc) { ... }
-TEST_F(FooTest, Def) { ... }
-
-typedef FooTest FooDeathTest;
-
-TEST_F(FooDeathTest, Uvw) { ... EXPECT_DEATH(...) ... }
-TEST_F(FooDeathTest, Xyz) { ... ASSERT_DEATH(...) ... }
-```
-
-## The compiler complains about "no match for 'operator<<'" when I use an assertion. What gives? ##
-
-If you use a user-defined type `FooType` in an assertion, you must make sure
-there is an `std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream&, const FooType&)` function
-defined such that we can print a value of `FooType`.
-
-In addition, if `FooType` is declared in a name space, the `<<` operator also
-needs to be defined in the _same_ name space.
-
-## How do I suppress the memory leak messages on Windows? ##
-
-Since the statically initialized Google Test singleton requires allocations on
-the heap, the Visual C++ memory leak detector will report memory leaks at the
-end of the program run. The easiest way to avoid this is to use the
-`_CrtMemCheckpoint` and `_CrtMemDumpAllObjectsSince` calls to not report any
-statically initialized heap objects. See MSDN for more details and additional
-heap check/debug routines.
-
-## I am building my project with Google Test in Visual Studio and all I'm getting is a bunch of linker errors (or warnings). Help! ##
-
-You may get a number of the following linker error or warnings if you
-attempt to link your test project with the Google Test library when
-your project and the are not built using the same compiler settings.
-
-  * LNK2005: symbol already defined in object
-  * LNK4217: locally defined symbol 'symbol' imported in function 'function'
-  * LNK4049: locally defined symbol 'symbol' imported
-
-The Google Test project (gtest.vcproj) has the Runtime Library option
-set to /MT (use multi-threaded static libraries, /MTd for debug). If
-your project uses something else, for example /MD (use multi-threaded
-DLLs, /MDd for debug), you need to change the setting in the Google
-Test project to match your project's.
-
-To update this setting open the project properties in the Visual
-Studio IDE then select the branch Configuration Properties | C/C++ |
-Code Generation and change the option "Runtime Library".  You may also try
-using gtest-md.vcproj instead of gtest.vcproj.
-
-## I put my tests in a library and Google Test doesn't run them. What's happening? ##
-Have you read a
-[warning](Primer.md#important-note-for-visual-c-users) on
-the Google Test Primer page?
-
-## I want to use Google Test with Visual Studio but don't know where to start. ##
-Many people are in your position and one of the posted his solution to
-our mailing list.
-
-## I am seeing compile errors mentioning std::type\_traits when I try to use Google Test on Solaris. ##
-Google Test uses parts of the standard C++ library that SunStudio does not support.
-Our users reported success using alternative implementations. Try running the build after runing this commad:
-
-`export CC=cc CXX=CC CXXFLAGS='-library=stlport4'`
-
-## How can my code detect if it is running in a test? ##
-
-If you write code that sniffs whether it's running in a test and does
-different things accordingly, you are leaking test-only logic into
-production code and there is no easy way to ensure that the test-only
-code paths aren't run by mistake in production.  Such cleverness also
-leads to
-[Heisenbugs](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unusual_software_bug#Heisenbug).
-Therefore we strongly advise against the practice, and Google Test doesn't
-provide a way to do it.
-
-In general, the recommended way to cause the code to behave
-differently under test is [dependency injection](http://jamesshore.com/Blog/Dependency-Injection-Demystified.html).
-You can inject different functionality from the test and from the
-production code.  Since your production code doesn't link in the
-for-test logic at all, there is no danger in accidentally running it.
-
-However, if you _really_, _really_, _really_ have no choice, and if
-you follow the rule of ending your test program names with `_test`,
-you can use the _horrible_ hack of sniffing your executable name
-(`argv[0]` in `main()`) to know whether the code is under test.
-
-## Google Test defines a macro that clashes with one defined by another library. How do I deal with that? ##
-
-In C++, macros don't obey namespaces.  Therefore two libraries that
-both define a macro of the same name will clash if you `#include` both
-definitions.  In case a Google Test macro clashes with another
-library, you can force Google Test to rename its macro to avoid the
-conflict.
-
-Specifically, if both Google Test and some other code define macro
-`FOO`, you can add
-```
-  -DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_FOO=1
-```
-to the compiler flags to tell Google Test to change the macro's name
-from `FOO` to `GTEST_FOO`. For example, with `-DGTEST_DONT_DEFINE_TEST=1`, you'll need to write
-``` cpp
-  GTEST_TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
-```
-instead of
-``` cpp
-  TEST(SomeTest, DoesThis) { ... }
-```
-in order to define a test.
-
-Currently, the following `TEST`, `FAIL`, `SUCCEED`, and the basic comparison assertion macros can have alternative names. You can see the full list of covered macros [here](http://www.google.com/codesearch?q=if+!GTEST_DONT_DEFINE_\w%2B+package:http://googletest\.googlecode\.com+file:/include/gtest/gtest.h). More information can be found in the "Avoiding Macro Name Clashes" section of the README file.
-
-
-## Is it OK if I have two separate `TEST(Foo, Bar)` test methods defined in different namespaces? ##
-
-Yes.
-
-The rule is **all test methods in the same test case must use the same fixture class**. This means that the following is **allowed** because both tests use the same fixture class (`::testing::Test`).
-
-``` cpp
-namespace foo {
-TEST(CoolTest, DoSomething) {
-  SUCCEED();
-}
-}  // namespace foo
-
-namespace bar {
-TEST(CoolTest, DoSomething) {
-  SUCCEED();
-}
-}  // namespace foo
-```
-
-However, the following code is **not allowed** and will produce a runtime error from Google Test because the test methods are using different test fixture classes with the same test case name.
-
-``` cpp
-namespace foo {
-class CoolTest : public ::testing::Test {};  // Fixture foo::CoolTest
-TEST_F(CoolTest, DoSomething) {
-  SUCCEED();
-}
-}  // namespace foo
-
-namespace bar {
-class CoolTest : public ::testing::Test {};  // Fixture: bar::CoolTest
-TEST_F(CoolTest, DoSomething) {
-  SUCCEED();
-}
-}  // namespace foo
-```
-
-## How do I build Google Testing Framework with Xcode 4? ##
-
-If you try to build Google Test's Xcode project with Xcode 4.0 or later, you may encounter an error message that looks like
-"Missing SDK in target gtest\_framework: /Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk". That means that Xcode does not support the SDK the project is targeting. See the Xcode section in the [README](../README.md) file on how to resolve this.
-
-## My question is not covered in your FAQ! ##
-
-If you cannot find the answer to your question in this FAQ, there are
-some other resources you can use:
-
-  1. read other [wiki pages](../docs),
-  1. search the mailing list [archive](https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/googletestframework),
-  1. ask it on [googletestframework@googlegroups.com](mailto:googletestframework@googlegroups.com) and someone will answer it (to prevent spam, we require you to join the [discussion group](http://groups.google.com/group/googletestframework) before you can post.).
-
-Please note that creating an issue in the
-[issue tracker](https://github.com/google/googletest/issues) is _not_
-a good way to get your answer, as it is monitored infrequently by a
-very small number of people.
-
-When asking a question, it's helpful to provide as much of the
-following information as possible (people cannot help you if there's
-not enough information in your question):
-
-  * the version (or the commit hash if you check out from Git directly) of Google Test you use (Google Test is under active development, so it's possible that your problem has been solved in a later version),
-  * your operating system,
-  * the name and version of your compiler,
-  * the complete command line flags you give to your compiler,
-  * the complete compiler error messages (if the question is about compilation),
-  * the _actual_ code (ideally, a minimal but complete program) that has the problem you encounter.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/a5b68bab/depends/googletest/googletest/docs/Primer.md
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-
-
-# Introduction: Why Google C++ Testing Framework? #
-
-_Google C++ Testing Framework_ helps you write better C++ tests.
-
-No matter whether you work on Linux, Windows, or a Mac, if you write C++ code,
-Google Test can help you.
-
-So what makes a good test, and how does Google C++ Testing Framework fit in? We believe:
-  1. Tests should be _independent_ and _repeatable_. It's a pain to debug a test that succeeds or fails as a result of other tests.  Google C++ Testing Framework isolates the tests by running each of them on a different object. When a test fails, Google C++ Testing Framework allows you to run it in isolation for quick debugging.
-  1. Tests should be well _organized_ and reflect the structure of the tested code.  Google C++ Testing Framework groups related tests into test cases that can share data and subroutines. This common pattern is easy to recognize and makes tests easy to maintain. Such consistency is especially helpful when people switch projects and start to work on a new code base.
-  1. Tests should be _portable_ and _reusable_. The open-source community has a lot of code that is platform-neutral, its tests should also be platform-neutral.  Google C++ Testing Framework works on different OSes, with different compilers (gcc, MSVC, and others), with or without exceptions, so Google C++ Testing Framework tests can easily work with a variety of configurations.  (Note that the current release only contains build scripts for Linux - we are actively working on scripts for other platforms.)
-  1. When tests fail, they should provide as much _information_ about the problem as possible. Google C++ Testing Framework doesn't stop at the first test failure. Instead, it only stops the current test and continues with the next. You can also set up tests that report non-fatal failures after which the current test continues. Thus, you can detect and fix multiple bugs in a single run-edit-compile cycle.
-  1. The testing framework should liberate test writers from housekeeping chores and let them focus on the test _content_.  Google C++ Testing Framework automatically keeps track of all tests defined, and doesn't require the user to enumerate them in order to run them.
-  1. Tests should be _fast_. With Google C++ Testing Framework, you can reuse shared resources across tests and pay for the set-up/tear-down only once, without making tests depend on each other.
-
-Since Google C++ Testing Framework is based on the popular xUnit
-architecture, you'll feel right at home if you've used JUnit or PyUnit before.
-If not, it will take you about 10 minutes to learn the basics and get started.
-So let's go!
-
-_Note:_ We sometimes refer to Google C++ Testing Framework informally
-as _Google Test_.
-
-# Setting up a New Test Project #
-
-To write a test program using Google Test, you need to compile Google
-Test into a library and link your test with it.  We provide build
-files for some popular build systems: `msvc/` for Visual Studio,
-`xcode/` for Mac Xcode, `make/` for GNU make, `codegear/` for Borland
-C++ Builder, and the autotools script (deprecated) and
-`CMakeLists.txt` for CMake (recommended) in the Google Test root
-directory.  If your build system is not on this list, you can take a
-look at `make/Makefile` to learn how Google Test should be compiled
-(basically you want to compile `src/gtest-all.cc` with `GTEST_ROOT`
-and `GTEST_ROOT/include` in the header search path, where `GTEST_ROOT`
-is the Google Test root directory).
-
-Once you are able to compile the Google Test library, you should
-create a project or build target for your test program.  Make sure you
-have `GTEST_ROOT/include` in the header search path so that the
-compiler can find `"gtest/gtest.h"` when compiling your test.  Set up
-your test project to link with the Google Test library (for example,
-in Visual Studio, this is done by adding a dependency on
-`gtest.vcproj`).
-
-If you still have questions, take a look at how Google Test's own
-tests are built and use them as examples.
-
-# Basic Concepts #
-
-When using Google Test, you start by writing _assertions_, which are statements
-that check whether a condition is true. An assertion's result can be _success_,
-_nonfatal failure_, or _fatal failure_. If a fatal failure occurs, it aborts
-the current function; otherwise the program continues normally.
-
-_Tests_ use assertions to verify the tested code's behavior. If a test crashes
-or has a failed assertion, then it _fails_; otherwise it _succeeds_.
-
-A _test case_ contains one or many tests. You should group your tests into test
-cases that reflect the structure of the tested code. When multiple tests in a
-test case need to share common objects and subroutines, you can put them into a
-_test fixture_ class.
-
-A _test program_ can contain multiple test cases.
-
-We'll now explain how to write a test program, starting at the individual
-assertion level and building up to tests and test cases.
-
-# Assertions #
-
-Google Test assertions are macros that resemble function calls. You test a
-class or function by making assertions about its behavior. When an assertion
-fails, Google Test prints the assertion's source file and line number location,
-along with a failure message. You may also supply a custom failure message
-which will be appended to Google Test's message.
-
-The assertions come in pairs that test the same thing but have different
-effects on the current function. `ASSERT_*` versions generate fatal failures
-when they fail, and **abort the current function**. `EXPECT_*` versions generate
-nonfatal failures, which don't abort the current function. Usually `EXPECT_*`
-are preferred, as they allow more than one failures to be reported in a test.
-However, you should use `ASSERT_*` if it doesn't make sense to continue when
-the assertion in question fails.
-
-Since a failed `ASSERT_*` returns from the current function immediately,
-possibly skipping clean-up code that comes after it, it may cause a space leak.
-Depending on the nature of the leak, it may or may not be worth fixing - so
-keep this in mind if you get a heap checker error in addition to assertion
-errors.
-
-To provide a custom failure message, simply stream it into the macro using the
-`<<` operator, or a sequence of such operators. An example:
-```
-ASSERT_EQ(x.size(), y.size()) << "Vectors x and y are of unequal length";
-
-for (int i = 0; i < x.size(); ++i) {
-  EXPECT_EQ(x[i], y[i]) << "Vectors x and y differ at index " << i;
-}
-```
-
-Anything that can be streamed to an `ostream` can be streamed to an assertion
-macro--in particular, C strings and `string` objects. If a wide string
-(`wchar_t*`, `TCHAR*` in `UNICODE` mode on Windows, or `std::wstring`) is
-streamed to an assertion, it will be translated to UTF-8 when printed.
-
-## Basic Assertions ##
-
-These assertions do basic true/false condition testing.
-
-| **Fatal assertion** | **Nonfatal assertion** | **Verifies** |
-|:--------------------|:-----------------------|:-------------|
-| `ASSERT_TRUE(`_condition_`)`;  | `EXPECT_TRUE(`_condition_`)`;   | _condition_ is true |
-| `ASSERT_FALSE(`_condition_`)`; | `EXPECT_FALSE(`_condition_`)`;  | _condition_ is false |
-
-Remember, when they fail, `ASSERT_*` yields a fatal failure and
-returns from the current function, while `EXPECT_*` yields a nonfatal
-failure, allowing the function to continue running. In either case, an
-assertion failure means its containing test fails.
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-## Binary Comparison ##
-
-This section describes assertions that compare two values.
-
-| **Fatal assertion** | **Nonfatal assertion** | **Verifies** |
-|:--------------------|:-----------------------|:-------------|
-|`ASSERT_EQ(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_EQ(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `==` _val2_ |
-|`ASSERT_NE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_NE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `!=` _val2_ |
-|`ASSERT_LT(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_LT(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `<` _val2_ |
-|`ASSERT_LE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_LE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `<=` _val2_ |
-|`ASSERT_GT(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_GT(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `>` _val2_ |
-|`ASSERT_GE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`|`EXPECT_GE(`_val1_`, `_val2_`);`| _val1_ `>=` _val2_ |
-
-In the event of a failure, Google Test prints both _val1_ and _val2_.
-
-Value arguments must be comparable by the assertion's comparison
-operator or you'll get a compiler error.  We used to require the
-arguments to support the `<<` operator for streaming to an `ostream`,
-but it's no longer necessary since v1.6.0 (if `<<` is supported, it
-will be called to print the arguments when the assertion fails;
-otherwise Google Test will attempt to print them in the best way it
-can. For more details and how to customize the printing of the
-arguments, see this Google Mock [recipe](../../googlemock/docs/CookBook.md#teaching-google-mock-how-to-print-your-values).).
-
-These assertions can work with a user-defined type, but only if you define the
-corresponding comparison operator (e.g. `==`, `<`, etc).  If the corresponding
-operator is defined, prefer using the `ASSERT_*()` macros because they will
-print out not only the result of the comparison, but the two operands as well.
-
-Arguments are always evaluated exactly once. Therefore, it's OK for the
-arguments to have side effects. However, as with any ordinary C/C++ function,
-the arguments' evaluation order is undefined (i.e. the compiler is free to
-choose any order) and your code should not depend on any particular argument
-evaluation order.
-
-`ASSERT_EQ()` does pointer equality on pointers. If used on two C strings, it
-tests if they are in the same memory location, not if they have the same value.
-Therefore, if you want to compare C strings (e.g. `const char*`) by value, use
-`ASSERT_STREQ()` , which will be described later on. In particular, to assert
-that a C string is `NULL`, use `ASSERT_STREQ(NULL, c_string)` . However, to
-compare two `string` objects, you should use `ASSERT_EQ`.
-
-Macros in this section work with both narrow and wide string objects (`string`
-and `wstring`).
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-_Historical note_: Before February 2016 `*_EQ` had a convention of calling it as
-`ASSERT_EQ(expected, actual)`, so lots of existing code uses this order.
-Now `*_EQ` treats both parameters in the same way.
-
-## String Comparison ##
-
-The assertions in this group compare two **C strings**. If you want to compare
-two `string` objects, use `EXPECT_EQ`, `EXPECT_NE`, and etc instead.
-
-| **Fatal assertion** | **Nonfatal assertion** | **Verifies** |
-|:--------------------|:-----------------------|:-------------|
-| `ASSERT_STREQ(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);`    | `EXPECT_STREQ(`_str1_`, `_str_2`);`     | the two C strings have the same content |
-| `ASSERT_STRNE(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);`    | `EXPECT_STRNE(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);`     | the two C strings have different content |
-| `ASSERT_STRCASEEQ(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);`| `EXPECT_STRCASEEQ(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);` | the two C strings have the same content, ignoring case |
-| `ASSERT_STRCASENE(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);`| `EXPECT_STRCASENE(`_str1_`, `_str2_`);` | the two C strings have different content, ignoring case |
-
-Note that "CASE" in an assertion name means that case is ignored.
-
-`*STREQ*` and `*STRNE*` also accept wide C strings (`wchar_t*`). If a
-comparison of two wide strings fails, their values will be printed as UTF-8
-narrow strings.
-
-A `NULL` pointer and an empty string are considered _different_.
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-See also: For more string comparison tricks (substring, prefix, suffix, and
-regular expression matching, for example), see the [Advanced Google Test Guide](AdvancedGuide.md).
-
-# Simple Tests #
-
-To create a test:
-  1. Use the `TEST()` macro to define and name a test function, These are ordinary C++ functions that don't return a value.
-  1. In this function, along with any valid C++ statements you want to include, use the various Google Test assertions to check values.
-  1. The test's result is determined by the assertions; if any assertion in the test fails (either fatally or non-fatally), or if the test crashes, the entire test fails. Otherwise, it succeeds.
-
-```
-TEST(test_case_name, test_name) {
- ... test body ...
-}
-```
-
-
-`TEST()` arguments go from general to specific. The _first_ argument is the
-name of the test case, and the _second_ argument is the test's name within the
-test case. Both names must be valid C++ identifiers, and they should not contain underscore (`_`). A test's _full name_ consists of its containing test case and its
-individual name. Tests from different test cases can have the same individual
-name.
-
-For example, let's take a simple integer function:
-```
-int Factorial(int n); // Returns the factorial of n
-```
-
-A test case for this function might look like:
-```
-// Tests factorial of 0.
-TEST(FactorialTest, HandlesZeroInput) {
-  EXPECT_EQ(1, Factorial(0));
-}
-
-// Tests factorial of positive numbers.
-TEST(FactorialTest, HandlesPositiveInput) {
-  EXPECT_EQ(1, Factorial(1));
-  EXPECT_EQ(2, Factorial(2));
-  EXPECT_EQ(6, Factorial(3));
-  EXPECT_EQ(40320, Factorial(8));
-}
-```
-
-Google Test groups the test results by test cases, so logically-related tests
-should be in the same test case; in other words, the first argument to their
-`TEST()` should be the same. In the above example, we have two tests,
-`HandlesZeroInput` and `HandlesPositiveInput`, that belong to the same test
-case `FactorialTest`.
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-# Test Fixtures: Using the Same Data Configuration for Multiple Tests #
-
-If you find yourself writing two or more tests that operate on similar data,
-you can use a _test fixture_. It allows you to reuse the same configuration of
-objects for several different tests.
-
-To create a fixture, just:
-  1. Derive a class from `::testing::Test` . Start its body with `protected:` or `public:` as we'll want to access fixture members from sub-classes.
-  1. Inside the class, declare any objects you plan to use.
-  1. If necessary, write a default constructor or `SetUp()` function to prepare the objects for each test. A common mistake is to spell `SetUp()` as `Setup()` with a small `u` - don't let that happen to you.
-  1. If necessary, write a destructor or `TearDown()` function to release any resources you allocated in `SetUp()` . To learn when you should use the constructor/destructor and when you should use `SetUp()/TearDown()`, read this [FAQ entry](FAQ.md#should-i-use-the-constructordestructor-of-the-test-fixture-or-the-set-uptear-down-function).
-  1. If needed, define subroutines for your tests to share.
-
-When using a fixture, use `TEST_F()` instead of `TEST()` as it allows you to
-access objects and subroutines in the test fixture:
-```
-TEST_F(test_case_name, test_name) {
- ... test body ...
-}
-```
-
-Like `TEST()`, the first argument is the test case name, but for `TEST_F()`
-this must be the name of the test fixture class. You've probably guessed: `_F`
-is for fixture.
-
-Unfortunately, the C++ macro system does not allow us to create a single macro
-that can handle both types of tests. Using the wrong macro causes a compiler
-error.
-
-Also, you must first define a test fixture class before using it in a
-`TEST_F()`, or you'll get the compiler error "`virtual outside class
-declaration`".
-
-For each test defined with `TEST_F()`, Google Test will:
-  1. Create a _fresh_ test fixture at runtime
-  1. Immediately initialize it via `SetUp()` ,
-  1. Run the test
-  1. Clean up by calling `TearDown()`
-  1. Delete the test fixture.  Note that different tests in the same test case have different test fixture objects, and Google Test always deletes a test fixture before it creates the next one. Google Test does not reuse the same test fixture for multiple tests. Any changes one test makes to the fixture do not affect other tests.
-
-As an example, let's write tests for a FIFO queue class named `Queue`, which
-has the following interface:
-```
-template <typename E> // E is the element type.
-class Queue {
- public:
-  Queue();
-  void Enqueue(const E& element);
-  E* Dequeue(); // Returns NULL if the queue is empty.
-  size_t size() const;
-  ...
-};
-```
-
-First, define a fixture class. By convention, you should give it the name
-`FooTest` where `Foo` is the class being tested.
-```
-class QueueTest : public ::testing::Test {
- protected:
-  virtual void SetUp() {
-    q1_.Enqueue(1);
-    q2_.Enqueue(2);
-    q2_.Enqueue(3);
-  }
-
-  // virtual void TearDown() {}
-
-  Queue<int> q0_;
-  Queue<int> q1_;
-  Queue<int> q2_;
-};
-```
-
-In this case, `TearDown()` is not needed since we don't have to clean up after
-each test, other than what's already done by the destructor.
-
-Now we'll write tests using `TEST_F()` and this fixture.
-```
-TEST_F(QueueTest, IsEmptyInitially) {
-  EXPECT_EQ(0, q0_.size());
-}
-
-TEST_F(QueueTest, DequeueWorks) {
-  int* n = q0_.Dequeue();
-  EXPECT_EQ(NULL, n);
-
-  n = q1_.Dequeue();
-  ASSERT_TRUE(n != NULL);
-  EXPECT_EQ(1, *n);
-  EXPECT_EQ(0, q1_.size());
-  delete n;
-
-  n = q2_.Dequeue();
-  ASSERT_TRUE(n != NULL);
-  EXPECT_EQ(2, *n);
-  EXPECT_EQ(1, q2_.size());
-  delete n;
-}
-```
-
-The above uses both `ASSERT_*` and `EXPECT_*` assertions. The rule of thumb is
-to use `EXPECT_*` when you want the test to continue to reveal more errors
-after the assertion failure, and use `ASSERT_*` when continuing after failure
-doesn't make sense. For example, the second assertion in the `Dequeue` test is
-`ASSERT_TRUE(n != NULL)`, as we need to dereference the pointer `n` later,
-which would lead to a segfault when `n` is `NULL`.
-
-When these tests run, the following happens:
-  1. Google Test constructs a `QueueTest` object (let's call it `t1` ).
-  1. `t1.SetUp()` initializes `t1` .
-  1. The first test ( `IsEmptyInitially` ) runs on `t1` .
-  1. `t1.TearDown()` cleans up after the test finishes.
-  1. `t1` is destructed.
-  1. The above steps are repeated on another `QueueTest` object, this time running the `DequeueWorks` test.
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-_Note_: Google Test automatically saves all _Google Test_ flags when a test
-object is constructed, and restores them when it is destructed.
-
-# Invoking the Tests #
-
-`TEST()` and `TEST_F()` implicitly register their tests with Google Test. So, unlike with many other C++ testing frameworks, you don't have to re-list all your defined tests in order to run them.
-
-After defining your tests, you can run them with `RUN_ALL_TESTS()` , which returns `0` if all the tests are successful, or `1` otherwise. Note that `RUN_ALL_TESTS()` runs _all tests_ in your link unit -- they can be from different test cases, or even different source files.
-
-When invoked, the `RUN_ALL_TESTS()` macro:
-  1. Saves the state of all  Google Test flags.
-  1. Creates a test fixture object for the first test.
-  1. Initializes it via `SetUp()`.
-  1. Runs the test on the fixture object.
-  1. Cleans up the fixture via `TearDown()`.
-  1. Deletes the fixture.
-  1. Restores the state of all Google Test flags.
-  1. Repeats the above steps for the next test, until all tests have run.
-
-In addition, if the text fixture's constructor generates a fatal failure in
-step 2, there is no point for step 3 - 5 and they are thus skipped. Similarly,
-if step 3 generates a fatal failure, step 4 will be skipped.
-
-_Important_: You must not ignore the return value of `RUN_ALL_TESTS()`, or `gcc`
-will give you a compiler error. The rationale for this design is that the
-automated testing service determines whether a test has passed based on its
-exit code, not on its stdout/stderr output; thus your `main()` function must
-return the value of `RUN_ALL_TESTS()`.
-
-Also, you should call `RUN_ALL_TESTS()` only **once**. Calling it more than once
-conflicts with some advanced Google Test features (e.g. thread-safe death
-tests) and thus is not supported.
-
-_Availability_: Linux, Windows, Mac.
-
-# Writing the main() Function #
-
-You can start from this boilerplate:
-```
-#include "this/package/foo.h"
-#include "gtest/gtest.h"
-
-namespace {
-
-// The fixture for testing class Foo.
-class FooTest : public ::testing::Test {
- protected:
-  // You can remove any or all of the following functions if its body
-  // is empty.
-
-  FooTest() {
-    // You can do set-up work for each test here.
-  }
-
-  virtual ~FooTest() {
-    // You can do clean-up work that doesn't throw exceptions here.
-  }
-
-  // If the constructor and destructor are not enough for setting up
-  // and cleaning up each test, you can define the following methods:
-
-  virtual void SetUp() {
-    // Code here will be called immediately after the constructor (right
-    // before each test).
-  }
-
-  virtual void TearDown() {
-    // Code here will be called immediately after each test (right
-    // before the destructor).
-  }
-
-  // Objects declared here can be used by all tests in the test case for Foo.
-};
-
-// Tests that the Foo::Bar() method does Abc.
-TEST_F(FooTest, MethodBarDoesAbc) {
-  const string input_filepath = "this/package/testdata/myinputfile.dat";
-  const string output_filepath = "this/package/testdata/myoutputfile.dat";
-  Foo f;
-  EXPECT_EQ(0, f.Bar(input_filepath, output_filepath));
-}
-
-// Tests that Foo does Xyz.
-TEST_F(FooTest, DoesXyz) {
-  // Exercises the Xyz feature of Foo.
-}
-
-}  // namespace
-
-int main(int argc, char **argv) {
-  ::testing::InitGoogleTest(&argc, argv);
-  return RUN_ALL_TESTS();
-}
-```
-
-The `::testing::InitGoogleTest()` function parses the command line for Google
-Test flags, and removes all recognized flags. This allows the user to control a
-test program's behavior via various flags, which we'll cover in [AdvancedGuide](AdvancedGuide.md).
-You must call this function before calling `RUN_ALL_TESTS()`, or the flags
-won't be properly initialized.
-
-On Windows, `InitGoogleTest()` also works with wide strings, so it can be used
-in programs compiled in `UNICODE` mode as well.
-
-But maybe you think that writing all those main() functions is too much work? We agree with you completely and that's why Google Test provides a basic implementation of main(). If it fits your needs, then just link your test with gtest\_main library and you are good to go.
-
-## Important note for Visual C++ users ##
-If you put your tests into a library and your `main()` function is in a different library or in your .exe file, those tests will not run. The reason is a [bug](https://connect.microsoft.com/feedback/viewfeedback.aspx?FeedbackID=244410&siteid=210) in Visual C++. When you define your tests, Google Test creates certain static objects to register them. These objects are not referenced from elsewhere but their constructors are still supposed to run. When Visual C++ linker sees that nothing in the library is referenced from other places it throws the library out. You have to reference your library with tests from your main program to keep the linker from discarding it. Here is how to do it. Somewhere in your library code declare a function:
-```
-__declspec(dllexport) int PullInMyLibrary() { return 0; }
-```
-If you put your tests in a static library (not DLL) then `__declspec(dllexport)` is not required. Now, in your main program, write a code that invokes that function:
-```
-int PullInMyLibrary();
-static int dummy = PullInMyLibrary();
-```
-This will keep your tests referenced and will make them register themselves at startup.
-
-In addition, if you define your tests in a static library, add `/OPT:NOREF` to your main program linker options. If you use MSVC++ IDE, go to your .exe project properties/Configuration Properties/Linker/Optimization and set References setting to `Keep Unreferenced Data (/OPT:NOREF)`. This will keep Visual C++ linker from discarding individual symbols generated by your tests from the final executable.
-
-There is one more pitfall, though. If you use Google Test as a static library (that's how it is defined in gtest.vcproj) your tests must also reside in a static library. If you have to have them in a DLL, you _must_ change Google Test to build into a DLL as well. Otherwise your tests will not run correctly or will not run at all. The general conclusion here is: make your life easier - do not write your tests in libraries!
-
-# Where to Go from Here #
-
-Congratulations! You've learned the Google Test basics. You can start writing
-and running Google Test tests, read some [samples](Samples.md), or continue with
-[AdvancedGuide](AdvancedGuide.md), which describes many more useful Google Test features.
-
-# Known Limitations #
-
-Google Test is designed to be thread-safe.  The implementation is
-thread-safe on systems where the `pthreads` library is available.  It
-is currently _unsafe_ to use Google Test assertions from two threads
-concurrently on other systems (e.g. Windows).  In most tests this is
-not an issue as usually the assertions are done in the main thread. If
-you want to help, you can volunteer to implement the necessary
-synchronization primitives in `gtest-port.h` for your platform.


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