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From r...@apache.org
Subject [25/51] [abbrv] [partial] incubator-hawq git commit: HAWQ-735. Import thrift-0.9.3 into depends/thirdparty/thrift folder
Date Wed, 18 May 2016 02:50:38 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/d709f67d/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_py_generator.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_py_generator.cc b/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_py_generator.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9c43b1f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_py_generator.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,2461 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ */
+
+#include <string>
+#include <fstream>
+#include <iostream>
+#include <vector>
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sstream>
+#include <algorithm>
+#include "t_generator.h"
+#include "platform.h"
+#include "version.h"
+
+using std::map;
+using std::ofstream;
+using std::ostringstream;
+using std::string;
+using std::stringstream;
+using std::vector;
+
+static const string endl = "\n"; // avoid ostream << std::endl flushes
+
+/**
+ * Python code generator.
+ *
+ */
+class t_py_generator : public t_generator {
+public:
+  t_py_generator(t_program* program,
+                 const std::map<std::string, std::string>& parsed_options,
+                 const std::string& option_string)
+    : t_generator(program) {
+    (void)option_string;
+    std::map<std::string, std::string>::const_iterator iter;
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("new_style");
+    gen_newstyle_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("slots");
+    gen_slots_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("dynamic");
+    gen_dynamic_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    if (gen_dynamic_) {
+      gen_newstyle_ = 0; // dynamic is newstyle
+      gen_dynbaseclass_ = "TBase";
+      gen_dynbaseclass_exc_ = "TExceptionBase";
+      import_dynbase_ = "from thrift.protocol.TBase import TBase, TExceptionBase, TTransport\n";
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("dynbase");
+    if (iter != parsed_options.end()) {
+      gen_dynbase_ = true;
+      gen_dynbaseclass_ = (iter->second);
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("dynexc");
+    if (iter != parsed_options.end()) {
+      gen_dynbaseclass_exc_ = (iter->second);
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("dynimport");
+    if (iter != parsed_options.end()) {
+      gen_dynbase_ = true;
+      import_dynbase_ = (iter->second);
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("twisted");
+    gen_twisted_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("tornado");
+    gen_tornado_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    if (gen_twisted_ && gen_tornado_) {
+      throw "at most one of 'twisted' and 'tornado' are allowed";
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("utf8strings");
+    gen_utf8strings_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("coding");
+    if (iter != parsed_options.end()) {
+        coding_ = iter->second;
+    }
+
+    copy_options_ = option_string;
+
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      out_dir_base_ = "gen-py.twisted";
+    } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+      out_dir_base_ = "gen-py.tornado";
+    } else {
+      out_dir_base_ = "gen-py";
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Init and close methods
+   */
+
+  void init_generator();
+  void close_generator();
+
+  /**
+   * Program-level generation functions
+   */
+
+  void generate_typedef(t_typedef* ttypedef);
+  void generate_enum(t_enum* tenum);
+  void generate_const(t_const* tconst);
+  void generate_struct(t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_xception(t_struct* txception);
+  void generate_service(t_service* tservice);
+
+  std::string render_const_value(t_type* type, t_const_value* value);
+
+  /**
+   * Struct generation code
+   */
+
+  void generate_py_struct(t_struct* tstruct, bool is_exception);
+  void generate_py_struct_definition(std::ofstream& out,
+                                     t_struct* tstruct,
+                                     bool is_xception = false,
+                                     bool is_result = false);
+  void generate_py_struct_reader(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_py_struct_writer(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_py_struct_required_validator(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_py_function_helpers(t_function* tfunction);
+
+  /**
+   * Service-level generation functions
+   */
+
+  void generate_service_helpers(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_interface(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_client(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_remote(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_server(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_process_function(t_service* tservice, t_function* tfunction);
+
+  /**
+   * Serialization constructs
+   */
+
+  void generate_deserialize_field(std::ofstream& out,
+                                  t_field* tfield,
+                                  std::string prefix = "",
+                                  bool inclass = false);
+
+  void generate_deserialize_struct(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_deserialize_container(std::ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_deserialize_set_element(std::ofstream& out, t_set* tset, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_deserialize_map_element(std::ofstream& out, t_map* tmap, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_deserialize_list_element(std::ofstream& out,
+                                         t_list* tlist,
+                                         std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_serialize_field(std::ofstream& out, t_field* tfield, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_serialize_struct(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_serialize_container(std::ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, std::string prefix = "");
+
+  void generate_serialize_map_element(std::ofstream& out,
+                                      t_map* tmap,
+                                      std::string kiter,
+                                      std::string viter);
+
+  void generate_serialize_set_element(std::ofstream& out, t_set* tmap, std::string iter);
+
+  void generate_serialize_list_element(std::ofstream& out, t_list* tlist, std::string iter);
+
+  void generate_python_docstring(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+
+  void generate_python_docstring(std::ofstream& out, t_function* tfunction);
+
+  void generate_python_docstring(std::ofstream& out,
+                                 t_doc* tdoc,
+                                 t_struct* tstruct,
+                                 const char* subheader);
+
+  void generate_python_docstring(std::ofstream& out, t_doc* tdoc);
+
+  /**
+   * Helper rendering functions
+   */
+
+  std::string py_autogen_comment();
+  std::string py_imports();
+  std::string render_includes();
+  std::string render_fastbinary_includes();
+  std::string declare_argument(t_field* tfield);
+  std::string render_field_default_value(t_field* tfield);
+  std::string type_name(t_type* ttype);
+  std::string function_signature(t_function* tfunction, bool interface = false);
+  std::string argument_list(t_struct* tstruct,
+                            std::vector<std::string>* pre = NULL,
+                            std::vector<std::string>* post = NULL);
+  std::string type_to_enum(t_type* ttype);
+  std::string type_to_spec_args(t_type* ttype);
+
+  static bool is_valid_namespace(const std::string& sub_namespace) {
+    return sub_namespace == "twisted";
+  }
+
+  static std::string get_real_py_module(const t_program* program, bool gen_twisted) {
+    if (gen_twisted) {
+      std::string twisted_module = program->get_namespace("py.twisted");
+      if (!twisted_module.empty()) {
+        return twisted_module;
+      }
+    }
+
+    std::string real_module = program->get_namespace("py");
+    if (real_module.empty()) {
+      return program->get_name();
+    }
+    return real_module;
+  }
+
+private:
+  /**
+   * True if we should generate new-style classes.
+   */
+  bool gen_newstyle_;
+
+  /**
+  * True if we should generate dynamic style classes.
+  */
+  bool gen_dynamic_;
+
+  bool gen_dynbase_;
+  std::string gen_dynbaseclass_;
+  std::string gen_dynbaseclass_exc_;
+
+  std::string import_dynbase_;
+
+  bool gen_slots_;
+
+  std::string copy_options_;
+
+  /**
+   * True if we should generate Twisted-friendly RPC services.
+   */
+  bool gen_twisted_;
+
+  /**
+   * True if we should generate code for use with Tornado
+   */
+  bool gen_tornado_;
+
+  /**
+   * True if strings should be encoded using utf-8.
+   */
+  bool gen_utf8strings_;
+
+  /**
+   * specify generated file encoding
+   * eg. # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
+   */
+  string coding_;
+
+  /**
+   * File streams
+   */
+
+  std::ofstream f_types_;
+  std::ofstream f_consts_;
+  std::ofstream f_service_;
+
+  std::string package_dir_;
+  std::string module_;
+};
+
+/**
+ * Prepares for file generation by opening up the necessary file output
+ * streams.
+ *
+ * @param tprogram The program to generate
+ */
+void t_py_generator::init_generator() {
+  // Make output directory
+  string module = get_real_py_module(program_, gen_twisted_);
+  package_dir_ = get_out_dir();
+  module_ = module;
+  while (true) {
+    // TODO: Do better error checking here.
+    MKDIR(package_dir_.c_str());
+    std::ofstream init_py((package_dir_ + "/__init__.py").c_str(), std::ios_base::app);
+    init_py.close();
+    if (module.empty()) {
+      break;
+    }
+    string::size_type pos = module.find('.');
+    if (pos == string::npos) {
+      package_dir_ += "/";
+      package_dir_ += module;
+      module.clear();
+    } else {
+      package_dir_ += "/";
+      package_dir_ += module.substr(0, pos);
+      module.erase(0, pos + 1);
+    }
+  }
+
+  // Make output file
+  string f_types_name = package_dir_ + "/" + "ttypes.py";
+  f_types_.open(f_types_name.c_str());
+
+  string f_consts_name = package_dir_ + "/" + "constants.py";
+  f_consts_.open(f_consts_name.c_str());
+
+  string f_init_name = package_dir_ + "/__init__.py";
+  ofstream f_init;
+  f_init.open(f_init_name.c_str());
+  f_init << "__all__ = ['ttypes', 'constants'";
+  vector<t_service*> services = program_->get_services();
+  vector<t_service*>::iterator sv_iter;
+  for (sv_iter = services.begin(); sv_iter != services.end(); ++sv_iter) {
+    f_init << ", '" << (*sv_iter)->get_name() << "'";
+  }
+  f_init << "]" << endl;
+  f_init.close();
+
+  // Print header
+  f_types_ << py_autogen_comment() << endl << py_imports() << endl << render_includes() << endl
+           << render_fastbinary_includes() << endl << endl;
+
+  f_consts_ << py_autogen_comment() << endl << py_imports() << endl << "from ttypes import *"
+            << endl << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Renders all the imports necessary for including another Thrift program
+ */
+string t_py_generator::render_includes() {
+  const vector<t_program*>& includes = program_->get_includes();
+  string result = "";
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < includes.size(); ++i) {
+    result += "import " + get_real_py_module(includes[i], gen_twisted_) + ".ttypes\n";
+  }
+  if (includes.size() > 0) {
+    result += "\n";
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Renders all the imports necessary to use the accelerated TBinaryProtocol
+ */
+string t_py_generator::render_fastbinary_includes() {
+  string hdr = "";
+  if (gen_dynamic_) {
+    hdr += std::string(import_dynbase_);
+  } else {
+    hdr += "from thrift.transport import TTransport\n"
+           "from thrift.protocol import TBinaryProtocol, TProtocol\n"
+           "try:\n"
+           "  from thrift.protocol import fastbinary\n"
+           "except:\n"
+           "  fastbinary = None\n";
+  }
+  return hdr;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Autogen'd comment
+ */
+string t_py_generator::py_autogen_comment() {
+  string coding;
+  if (!coding_.empty()) {
+      coding = "# -*- coding: " + coding_ + " -*-\n";
+  }
+  return coding + std::string("#\n") + "# Autogenerated by Thrift Compiler (" + THRIFT_VERSION + ")\n"
+         + "#\n" + "# DO NOT EDIT UNLESS YOU ARE SURE THAT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING\n" + "#\n"
+         + "#  options string: " + copy_options_ + "\n" + "#\n";
+}
+
+/**
+ * Prints standard thrift imports
+ */
+string t_py_generator::py_imports() {
+  return string("from thrift.Thrift import TType, TMessageType, TException, TApplicationException");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Closes the type files
+ */
+void t_py_generator::close_generator() {
+  // Close types file
+  f_types_.close();
+  f_consts_.close();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a typedef. This is not done in Python, types are all implicit.
+ *
+ * @param ttypedef The type definition
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_typedef(t_typedef* ttypedef) {
+  (void)ttypedef;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates code for an enumerated type. Done using a class to scope
+ * the values.
+ *
+ * @param tenum The enumeration
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_enum(t_enum* tenum) {
+  std::ostringstream to_string_mapping, from_string_mapping;
+
+  f_types_ << "class " << tenum->get_name() << (gen_newstyle_ ? "(object)" : "")
+           << (gen_dynamic_ ? "(" + gen_dynbaseclass_ + ")" : "") << ":" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  generate_python_docstring(f_types_, tenum);
+
+  to_string_mapping << indent() << "_VALUES_TO_NAMES = {" << endl;
+  from_string_mapping << indent() << "_NAMES_TO_VALUES = {" << endl;
+
+  vector<t_enum_value*> constants = tenum->get_constants();
+  vector<t_enum_value*>::iterator c_iter;
+  for (c_iter = constants.begin(); c_iter != constants.end(); ++c_iter) {
+    int value = (*c_iter)->get_value();
+    indent(f_types_) << (*c_iter)->get_name() << " = " << value << endl;
+
+    // Dictionaries to/from string names of enums
+    to_string_mapping << indent() << indent() << value << ": \""
+                      << escape_string((*c_iter)->get_name()) << "\"," << endl;
+    from_string_mapping << indent() << indent() << '"' << escape_string((*c_iter)->get_name())
+                        << "\": " << value << ',' << endl;
+  }
+  to_string_mapping << indent() << "}" << endl;
+  from_string_mapping << indent() << "}" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  f_types_ << endl;
+  f_types_ << to_string_mapping.str() << endl << from_string_mapping.str() << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generate a constant value
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_const(t_const* tconst) {
+  t_type* type = tconst->get_type();
+  string name = tconst->get_name();
+  t_const_value* value = tconst->get_value();
+
+  indent(f_consts_) << name << " = " << render_const_value(type, value);
+  f_consts_ << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Prints the value of a constant with the given type. Note that type checking
+ * is NOT performed in this function as it is always run beforehand using the
+ * validate_types method in main.cc
+ */
+string t_py_generator::render_const_value(t_type* type, t_const_value* value) {
+  type = get_true_type(type);
+  std::ostringstream out;
+
+  if (type->is_base_type()) {
+    t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+    switch (tbase) {
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+      out << '"' << get_escaped_string(value) << '"';
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+      out << (value->get_integer() > 0 ? "True" : "False");
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+      out << value->get_integer();
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+      if (value->get_type() == t_const_value::CV_INTEGER) {
+        out << value->get_integer();
+      } else {
+        out << value->get_double();
+      }
+      break;
+    default:
+      throw "compiler error: no const of base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+    }
+  } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+    indent(out) << value->get_integer();
+  } else if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    out << type_name(type) << "(**{" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    const vector<t_field*>& fields = ((t_struct*)type)->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+    const map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>& val = value->get_map();
+    map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      t_type* field_type = NULL;
+      for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+        if ((*f_iter)->get_name() == v_iter->first->get_string()) {
+          field_type = (*f_iter)->get_type();
+        }
+      }
+      if (field_type == NULL) {
+        throw "type error: " + type->get_name() + " has no field " + v_iter->first->get_string();
+      }
+      out << indent();
+      out << render_const_value(g_type_string, v_iter->first);
+      out << " : ";
+      out << render_const_value(field_type, v_iter->second);
+      out << "," << endl;
+    }
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << "})";
+  } else if (type->is_map()) {
+    t_type* ktype = ((t_map*)type)->get_key_type();
+    t_type* vtype = ((t_map*)type)->get_val_type();
+    out << "{" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    const map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>& val = value->get_map();
+    map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      out << indent();
+      out << render_const_value(ktype, v_iter->first);
+      out << " : ";
+      out << render_const_value(vtype, v_iter->second);
+      out << "," << endl;
+    }
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << "}";
+  } else if (type->is_list() || type->is_set()) {
+    t_type* etype;
+    if (type->is_list()) {
+      etype = ((t_list*)type)->get_elem_type();
+    } else {
+      etype = ((t_set*)type)->get_elem_type();
+    }
+    if (type->is_set()) {
+      out << "set(";
+    }
+    out << "[" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    const vector<t_const_value*>& val = value->get_list();
+    vector<t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      out << indent();
+      out << render_const_value(etype, *v_iter);
+      out << "," << endl;
+    }
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << "]";
+    if (type->is_set()) {
+      out << ")";
+    }
+  } else {
+    throw "CANNOT GENERATE CONSTANT FOR TYPE: " + type->get_name();
+  }
+
+  return out.str();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a python struct
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_struct(t_struct* tstruct) {
+  generate_py_struct(tstruct, false);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a struct definition for a thrift exception. Basically the same
+ * as a struct but extends the Exception class.
+ *
+ * @param txception The struct definition
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_xception(t_struct* txception) {
+  generate_py_struct(txception, true);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a python struct
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_struct(t_struct* tstruct, bool is_exception) {
+  generate_py_struct_definition(f_types_, tstruct, is_exception);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a struct definition for a thrift data type.
+ *
+ * @param tstruct The struct definition
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_struct_definition(ofstream& out,
+                                                   t_struct* tstruct,
+                                                   bool is_exception,
+                                                   bool is_result) {
+  (void)is_result;
+  const vector<t_field*>& members = tstruct->get_members();
+  const vector<t_field*>& sorted_members = tstruct->get_sorted_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator m_iter;
+
+  out << std::endl << "class " << tstruct->get_name();
+  if (is_exception) {
+    if (gen_dynamic_) {
+      out << "(" << gen_dynbaseclass_exc_ << ")";
+    } else {
+      out << "(TException)";
+    }
+  } else {
+    if (gen_newstyle_) {
+      out << "(object)";
+    } else if (gen_dynamic_) {
+      out << "(" << gen_dynbaseclass_ << ")";
+    }
+  }
+  out << ":" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  generate_python_docstring(out, tstruct);
+
+  out << endl;
+
+  /*
+     Here we generate the structure specification for the fastbinary codec.
+     These specifications have the following structure:
+     thrift_spec -> tuple of item_spec
+     item_spec -> None | (tag, type_enum, name, spec_args, default)
+     tag -> integer
+     type_enum -> TType.I32 | TType.STRING | TType.STRUCT | ...
+     name -> string_literal
+     default -> None  # Handled by __init__
+     spec_args -> None  # For simple types
+                | (type_enum, spec_args)  # Value type for list/set
+                | (type_enum, spec_args, type_enum, spec_args)
+                  # Key and value for map
+                | (class_name, spec_args_ptr) # For struct/exception
+     class_name -> identifier  # Basically a pointer to the class
+     spec_args_ptr -> expression  # just class_name.spec_args
+
+     TODO(dreiss): Consider making this work for structs with negative tags.
+  */
+
+  if (gen_slots_) {
+    indent(out) << "__slots__ = [ " << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    for (m_iter = sorted_members.begin(); m_iter != sorted_members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      indent(out) << "'" << (*m_iter)->get_name() << "'," << endl;
+    }
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << " ]" << endl << endl;
+  }
+
+  // TODO(dreiss): Look into generating an empty tuple instead of None
+  // for structures with no members.
+  // TODO(dreiss): Test encoding of structs where some inner structs
+  // don't have thrift_spec.
+  if (sorted_members.empty() || (sorted_members[0]->get_key() >= 0)) {
+    indent(out) << "thrift_spec = (" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    int sorted_keys_pos = 0;
+    for (m_iter = sorted_members.begin(); m_iter != sorted_members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+
+      for (; sorted_keys_pos != (*m_iter)->get_key(); sorted_keys_pos++) {
+        indent(out) << "None, # " << sorted_keys_pos << endl;
+      }
+
+      indent(out) << "(" << (*m_iter)->get_key() << ", " << type_to_enum((*m_iter)->get_type())
+                  << ", "
+                  << "'" << (*m_iter)->get_name() << "'"
+                  << ", " << type_to_spec_args((*m_iter)->get_type()) << ", "
+                  << render_field_default_value(*m_iter) << ", "
+                  << "),"
+                  << " # " << sorted_keys_pos << endl;
+
+      sorted_keys_pos++;
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << ")" << endl << endl;
+  } else {
+    indent(out) << "thrift_spec = None" << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (members.size() > 0) {
+    out << indent() << "def __init__(self,";
+
+    for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      // This fills in default values, as opposed to nulls
+      out << " " << declare_argument(*m_iter) << ",";
+    }
+
+    out << "):" << endl;
+
+    indent_up();
+
+    for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      // Initialize fields
+      t_type* type = (*m_iter)->get_type();
+      if (!type->is_base_type() && !type->is_enum() && (*m_iter)->get_value() != NULL) {
+        indent(out) << "if " << (*m_iter)->get_name() << " is "
+                    << "self.thrift_spec[" << (*m_iter)->get_key() << "][4]:" << endl;
+        indent(out) << "  " << (*m_iter)->get_name() << " = " << render_field_default_value(*m_iter)
+                    << endl;
+      }
+      indent(out) << "self." << (*m_iter)->get_name() << " = " << (*m_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+
+    out << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (!gen_dynamic_) {
+    generate_py_struct_reader(out, tstruct);
+    generate_py_struct_writer(out, tstruct);
+  }
+
+  // For exceptions only, generate a __str__ method. This is
+  // because when raised exceptions are printed to the console, __repr__
+  // isn't used. See python bug #5882
+  if (is_exception) {
+    out << indent() << "def __str__(self):" << endl << indent() << "  return repr(self)" << endl
+        << endl;
+  }
+
+  out << indent() << "def __hash__(self):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "value = 17" << endl; // PYTHONHASHSEED would be better, but requires Python 3.2.3
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    indent(out) << "value = (value * 31) ^ hash(self." << (*m_iter)->get_name() + ")" << endl;
+  }
+  indent(out) << "return value" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+  out << endl;
+
+  if (!gen_slots_) {
+    // Printing utilities so that on the command line thrift
+    // structs look pretty like dictionaries
+    out << indent() << "def __repr__(self):" << endl << indent() << "  L = ['%s=%r' % (key, value)"
+        << endl << indent() << "    for key, value in self.__dict__.iteritems()]" << endl
+        << indent() << "  return '%s(%s)' % (self.__class__.__name__, ', '.join(L))" << endl
+        << endl;
+
+    // Equality and inequality methods that compare by value
+    out << indent() << "def __eq__(self, other):" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    out << indent() << "return isinstance(other, self.__class__) and "
+                       "self.__dict__ == other.__dict__" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+    out << endl;
+
+    out << indent() << "def __ne__(self, other):" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    out << indent() << "return not (self == other)" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+  } else if (!gen_dynamic_) {
+    // no base class available to implement __eq__ and __repr__ and __ne__ for us
+    // so we must provide one that uses __slots__
+    out << indent() << "def __repr__(self):" << endl << indent()
+        << "  L = ['%s=%r' % (key, getattr(self, key))" << endl << indent()
+        << "    for key in self.__slots__]" << endl << indent()
+        << "  return '%s(%s)' % (self.__class__.__name__, ', '.join(L))" << endl << endl;
+
+    // Equality method that compares each attribute by value and type, walking __slots__
+    out << indent() << "def __eq__(self, other):" << endl << indent()
+        << "  if not isinstance(other, self.__class__):" << endl << indent() << "    return False"
+        << endl << indent() << "  for attr in self.__slots__:" << endl << indent()
+        << "    my_val = getattr(self, attr)" << endl << indent()
+        << "    other_val = getattr(other, attr)" << endl << indent()
+        << "    if my_val != other_val:" << endl << indent() << "      return False" << endl
+        << indent() << "  return True" << endl << endl;
+
+    out << indent() << "def __ne__(self, other):" << endl << indent()
+        << "  return not (self == other)" << endl << endl;
+  }
+  indent_down();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates the read method for a struct
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_struct_reader(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  indent(out) << "def read(self, iprot):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "if iprot.__class__ == TBinaryProtocol.TBinaryProtocolAccelerated "
+                 "and isinstance(iprot.trans, TTransport.CReadableTransport) "
+                 "and self.thrift_spec is not None "
+                 "and fastbinary is not None:" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "fastbinary.decode_binary(self, iprot.trans, (self.__class__, self.thrift_spec))"
+              << endl;
+  indent(out) << "return" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(out) << "iprot.readStructBegin()" << endl;
+
+  // Loop over reading in fields
+  indent(out) << "while True:" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  // Read beginning field marker
+  indent(out) << "(fname, ftype, fid) = iprot.readFieldBegin()" << endl;
+
+  // Check for field STOP marker and break
+  indent(out) << "if ftype == TType.STOP:" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "break" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  // Switch statement on the field we are reading
+  bool first = true;
+
+  // Generate deserialization code for known cases
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (first) {
+      first = false;
+      out << indent() << "if ";
+    } else {
+      out << indent() << "elif ";
+    }
+    out << "fid == " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    indent(out) << "if ftype == " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type()) << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    generate_deserialize_field(out, *f_iter, "self.");
+    indent_down();
+    out << indent() << "else:" << endl << indent() << "  iprot.skip(ftype)" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  // In the default case we skip the field
+  out << indent() << "else:" << endl << indent() << "  iprot.skip(ftype)" << endl;
+
+  // Read field end marker
+  indent(out) << "iprot.readFieldEnd()" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(out) << "iprot.readStructEnd()" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  out << endl;
+}
+
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_struct_writer(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  string name = tstruct->get_name();
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_sorted_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  indent(out) << "def write(self, oprot):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "if oprot.__class__ == TBinaryProtocol.TBinaryProtocolAccelerated "
+                 "and self.thrift_spec is not None "
+                 "and fastbinary is not None:" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out)
+      << "oprot.trans.write(fastbinary.encode_binary(self, (self.__class__, self.thrift_spec)))"
+      << endl;
+  indent(out) << "return" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(out) << "oprot.writeStructBegin('" << name << "')" << endl;
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    // Write field header
+    indent(out) << "if self." << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " is not None:" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeFieldBegin("
+                << "'" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "', " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type())
+                << ", " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ")" << endl;
+
+    // Write field contents
+    generate_serialize_field(out, *f_iter, "self.");
+
+    // Write field closer
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeFieldEnd()" << endl;
+
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  // Write the struct map
+  out << indent() << "oprot.writeFieldStop()" << endl << indent() << "oprot.writeStructEnd()"
+      << endl;
+
+  out << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  generate_py_struct_required_validator(out, tstruct);
+  out << endl;
+}
+
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_struct_required_validator(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "def validate(self):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+
+  if (fields.size() > 0) {
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      t_field* field = (*f_iter);
+      if (field->get_req() == t_field::T_REQUIRED) {
+        indent(out) << "if self." << field->get_name() << " is None:" << endl;
+        indent(out) << "  raise TProtocol.TProtocolException(message='Required field "
+                    << field->get_name() << " is unset!')" << endl;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "return" << endl << endl;
+  indent_down();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a thrift service.
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service definition
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service(t_service* tservice) {
+  string f_service_name = package_dir_ + "/" + service_name_ + ".py";
+  f_service_.open(f_service_name.c_str());
+
+  f_service_ << py_autogen_comment() << endl << py_imports() << endl;
+
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    f_service_ << "import "
+               << get_real_py_module(tservice->get_extends()->get_program(), gen_twisted_) << "."
+               << tservice->get_extends()->get_name() << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << "import logging" << endl
+             << "from ttypes import *" << endl
+             << "from thrift.Thrift import TProcessor" << endl
+             << render_fastbinary_includes() << endl;
+
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    f_service_ << "from zope.interface import Interface, implements" << endl
+               << "from twisted.internet import defer" << endl
+               << "from thrift.transport import TTwisted" << endl;
+  } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+    f_service_ << "from tornado import gen" << endl;
+    f_service_ << "from tornado import concurrent" << endl;
+    f_service_ << "from thrift.transport import TTransport" << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  // Generate the three main parts of the service
+  generate_service_interface(tservice);
+  generate_service_client(tservice);
+  generate_service_server(tservice);
+  generate_service_helpers(tservice);
+  generate_service_remote(tservice);
+
+  // Close service file
+  f_service_.close();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates helper functions for a service.
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service to generate a header definition for
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service_helpers(t_service* tservice) {
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+
+  f_service_ << "# HELPER FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES" << endl;
+
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    t_struct* ts = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    generate_py_struct_definition(f_service_, ts, false);
+    generate_py_function_helpers(*f_iter);
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a struct and helpers for a function.
+ *
+ * @param tfunction The function
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_py_function_helpers(t_function* tfunction) {
+  if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+    t_struct result(program_, tfunction->get_name() + "_result");
+    t_field success(tfunction->get_returntype(), "success", 0);
+    if (!tfunction->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+      result.append(&success);
+    }
+
+    t_struct* xs = tfunction->get_xceptions();
+    const vector<t_field*>& fields = xs->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      result.append(*f_iter);
+    }
+    generate_py_struct_definition(f_service_, &result, false, true);
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a service interface definition.
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service to generate a header definition for
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service_interface(t_service* tservice) {
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_if = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    extends_if = "(" + extends + ".Iface)";
+  } else {
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      extends_if = "(Interface)";
+    } else if (gen_newstyle_ || gen_dynamic_ || gen_tornado_) {
+      extends_if = "(object)";
+    }
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << "class Iface" << extends_if << ":" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  generate_python_docstring(f_service_, tservice);
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  if (functions.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "pass" << endl;
+  } else {
+    vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+    for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "def " << function_signature(*f_iter, true) << ":" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      generate_python_docstring(f_service_, (*f_iter));
+      f_service_ << indent() << "pass" << endl << endl;
+      indent_down();
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a service client definition.
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service to generate a server for.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service_client(t_service* tservice) {
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_client = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      extends_client = "(" + extends + ".Client)";
+    } else {
+      extends_client = extends + ".Client, ";
+    }
+  } else {
+    if (gen_twisted_ && (gen_newstyle_ || gen_dynamic_)) {
+      extends_client = "(object)";
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    f_service_ << "class Client" << extends_client << ":" << endl << "  implements(Iface)" << endl
+               << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << "class Client(" << extends_client << "Iface):" << endl;
+  }
+  indent_up();
+  generate_python_docstring(f_service_, tservice);
+
+  // Constructor function
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "def __init__(self, transport, oprot_factory):" << endl;
+  } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+    f_service_ << indent()
+               << "def __init__(self, transport, iprot_factory, oprot_factory=None):" << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "def __init__(self, iprot, oprot=None):" << endl;
+  }
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  self._transport = transport" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  self._oprot_factory = oprot_factory" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  self._seqid = 0" << endl << indent() << "  self._reqs = {}" << endl << endl;
+    } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  self._transport = transport" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  self._iprot_factory = iprot_factory" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  self._oprot_factory = (oprot_factory if oprot_factory is not None" << endl
+                 << indent() << "                         else iprot_factory)" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  self._seqid = 0" << endl << indent() << "  self._reqs = {}" << endl
+                 << indent() << "  self._transport.io_loop.spawn_callback(self._start_receiving)"
+                 << endl << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  self._iprot = self._oprot = iprot" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  if oprot is not None:" << endl << indent() << "    self._oprot = oprot"
+                 << endl << indent() << "  self._seqid = 0" << endl << endl;
+    }
+  } else {
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  " << extends
+                 << ".Client.__init__(self, transport, oprot_factory)" << endl << endl;
+    } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  " << extends
+                 << ".Client.__init__(self, transport, iprot_factory, oprot_factory)" << endl
+                 << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  " << extends << ".Client.__init__(self, iprot, oprot)" << endl
+                 << endl;
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (gen_tornado_ && extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "@gen.engine" << endl << indent()
+               << "def _start_receiving(self):" << endl << indent() << "  while True:" << endl
+               << indent() << "    try:" << endl << indent()
+               << "      frame = yield self._transport.readFrame()" << endl << indent()
+               << "    except TTransport.TTransportException as e:" << endl << indent()
+               << "      for future in self._reqs.itervalues():" << endl << indent()
+               << "        future.set_exception(e)" << endl << indent() << "      self._reqs = {}"
+               << endl << indent() << "      return" << endl << indent()
+               << "    tr = TTransport.TMemoryBuffer(frame)" << endl << indent()
+               << "    iprot = self._iprot_factory.getProtocol(tr)" << endl << indent()
+               << "    (fname, mtype, rseqid) = iprot.readMessageBegin()" << endl << indent()
+               << "    future = self._reqs.pop(rseqid, None)" << endl << indent()
+               << "    if not future:" << endl << indent()
+               << "      # future has already been discarded" << endl << indent()
+               << "      continue" << endl << indent()
+               << "    method = getattr(self, 'recv_' + fname)" << endl << indent()
+               << "    try:" << endl << indent() << "      result = method(iprot, mtype, rseqid)"
+               << endl << indent() << "    except Exception as e:" << endl << indent()
+               << "      future.set_exception(e)" << endl << indent() << "    else:" << endl
+               << indent() << "      future.set_result(result)" << endl << endl;
+  }
+
+  // Generate client method implementations
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    t_struct* arg_struct = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    const vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator fld_iter;
+    string funname = (*f_iter)->get_name();
+
+    // Open function
+    indent(f_service_) << "def " << function_signature(*f_iter, false) << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    generate_python_docstring(f_service_, (*f_iter));
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "seqid = self._seqid = self._seqid + 1" << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "self._reqs[seqid] = defer.Deferred()" << endl << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "d = defer.maybeDeferred(self.send_" << funname;
+
+    } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "self._seqid += 1" << endl;
+      if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+        indent(f_service_) << "future = self._reqs[self._seqid] = concurrent.Future()" << endl;
+      }
+      indent(f_service_) << "self.send_" << funname << "(";
+
+    } else {
+      indent(f_service_) << "self.send_" << funname << "(";
+    }
+
+    bool first = true;
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      // we need a leading comma if there are args, since it's called as maybeDeferred(funcname,
+      // arg)
+      first = false;
+    }
+    for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << ", ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << (*fld_iter)->get_name();
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << ")" << endl;
+
+    if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+      if (gen_twisted_) {
+        // nothing. See the next block.
+      } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+        indent(f_service_) << "return future" << endl;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << indent();
+        if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+          f_service_ << "return ";
+        }
+        f_service_ << "self.recv_" << funname << "()" << endl;
+      }
+    }
+    indent_down();
+
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      // This block injects the body of the send_<> method for twisted (and a cb/eb pair)
+      indent_up();
+      indent(f_service_) << "d.addCallbacks(" << endl;
+
+      indent_up();
+      f_service_ << indent() << "callback=self.cb_send_" << funname << "," << endl << indent()
+                 << "callbackArgs=(seqid,)," << endl << indent() << "errback=self.eb_send_"
+                 << funname << "," << endl << indent() << "errbackArgs=(seqid,))" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+
+      indent(f_service_) << "return d" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << endl;
+
+      indent(f_service_) << "def cb_send_" << funname << "(self, _, seqid):" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      if ((*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+        // if one-way, fire the deferred & remove it from _reqs
+        f_service_ << indent() << "d = self._reqs.pop(seqid)" << endl << indent()
+                   << "d.callback(None)" << endl << indent() << "return d" << endl;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "return self._reqs[seqid]" << endl;
+      }
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << endl;
+
+      // add an errback to fail the request if the call to send_<> raised an exception
+      indent(f_service_) << "def eb_send_" << funname << "(self, f, seqid):" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      f_service_ << indent() << "d = self._reqs.pop(seqid)" << endl << indent() << "d.errback(f)"
+                 << endl << indent() << "return d" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << "def send_" << function_signature(*f_iter, false) << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    std::string argsname = (*f_iter)->get_name() + "_args";
+    std::string messageType = (*f_iter)->is_oneway() ? "TMessageType.ONEWAY" : "TMessageType.CALL";
+
+    // Serialize the request header
+    if (gen_twisted_ || gen_tornado_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "oprot = self._oprot_factory.getProtocol(self._transport)" << endl
+                 << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageBegin('" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "', "
+                 << messageType << ", self._seqid)" << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "self._oprot.writeMessageBegin('" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "', "
+                 << messageType << ", self._seqid)" << endl;
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "args = " << argsname << "()" << endl;
+
+    for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "args." << (*fld_iter)->get_name() << " = "
+                 << (*fld_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+    }
+
+    // Write to the stream
+    if (gen_twisted_ || gen_tornado_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "args.write(oprot)" << endl << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageEnd()"
+                 << endl << indent() << "oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "args.write(self._oprot)" << endl << indent()
+                 << "self._oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl << indent()
+                 << "self._oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+
+    if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+      std::string resultname = (*f_iter)->get_name() + "_result";
+      // Open function
+      f_service_ << endl;
+      if (gen_twisted_ || gen_tornado_) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "def recv_" << (*f_iter)->get_name()
+                   << "(self, iprot, mtype, rseqid):" << endl;
+      } else {
+        t_struct noargs(program_);
+        t_function recv_function((*f_iter)->get_returntype(),
+                                 string("recv_") + (*f_iter)->get_name(),
+                                 &noargs);
+        f_service_ << indent() << "def " << function_signature(&recv_function) << ":" << endl;
+      }
+      indent_up();
+
+      // TODO(mcslee): Validate message reply here, seq ids etc.
+
+      if (gen_twisted_) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "d = self._reqs.pop(rseqid)" << endl;
+      } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "iprot = self._iprot" << endl << indent()
+                   << "(fname, mtype, rseqid) = iprot.readMessageBegin()" << endl;
+      }
+
+      f_service_ << indent() << "if mtype == TMessageType.EXCEPTION:" << endl << indent()
+                 << "  x = TApplicationException()" << endl;
+
+      if (gen_twisted_) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "  x.read(iprot)" << endl << indent()
+                   << "  iprot.readMessageEnd()" << endl << indent() << "  return d.errback(x)"
+                   << endl << indent() << "result = " << resultname << "()" << endl << indent()
+                   << "result.read(iprot)" << endl << indent() << "iprot.readMessageEnd()" << endl;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "  x.read(iprot)" << endl << indent()
+                   << "  iprot.readMessageEnd()" << endl << indent() << "  raise x" << endl
+                   << indent() << "result = " << resultname << "()" << endl << indent()
+                   << "result.read(iprot)" << endl << indent() << "iprot.readMessageEnd()" << endl;
+      }
+
+      // Careful, only return _result if not a void function
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "if result.success is not None:" << endl;
+        if (gen_twisted_) {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "  return d.callback(result.success)" << endl;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "  return result.success" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      t_struct* xs = (*f_iter)->get_xceptions();
+      const std::vector<t_field*>& xceptions = xs->get_members();
+      vector<t_field*>::const_iterator x_iter;
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "if result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << " is not None:" << endl;
+        if (gen_twisted_) {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "  return d.errback(result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << ")"
+                     << endl;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "  raise result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << "" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      // Careful, only return _result if not a void function
+      if ((*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        if (gen_twisted_) {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "return d.callback(None)" << endl;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "return" << endl;
+        }
+      } else {
+        if (gen_twisted_) {
+          f_service_
+              << indent()
+              << "return d.errback(TApplicationException(TApplicationException.MISSING_RESULT, \""
+              << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " failed: unknown result\"))" << endl;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent()
+                     << "raise TApplicationException(TApplicationException.MISSING_RESULT, \""
+                     << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " failed: unknown result\")" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      // Close function
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << endl;
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a command line tool for making remote requests
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service to generate a remote for.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service_remote(t_service* tservice) {
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  // Get all function from parents
+  t_service* parent = tservice->get_extends();
+  while (parent != NULL) {
+    vector<t_function*> p_functions = parent->get_functions();
+    functions.insert(functions.end(), p_functions.begin(), p_functions.end());
+    parent = parent->get_extends();
+  }
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+
+  string f_remote_name = package_dir_ + "/" + service_name_ + "-remote";
+  ofstream f_remote;
+  f_remote.open(f_remote_name.c_str());
+
+  f_remote << "#!/usr/bin/env python" << endl << py_autogen_comment() << endl << "import sys"
+           << endl << "import pprint" << endl << "from urlparse import urlparse" << endl
+           << "from thrift.transport import TTransport" << endl
+           << "from thrift.transport import TSocket" << endl
+           << "from thrift.transport import TSSLSocket" << endl
+           << "from thrift.transport import THttpClient" << endl
+           << "from thrift.protocol import TBinaryProtocol" << endl << endl;
+
+  f_remote << "from " << module_ << " import " << service_name_ << endl << "from " << module_
+           << ".ttypes import *" << endl << endl;
+
+  f_remote << "if len(sys.argv) <= 1 or sys.argv[1] == '--help':" << endl << "  print('')" << endl
+           << "  print('Usage: ' + sys.argv[0] + ' [-h host[:port]] [-u url] [-f[ramed]] [-s[sl]] "
+              "function [arg1 [arg2...]]')" << endl << "  print('')" << endl
+           << "  print('Functions:')" << endl;
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    f_remote << "  print('  " << (*f_iter)->get_returntype()->get_name() << " "
+             << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "(";
+    t_struct* arg_struct = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    const std::vector<t_field*>& args = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator a_iter;
+    std::vector<t_field*>::size_type num_args = args.size();
+    bool first = true;
+    for (std::vector<t_field*>::size_type i = 0; i < num_args; ++i) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        f_remote << ", ";
+      }
+      f_remote << args[i]->get_type()->get_name() << " " << args[i]->get_name();
+    }
+    f_remote << ")')" << endl;
+  }
+  f_remote << "  print('')" << endl << "  sys.exit(0)" << endl << endl;
+
+  f_remote << "pp = pprint.PrettyPrinter(indent = 2)" << endl << "host = 'localhost'" << endl
+           << "port = 9090" << endl << "uri = ''" << endl << "framed = False" << endl
+           << "ssl = False" << endl << "http = False" << endl << "argi = 1" << endl << endl
+           << "if sys.argv[argi] == '-h':" << endl << "  parts = sys.argv[argi+1].split(':')"
+           << endl << "  host = parts[0]" << endl << "  if len(parts) > 1:" << endl
+           << "    port = int(parts[1])" << endl << "  argi += 2" << endl << endl
+           << "if sys.argv[argi] == '-u':" << endl << "  url = urlparse(sys.argv[argi+1])" << endl
+           << "  parts = url[1].split(':')" << endl << "  host = parts[0]" << endl
+           << "  if len(parts) > 1:" << endl << "    port = int(parts[1])" << endl
+           << "  else:" << endl << "    port = 80" << endl << "  uri = url[2]" << endl
+           << "  if url[4]:" << endl << "    uri += '?%s' % url[4]" << endl << "  http = True"
+           << endl << "  argi += 2" << endl << endl
+           << "if sys.argv[argi] == '-f' or sys.argv[argi] == '-framed':" << endl
+           << "  framed = True" << endl << "  argi += 1" << endl << endl
+           << "if sys.argv[argi] == '-s' or sys.argv[argi] == '-ssl':" << endl << "  ssl = True"
+           << endl << "  argi += 1" << endl << endl << "cmd = sys.argv[argi]" << endl
+           << "args = sys.argv[argi+1:]" << endl << endl << "if http:" << endl
+           << "  transport = THttpClient.THttpClient(host, port, uri)" << endl << "else:" << endl
+           << "  socket = TSSLSocket.TSSLSocket(host, port, validate=False) if ssl else "
+              "TSocket.TSocket(host, port)" << endl << "  if framed:" << endl
+           << "    transport = TTransport.TFramedTransport(socket)" << endl << "  else:" << endl
+           << "    transport = TTransport.TBufferedTransport(socket)" << endl
+           << "protocol = TBinaryProtocol.TBinaryProtocol(transport)" << endl
+           << "client = " << service_name_ << ".Client(protocol)" << endl << "transport.open()"
+           << endl << endl;
+
+  // Generate the dispatch methods
+  bool first = true;
+
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (first) {
+      first = false;
+    } else {
+      f_remote << "el";
+    }
+
+    t_struct* arg_struct = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    const std::vector<t_field*>& args = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator a_iter;
+    std::vector<t_field*>::size_type num_args = args.size();
+
+    f_remote << "if cmd == '" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "':" << endl
+             << "  if len(args) != " << num_args << ":" << endl << "    print('"
+             << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " requires " << num_args << " args')" << endl
+             << "    sys.exit(1)" << endl << "  pp.pprint(client." << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "(";
+    for (std::vector<t_field*>::size_type i = 0; i < num_args; ++i) {
+      if (args[i]->get_type()->is_string()) {
+        f_remote << "args[" << i << "],";
+      } else {
+        f_remote << "eval(args[" << i << "]),";
+      }
+    }
+    f_remote << "))" << endl;
+
+    f_remote << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (functions.size() > 0) {
+    f_remote << "else:" << endl;
+    f_remote << "  print('Unrecognized method %s' % cmd)" << endl;
+    f_remote << "  sys.exit(1)" << endl;
+    f_remote << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_remote << "transport.close()" << endl;
+
+  // Close service file
+  f_remote.close();
+
+#ifndef _MSC_VER
+
+  // Make file executable, love that bitwise OR action
+  chmod(f_remote_name.c_str(),
+        S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IXUSR
+#ifndef _WIN32
+        | S_IRGRP | S_IXGRP | S_IROTH | S_IXOTH
+#endif
+        );
+
+#endif // _MSC_VER
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a service server definition.
+ *
+ * @param tservice The service to generate a server for.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_service_server(t_service* tservice) {
+  // Generate the dispatch methods
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_processor = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    extends_processor = extends + ".Processor, ";
+  }
+
+  // Generate the header portion
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    f_service_ << "class Processor(" << extends_processor << "TProcessor):" << endl
+               << "  implements(Iface)" << endl << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << "class Processor(" << extends_processor << "Iface, TProcessor):" << endl;
+  }
+
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "def __init__(self, handler):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "self._handler = Iface(handler)" << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "self._handler = handler" << endl;
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "self._processMap = {}" << endl;
+  } else {
+    if (gen_twisted_) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << extends << ".Processor.__init__(self, Iface(handler))" << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << extends << ".Processor.__init__(self, handler)" << endl;
+    }
+  }
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "self._processMap[\"" << (*f_iter)->get_name()
+               << "\"] = Processor.process_" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+  }
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  // Generate the server implementation
+  f_service_ << indent() << "def process(self, iprot, oprot):" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "(name, type, seqid) = iprot.readMessageBegin()" << endl;
+
+  // TODO(mcslee): validate message
+
+  // HOT: dictionary function lookup
+  f_service_ << indent() << "if name not in self._processMap:" << endl << indent()
+             << "  iprot.skip(TType.STRUCT)" << endl << indent() << "  iprot.readMessageEnd()"
+             << endl << indent()
+             << "  x = TApplicationException(TApplicationException.UNKNOWN_METHOD, 'Unknown "
+                "function %s' % (name))" << endl << indent()
+             << "  oprot.writeMessageBegin(name, TMessageType.EXCEPTION, seqid)" << endl << indent()
+             << "  x.write(oprot)" << endl << indent() << "  oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl
+             << indent() << "  oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "  return defer.succeed(None)" << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "  return" << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "else:" << endl;
+
+  if (gen_twisted_ || gen_tornado_) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "  return self._processMap[name](self, seqid, iprot, oprot)" << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "  self._processMap[name](self, seqid, iprot, oprot)" << endl;
+
+    // Read end of args field, the T_STOP, and the struct close
+    f_service_ << indent() << "return True" << endl;
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  // Generate the process subfunctions
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    generate_process_function(tservice, *f_iter);
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates a process function definition.
+ *
+ * @param tfunction The function to write a dispatcher for
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_process_function(t_service* tservice, t_function* tfunction) {
+  (void)tservice;
+  // Open function
+  if (gen_tornado_) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "@gen.coroutine" << endl << indent() << "def process_"
+               << tfunction->get_name() << "(self, seqid, iprot, oprot):" << endl;
+  } else {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "def process_" << tfunction->get_name()
+               << "(self, seqid, iprot, oprot):" << endl;
+  }
+
+  indent_up();
+
+  string argsname = tfunction->get_name() + "_args";
+  string resultname = tfunction->get_name() + "_result";
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "args = " << argsname << "()" << endl << indent() << "args.read(iprot)"
+             << endl << indent() << "iprot.readMessageEnd()" << endl;
+
+  t_struct* xs = tfunction->get_xceptions();
+  const std::vector<t_field*>& xceptions = xs->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator x_iter;
+
+  // Declare result for non oneway function
+  if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "result = " << resultname << "()" << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (gen_twisted_) {
+    // TODO: Propagate arbitrary exception raised by handler to client as does plain "py"
+
+    // Generate the function call
+    t_struct* arg_struct = tfunction->get_arglist();
+    const std::vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "d = defer.maybeDeferred(self._handler." << tfunction->get_name()
+               << ", ";
+    bool first = true;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << ", ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << "args." << (*f_iter)->get_name();
+    }
+    f_service_ << ")" << endl;
+
+    // Shortcut out here for oneway functions
+    if (tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "return d" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << endl;
+      return;
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "d.addCallback(self.write_results_success_" << tfunction->get_name()
+               << ", result, seqid, oprot)" << endl;
+
+    if (xceptions.size() > 0) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "d.addErrback(self.write_results_exception_"
+                 << tfunction->get_name() << ", result, seqid, oprot)" << endl;
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "return d" << endl;
+
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    indent(f_service_) << "def write_results_success_" << tfunction->get_name()
+                       << "(self, success, result, seqid, oprot):" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    f_service_ << indent() << "result.success = success" << endl << indent()
+               << "oprot.writeMessageBegin(\"" << tfunction->get_name()
+               << "\", TMessageType.REPLY, seqid)" << endl << indent() << "result.write(oprot)"
+               << endl << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl << indent()
+               << "oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    // Try block for a function with exceptions
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && xceptions.size() > 0) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "def write_results_exception_" << tfunction->get_name()
+                         << "(self, error, result, seqid, oprot):" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      f_service_ << indent() << "try:" << endl;
+
+      // Kinda absurd
+      f_service_ << indent() << "  error.raiseException()" << endl;
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "except " << type_name((*x_iter)->get_type()) << " as "
+                   << (*x_iter)->get_name() << ":" << endl;
+        if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+          indent_up();
+          f_service_ << indent() << "result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << " = "
+                     << (*x_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+          indent_down();
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "pass" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+      f_service_ << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageBegin(\"" << tfunction->get_name()
+                 << "\", TMessageType.REPLY, seqid)" << endl << indent() << "result.write(oprot)"
+                 << endl << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl << indent()
+                 << "oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << endl;
+    }
+
+  } else if (gen_tornado_) {
+    /*
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && xceptions.size() > 0) {
+      f_service_ <<
+        endl <<
+        indent() << "def handle_exception(xtype, value, traceback):" << endl;
+
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        f_service_ <<
+          indent() << "  if xtype == " << type_name((*x_iter)->get_type()) << ":" << endl;
+        if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+          f_service_ <<
+            indent() << "    result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << " = value" << endl;
+        }
+        f_service_ <<
+          indent() << "    return True" << endl;
+      }
+
+      f_service_ <<
+        endl <<
+        indent() << "try:" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+    }
+    */
+
+    // TODO: Propagate arbitrary exception raised by handler to client as does plain "py"
+
+    // Generate the function call
+    t_struct* arg_struct = tfunction->get_arglist();
+    const std::vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+    if (xceptions.size() > 0) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "try:" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+    }
+    f_service_ << indent();
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && !tfunction->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+      f_service_ << "result.success = ";
+    }
+    f_service_ << "yield gen.maybe_future(self._handler." << tfunction->get_name() << "(";
+    bool first = true;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << ", ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << "args." << (*f_iter)->get_name();
+    }
+    f_service_ << "))" << endl;
+
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && xceptions.size() > 0) {
+      indent_down();
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "except " << type_name((*x_iter)->get_type()) << " as "
+                   << (*x_iter)->get_name() << ":" << endl;
+        if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+          indent_up();
+          f_service_ << indent() << "result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << " = "
+                     << (*x_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+          indent_down();
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "pass" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageBegin(\"" << tfunction->get_name()
+                 << "\", TMessageType.REPLY, seqid)" << endl << indent() << "result.write(oprot)"
+                 << endl << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl << indent()
+                 << "oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+    }
+
+    // Close function
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+  } else { // py
+    // Try block for a function with exceptions
+    // It also catches arbitrary exceptions raised by handler method to propagate them to the client
+    f_service_ << indent() << "try:" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    // Generate the function call
+    t_struct* arg_struct = tfunction->get_arglist();
+    const std::vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+    f_service_ << indent();
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && !tfunction->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+      f_service_ << "result.success = ";
+    }
+    f_service_ << "self._handler." << tfunction->get_name() << "(";
+    bool first = true;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << ", ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << "args." << (*f_iter)->get_name();
+    }
+    f_service_ << ")" << endl << indent() << "msg_type = TMessageType.REPLY" << endl;
+
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << indent()
+               << "except (TTransport.TTransportException, KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit):" << endl
+               << indent() << "  raise" << endl;
+
+    if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        f_service_ << indent() << "except " << type_name((*x_iter)->get_type()) << " as "
+                   << (*x_iter)->get_name() << ":" << endl;
+        indent_up();
+        f_service_ << indent() << "msg_type = TMessageType.REPLY" << endl
+                   << indent() << "result." << (*x_iter)->get_name() << " = "
+                   << (*x_iter)->get_name() << endl;
+        indent_down();
+      }
+
+      f_service_ << indent() << "except Exception as ex:" << endl
+                 << indent() << "  msg_type = TMessageType.EXCEPTION" << endl
+                 << indent() << "  logging.exception(ex)" << endl
+                 << indent()
+                 << "  result = TApplicationException(TApplicationException.INTERNAL_ERROR, "
+                    "'Internal error')" << endl
+                 << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageBegin(\"" << tfunction->get_name()
+                 << "\", msg_type, seqid)" << endl
+                 << indent() << "result.write(oprot)" << endl
+                 << indent() << "oprot.writeMessageEnd()" << endl
+                 << indent() << "oprot.trans.flush()" << endl;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "except:" << endl
+                 << indent() << "  pass" << endl;
+    }
+
+    // Close function
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << endl;
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Deserializes a field of any type.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_field(ofstream& out,
+                                                t_field* tfield,
+                                                string prefix,
+                                                bool inclass) {
+  (void)inclass;
+  t_type* type = get_true_type(tfield->get_type());
+
+  if (type->is_void()) {
+    throw "CANNOT GENERATE DESERIALIZE CODE FOR void TYPE: " + prefix + tfield->get_name();
+  }
+
+  string name = prefix + tfield->get_name();
+
+  if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    generate_deserialize_struct(out, (t_struct*)type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_container()) {
+    generate_deserialize_container(out, type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_base_type() || type->is_enum()) {
+    indent(out) << name << " = iprot.";
+
+    if (type->is_base_type()) {
+      t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+      switch (tbase) {
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_VOID:
+        throw "compiler error: cannot serialize void field in a struct: " + name;
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+        if (((t_base_type*)type)->is_binary() || !gen_utf8strings_) {
+          out << "readString()";
+        } else {
+          out << "readString().decode('utf-8')";
+        }
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+        out << "readBool()";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+        out << "readByte()";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+        out << "readI16()";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+        out << "readI32()";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+        out << "readI64()";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+        out << "readDouble()";
+        break;
+      default:
+        throw "compiler error: no Python name for base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+      }
+    } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+      out << "readI32()";
+    }
+    out << endl;
+
+  } else {
+    printf("DO NOT KNOW HOW TO DESERIALIZE FIELD '%s' TYPE '%s'\n",
+           tfield->get_name().c_str(),
+           type->get_name().c_str());
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates an unserializer for a struct, calling read()
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_struct(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, string prefix) {
+  out << indent() << prefix << " = " << type_name(tstruct) << "()" << endl << indent() << prefix
+      << ".read(iprot)" << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serialize a container by writing out the header followed by
+ * data and then a footer.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_container(ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, string prefix) {
+  string size = tmp("_size");
+  string ktype = tmp("_ktype");
+  string vtype = tmp("_vtype");
+  string etype = tmp("_etype");
+
+  t_field fsize(g_type_i32, size);
+  t_field fktype(g_type_byte, ktype);
+  t_field fvtype(g_type_byte, vtype);
+  t_field fetype(g_type_byte, etype);
+
+  // Declare variables, read header
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    out << indent() << prefix << " = {}" << endl << indent() << "(" << ktype << ", " << vtype
+        << ", " << size << " ) = iprot.readMapBegin()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    out << indent() << prefix << " = set()" << endl << indent() << "(" << etype << ", " << size
+        << ") = iprot.readSetBegin()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    out << indent() << prefix << " = []" << endl << indent() << "(" << etype << ", " << size
+        << ") = iprot.readListBegin()" << endl;
+  }
+
+  // For loop iterates over elements
+  string i = tmp("_i");
+  indent(out) << "for " << i << " in xrange(" << size << "):" << endl;
+
+  indent_up();
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    generate_deserialize_map_element(out, (t_map*)ttype, prefix);
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    generate_deserialize_set_element(out, (t_set*)ttype, prefix);
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    generate_deserialize_list_element(out, (t_list*)ttype, prefix);
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+
+  // Read container end
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.readMapEnd()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.readSetEnd()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.readListEnd()" << endl;
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates code to deserialize a map
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_map_element(ofstream& out, t_map* tmap, string prefix) {
+  string key = tmp("_key");
+  string val = tmp("_val");
+  t_field fkey(tmap->get_key_type(), key);
+  t_field fval(tmap->get_val_type(), val);
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &fkey);
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &fval);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << "[" << key << "] = " << val << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Write a set element
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_set_element(ofstream& out, t_set* tset, string prefix) {
+  string elem = tmp("_elem");
+  t_field felem(tset->get_elem_type(), elem);
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &felem);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << ".add(" << elem << ")" << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Write a list element
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_deserialize_list_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                       t_list* tlist,
+                                                       string prefix) {
+  string elem = tmp("_elem");
+  t_field felem(tlist->get_elem_type(), elem);
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &felem);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << ".append(" << elem << ")" << endl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serializes a field of any type.
+ *
+ * @param tfield The field to serialize
+ * @param prefix Name to prepend to field name
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_field(ofstream& out, t_field* tfield, string prefix) {
+  t_type* type = get_true_type(tfield->get_type());
+
+  // Do nothing for void types
+  if (type->is_void()) {
+    throw "CANNOT GENERATE SERIALIZE CODE FOR void TYPE: " + prefix + tfield->get_name();
+  }
+
+  if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    generate_serialize_struct(out, (t_struct*)type, prefix + tfield->get_name());
+  } else if (type->is_container()) {
+    generate_serialize_container(out, type, prefix + tfield->get_name());
+  } else if (type->is_base_type() || type->is_enum()) {
+
+    string name = prefix + tfield->get_name();
+
+    indent(out) << "oprot.";
+
+    if (type->is_base_type()) {
+      t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+      switch (tbase) {
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_VOID:
+        throw "compiler error: cannot serialize void field in a struct: " + name;
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+        if (((t_base_type*)type)->is_binary() || !gen_utf8strings_) {
+          out << "writeString(" << name << ")";
+        } else {
+          out << "writeString(" << name << ".encode('utf-8'))";
+        }
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+        out << "writeBool(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+        out << "writeByte(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+        out << "writeI16(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+        out << "writeI32(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+        out << "writeI64(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+        out << "writeDouble(" << name << ")";
+        break;
+      default:
+        throw "compiler error: no Python name for base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+      }
+    } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+      out << "writeI32(" << name << ")";
+    }
+    out << endl;
+  } else {
+    printf("DO NOT KNOW HOW TO SERIALIZE FIELD '%s%s' TYPE '%s'\n",
+           prefix.c_str(),
+           tfield->get_name().c_str(),
+           type->get_name().c_str());
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serializes all the members of a struct.
+ *
+ * @param tstruct The struct to serialize
+ * @param prefix  String prefix to attach to all fields
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_struct(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, string prefix) {
+  (void)tstruct;
+  indent(out) << prefix << ".write(oprot)" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_container(ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, string prefix) {
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeMapBegin(" << type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_key_type()) << ", "
+                << type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_val_type()) << ", "
+                << "len(" << prefix << "))" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeSetBegin(" << type_to_enum(((t_set*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) << ", "
+                << "len(" << prefix << "))" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeListBegin(" << type_to_enum(((t_list*)ttype)->get_elem_type())
+                << ", "
+                << "len(" << prefix << "))" << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    string kiter = tmp("kiter");
+    string viter = tmp("viter");
+    indent(out) << "for " << kiter << "," << viter << " in " << prefix << ".items():" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    generate_serialize_map_element(out, (t_map*)ttype, kiter, viter);
+    indent_down();
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    string iter = tmp("iter");
+    indent(out) << "for " << iter << " in " << prefix << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    generate_serialize_set_element(out, (t_set*)ttype, iter);
+    indent_down();
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    string iter = tmp("iter");
+    indent(out) << "for " << iter << " in " << prefix << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    generate_serialize_list_element(out, (t_list*)ttype, iter);
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeMapEnd()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeSetEnd()" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.writeListEnd()" << endl;
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serializes the members of a map.
+ *
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_map_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                    t_map* tmap,
+                                                    string kiter,
+                                                    string viter) {
+  t_field kfield(tmap->get_key_type(), kiter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &kfield, "");
+
+  t_field vfield(tmap->get_val_type(), viter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &vfield, "");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serializes the members of a set.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_set_element(ofstream& out, t_set* tset, string iter) {
+  t_field efield(tset->get_elem_type(), iter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &efield, "");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Serializes the members of a list.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_serialize_list_element(ofstream& out, t_list* tlist, string iter) {
+  t_field efield(tlist->get_elem_type(), iter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &efield, "");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates the docstring for a given struct.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_python_docstring(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  generate_python_docstring(out, tstruct, tstruct, "Attributes");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates the docstring for a given function.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_python_docstring(ofstream& out, t_function* tfunction) {
+  generate_python_docstring(out, tfunction, tfunction->get_arglist(), "Parameters");
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates the docstring for a struct or function.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_python_docstring(ofstream& out,
+                                               t_doc* tdoc,
+                                               t_struct* tstruct,
+                                               const char* subheader) {
+  bool has_doc = false;
+  stringstream ss;
+  if (tdoc->has_doc()) {
+    has_doc = true;
+    ss << tdoc->get_doc();
+  }
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  if (fields.size() > 0) {
+    if (has_doc) {
+      ss << endl;
+    }
+    has_doc = true;
+    ss << subheader << ":\n";
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator p_iter;
+    for (p_iter = fields.begin(); p_iter != fields.end(); ++p_iter) {
+      t_field* p = *p_iter;
+      ss << " - " << p->get_name();
+      if (p->has_doc()) {
+        ss << ": " << p->get_doc();
+      } else {
+        ss << endl;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (has_doc) {
+    generate_docstring_comment(out, "\"\"\"\n", "", ss.str(), "\"\"\"\n");
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generates the docstring for a generic object.
+ */
+void t_py_generator::generate_python_docstring(ofstream& out, t_doc* tdoc) {
+  if (tdoc->has_doc()) {
+    generate_docstring_comment(out, "\"\"\"\n", "", tdoc->get_doc(), "\"\"\"\n");
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Declares an argument, which may include initialization as necessary.
+ *
+ * @param tfield The field
+ */
+string t_py_generator::declare_argument(t_field* tfield) {
+  std::ostringstream result;
+  result << tfield->get_name() << "=";
+  if (tfield->get_value() != NULL) {
+    result << "thrift_spec[" << tfield->get_key() << "][4]";
+  } else {
+    result << "None";
+  }
+  return result.str();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Renders a field default value, returns None otherwise.
+ *
+ * @param tfield The field
+ */
+string t_py_generator::render_field_default_value(t_field* tfield) {
+  t_type* type = get_true_type(tfield->get_type());
+  if (tfield->get_value() != NULL) {
+    return render_const_value(type, tfield->get_value());
+  } else {
+    return "None";
+  }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Renders a function signature of the form 'type name(args)'
+ *
+ * @param tfunction Function definition
+ * @return String of rendered function definition
+ */
+string t_py_generator::function_signature(t_function* tfunction, bool interface) {
+  vector<string> pre;
+  vector<string> post;
+  string signature = tfunction->get_name() + "(";
+
+  if (!(gen_twisted_ && interface)) {
+    pre.push_back("self");
+  }
+
+  signature += argument_list(tfunction->get_arglist(), &pre, &post) + ")";
+  return signature;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Renders a field list
+ */
+string t_py_generator::argument_list(t_struct* tstruct, vector<string>* pre, vector<string>* post) {
+  string result = "";
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+  vector<string>::const_iterator s_iter;
+  bool first = true;
+  if (pre) {
+    for (s_iter = pre->begin(); s_iter != pre->end(); ++s_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        result += ", ";
+      }
+      result += *s_iter;
+    }
+  }
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (first) {
+      first = false;
+    } else {
+      result += ", ";
+    }
+    result += (*f_iter)->get_name();
+  }
+  if (post) {
+    for (s_iter = post->begin(); s_iter != post->end(); ++s_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+      } else {
+        result += ", ";
+      }
+      result += *s_iter;
+    }
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+string t_py_generator::type_name(t_type* ttype) {
+  while (ttype->is_typedef()) {
+    ttype = ((t_typedef*)ttype)->get_type();
+  }
+
+  t_program* program = ttype->get_program();
+  if (ttype->is_service()) {
+    return get_real_py_module(program, gen_twisted_) + "." + ttype->get_name();
+  }
+  if (program != NULL && program != program_) {
+    return get_real_py_module(program, gen_twisted_) + ".ttypes." + ttype->get_name();
+  }
+  return ttype->get_name();
+}
+
+/**
+ * Converts the parse type to a Python tyoe
+ */
+string t_py_generator::type_to_enum(t_type* type) {
+  type = get_true_type(type);
+
+  if (type->is_base_type()) {
+    t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+    switch (tbase) {
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_VOID:
+      throw "NO T_VOID CONSTRUCT";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+      return "TType.STRING";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+      return "TType.BOOL";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+      return "TType.BYTE";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+      return "TType.I16";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+      return "TType.I32";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+      return "TType.I64";
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+      return "TType.DOUBLE";
+    }
+  } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+    return "TType.I32";
+  } else if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    return "TType.STRUCT";
+  } else if (type->is_map()) {
+    return "TType.MAP";
+  } else if (type->is_set()) {
+    return "TType.SET";
+  } else if (type->is_list()) {
+    return "TType.LIST";
+  }
+
+  throw "INVALID TYPE IN type_to_enum: " + type->get_name();
+}
+
+/** See the comment inside generate_py_struct_definition for what this is. */
+string t_py_generator::type_to_spec_args(t_type* ttype) {
+  while (ttype->is_typedef()) {
+    ttype = ((t_typedef*)ttype)->get_type();
+  }
+
+  if (ttype->is_base_type() || ttype->is_enum()) {
+    return "None";
+  } else if (ttype->is_struct() || ttype->is_xception()) {
+    return "(" + type_name(ttype) + ", " + type_name(ttype) + ".thrift_spec)";
+  } else if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    return "(" + type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_key_type()) + ","
+           + type_to_spec_args(((t_map*)ttype)->get_key_type()) + ","
+           + type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_val_type()) + ","
+           + type_to_spec_args(((t_map*)ttype)->get_val_type()) + ")";
+
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    return "(" + type_to_enum(((t_set*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) + ","
+           + type_to_spec_args(((t_set*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) + ")";
+
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    return "(" + type_to_enum(((t_list*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) + ","
+           + type_to_spec_args(((t_list*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) + ")";
+  }
+
+  throw "INVALID TYPE IN type_to_spec_args: " + ttype->get_name();
+}
+
+THRIFT_REGISTER_GENERATOR(
+    py,
+    "Python",
+    "    new_style:       Generate new-style classes.\n"
+    "    twisted:         Generate Twisted-friendly RPC services.\n"
+    "    tornado:         Generate code for use with Tornado.\n"
+    "    utf8strings:     Encode/decode strings using utf8 in the generated code.\n"
+    "    coding=CODING:   Add file encoding declare in generated file.\n"
+    "    slots:           Generate code using slots for instance members.\n"
+    "    dynamic:         Generate dynamic code, less code generated but slower.\n"
+    "    dynbase=CLS      Derive generated classes from class CLS instead of TBase.\n"
+    "    dynexc=CLS       Derive generated exceptions from CLS instead of TExceptionBase.\n"
+    "    dynimport='from foo.bar import CLS'\n"
+    "                     Add an import line to generated code to find the dynbase class.\n")



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