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From r...@apache.org
Subject [41/51] [abbrv] [partial] incubator-hawq git commit: HAWQ-735. Import thrift-0.9.3 into depends/thirdparty/thrift folder
Date Wed, 18 May 2016 02:50:54 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/d709f67d/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_csharp_generator.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_csharp_generator.cc b/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_csharp_generator.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6a21801
--- /dev/null
+++ b/depends/thirdparty/thrift/compiler/cpp/src/generate/t_csharp_generator.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,2867 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ *
+ * Contains some contributions under the Thrift Software License.
+ * Please see doc/old-thrift-license.txt in the Thrift distribution for
+ * details.
+ */
+
+#include <cassert>
+
+#include <string>
+#include <fstream>
+#include <iostream>
+#include <vector>
+#include <cctype>
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sstream>
+
+#include "platform.h"
+#include "t_oop_generator.h"
+
+using std::map;
+using std::ofstream;
+using std::ostringstream;
+using std::string;
+using std::stringstream;
+using std::vector;
+
+static const string endl = "\n"; // avoid ostream << std::endl flushes
+
+class t_csharp_generator : public t_oop_generator {
+public:
+  t_csharp_generator(t_program* program,
+                     const std::map<std::string, std::string>& parsed_options,
+                     const std::string& option_string)
+    : t_oop_generator(program) {
+    (void)option_string;
+
+    std::map<std::string, std::string>::const_iterator iter;
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("async");
+    async_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+    iter = parsed_options.find("asyncctp");
+    async_ctp_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+    if (async_ && async_ctp_) {
+      throw "argument error: Cannot specify both async and asyncctp; they are incompatible.";
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("nullable");
+    nullable_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("hashcode");
+    hashcode_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("union");
+    union_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("serial");
+    serialize_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+    if (serialize_) {
+      wcf_namespace_ = iter->second; // since there can be only one namespace
+    }
+
+    iter = parsed_options.find("wcf");
+    wcf_ = (iter != parsed_options.end());
+    if (wcf_) {
+      wcf_namespace_ = iter->second;
+    }
+
+    out_dir_base_ = "gen-csharp";
+  }
+  void init_generator();
+  void close_generator();
+
+  void generate_consts(std::vector<t_const*> consts);
+
+  void generate_typedef(t_typedef* ttypedef);
+  void generate_enum(t_enum* tenum);
+  void generate_struct(t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_union(t_struct* tunion);
+  void generate_xception(t_struct* txception);
+  void generate_service(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_property(ofstream& out, t_field* tfield, bool isPublic, bool generateIsset);
+  void generate_csharp_property(ofstream& out,
+                                t_field* tfield,
+                                bool isPublic,
+                                bool includeIsset = true,
+                                std::string fieldPrefix = "");
+  bool print_const_value(std::ofstream& out,
+                         std::string name,
+                         t_type* type,
+                         t_const_value* value,
+                         bool in_static,
+                         bool defval = false,
+                         bool needtype = false);
+  std::string render_const_value(std::ofstream& out,
+                                 std::string name,
+                                 t_type* type,
+                                 t_const_value* value);
+  void print_const_constructor(std::ofstream& out, std::vector<t_const*> consts);
+  void print_const_def_value(std::ofstream& out,
+                             std::string name,
+                             t_type* type,
+                             t_const_value* value);
+
+  void generate_csharp_struct(t_struct* tstruct, bool is_exception);
+  void generate_csharp_union(t_struct* tunion);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_definition(std::ofstream& out,
+                                         t_struct* tstruct,
+                                         bool is_xception = false,
+                                         bool in_class = false,
+                                         bool is_result = false);
+  void generate_csharp_union_definition(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tunion);
+  void generate_csharp_union_class(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tunion, t_field* tfield);
+  void generate_csharp_wcffault(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_reader(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_result_writer(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_writer(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_tostring(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_equals(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_struct_hashcode(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct);
+  void generate_csharp_union_reader(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tunion);
+
+  void generate_function_helpers(t_function* tfunction);
+  void generate_service_interface(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_helpers(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_client(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_service_server(t_service* tservice);
+  void generate_process_function(t_service* tservice, t_function* function);
+
+  void generate_deserialize_field(std::ofstream& out,
+                                  t_field* tfield,
+                                  std::string prefix = "",
+                                  bool is_propertyless = false);
+  void generate_deserialize_struct(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_deserialize_container(std::ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_deserialize_set_element(std::ofstream& out, t_set* tset, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_deserialize_map_element(std::ofstream& out, t_map* tmap, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_deserialize_list_element(std::ofstream& out, t_list* list, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_serialize_field(std::ofstream& out,
+                                t_field* tfield,
+                                std::string prefix = "",
+                                bool is_element = false,
+                                bool is_propertyless = false);
+  void generate_serialize_struct(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_serialize_container(std::ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, std::string prefix = "");
+  void generate_serialize_map_element(std::ofstream& out,
+                                      t_map* tmap,
+                                      std::string iter,
+                                      std::string map);
+  void generate_serialize_set_element(std::ofstream& out, t_set* tmap, std::string iter);
+  void generate_serialize_list_element(std::ofstream& out, t_list* tlist, std::string iter);
+
+  void generate_csharp_doc(std::ofstream& out, t_field* field);
+  void generate_csharp_doc(std::ofstream& out, t_doc* tdoc);
+  void generate_csharp_doc(std::ofstream& out, t_function* tdoc);
+  void generate_csharp_docstring_comment(std::ofstream& out, string contents);
+
+  void start_csharp_namespace(std::ofstream& out);
+  void end_csharp_namespace(std::ofstream& out);
+
+  std::string csharp_type_usings();
+  std::string csharp_thrift_usings();
+
+  std::string type_name(t_type* ttype,
+                        bool in_countainer = false,
+                        bool in_init = false,
+                        bool in_param = false,
+                        bool is_required = false);
+  std::string base_type_name(t_base_type* tbase,
+                             bool in_container = false,
+                             bool in_param = false,
+                             bool is_required = false);
+  std::string declare_field(t_field* tfield, bool init = false, std::string prefix = "");
+  std::string function_signature_async_begin(t_function* tfunction, std::string prefix = "");
+  std::string function_signature_async_end(t_function* tfunction, std::string prefix = "");
+  std::string function_signature_async(t_function* tfunction, std::string prefix = "");
+  std::string function_signature(t_function* tfunction, std::string prefix = "");
+  std::string argument_list(t_struct* tstruct);
+  std::string type_to_enum(t_type* ttype);
+  std::string prop_name(t_field* tfield, bool suppress_mapping = false);
+  std::string get_enum_class_name(t_type* type);
+
+  bool field_has_default(t_field* tfield) { return tfield->get_value() != NULL; }
+
+  bool field_is_required(t_field* tfield) { return tfield->get_req() == t_field::T_REQUIRED; }
+
+  bool type_can_be_null(t_type* ttype) {
+    while (ttype->is_typedef()) {
+      ttype = ((t_typedef*)ttype)->get_type();
+    }
+
+    return ttype->is_container() || ttype->is_struct() || ttype->is_xception()
+           || ttype->is_string();
+  }
+
+private:
+  std::string namespace_name_;
+  std::ofstream f_service_;
+  std::string namespace_dir_;
+  bool async_;
+  bool async_ctp_;
+  bool nullable_;
+  bool union_;
+  bool hashcode_;
+  bool serialize_;
+  bool wcf_;
+  std::string wcf_namespace_;
+
+  std::map<std::string, int> csharp_keywords;
+
+  void* member_mapping_scope;
+  std::map<std::string, std::string> member_name_mapping;
+
+  void init_keywords();
+  std::string normalize_name(std::string name);
+  std::string make_valid_csharp_identifier(std::string const& fromName);
+  void prepare_member_name_mapping(t_struct* tstruct);
+  void prepare_member_name_mapping(void* scope,
+                                   const vector<t_field*>& members,
+                                   const string& structname);
+  void cleanup_member_name_mapping(void* scope);
+  string get_mapped_member_name(string oldname);
+};
+
+void t_csharp_generator::init_generator() {
+  MKDIR(get_out_dir().c_str());
+  namespace_name_ = program_->get_namespace("csharp");
+
+  string dir = namespace_name_;
+  string subdir = get_out_dir().c_str();
+  string::size_type loc;
+
+  while ((loc = dir.find(".")) != string::npos) {
+    subdir = subdir + "/" + dir.substr(0, loc);
+    MKDIR(subdir.c_str());
+    dir = dir.substr(loc + 1);
+  }
+  if (dir.size() > 0) {
+    subdir = subdir + "/" + dir;
+    MKDIR(subdir.c_str());
+  }
+
+  namespace_dir_ = subdir;
+  init_keywords();
+  member_mapping_scope = NULL;
+
+  pverbose("C# options:\n");
+  pverbose("- async ...... %s\n", (async_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- async_ctp .. %s\n", (async_ctp_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- nullable ... %s\n", (nullable_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- union ...... %s\n", (union_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- hashcode ... %s\n", (hashcode_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- serialize .. %s\n", (serialize_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+  pverbose("- wcf ........ %s\n", (wcf_ ? "ON" : "off"));
+}
+
+std::string t_csharp_generator::normalize_name(std::string name) {
+  string tmp(name);
+  std::transform(tmp.begin(), tmp.end(), tmp.begin(), static_cast<int (*)(int)>(std::tolower));
+
+  // un-conflict keywords by prefixing with "@"
+  if (csharp_keywords.find(tmp) != csharp_keywords.end()) {
+    return "@" + name;
+  }
+
+  // no changes necessary
+  return name;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::init_keywords() {
+  csharp_keywords.clear();
+
+  // C# keywords
+  csharp_keywords["abstract"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["as"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["base"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["bool"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["break"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["byte"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["case"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["catch"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["char"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["checked"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["class"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["const"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["continue"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["decimal"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["default"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["delegate"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["do"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["double"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["else"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["enum"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["event"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["explicit"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["extern"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["false"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["finally"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["fixed"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["float"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["for"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["foreach"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["goto"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["if"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["implicit"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["in"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["int"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["interface"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["internal"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["is"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["lock"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["long"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["namespace"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["new"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["null"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["object"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["operator"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["out"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["override"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["params"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["private"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["protected"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["public"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["readonly"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["ref"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["return"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["sbyte"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["sealed"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["short"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["sizeof"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["stackalloc"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["static"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["string"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["struct"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["switch"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["this"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["throw"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["true"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["try"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["typeof"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["uint"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["ulong"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["unchecked"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["unsafe"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["ushort"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["using"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["virtual"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["void"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["volatile"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["while"] = 1;
+
+  // C# contextual keywords
+  csharp_keywords["add"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["alias"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["ascending"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["async"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["await"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["descending"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["dynamic"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["from"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["get"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["global"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["group"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["into"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["join"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["let"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["orderby"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["partial"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["remove"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["select"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["set"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["value"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["var"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["where"] = 1;
+  csharp_keywords["yield"] = 1;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::start_csharp_namespace(ofstream& out) {
+  if (!namespace_name_.empty()) {
+    out << "namespace " << namespace_name_ << "\n";
+    scope_up(out);
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::end_csharp_namespace(ofstream& out) {
+  if (!namespace_name_.empty()) {
+    scope_down(out);
+  }
+}
+
+string t_csharp_generator::csharp_type_usings() {
+  return string() + "using System;\n" + "using System.Collections;\n"
+         + "using System.Collections.Generic;\n" + "using System.Text;\n" + "using System.IO;\n"
+         + ((async_ || async_ctp_) ? "using System.Threading.Tasks;\n" : "") + "using Thrift;\n"
+         + "using Thrift.Collections;\n" + ((serialize_ || wcf_) ? "#if !SILVERLIGHT\n" : "")
+         + ((serialize_ || wcf_) ? "using System.Xml.Serialization;\n" : "")
+         + ((serialize_ || wcf_) ? "#endif\n" : "") + (wcf_ ? "//using System.ServiceModel;\n" : "")
+         + "using System.Runtime.Serialization;\n";
+}
+
+string t_csharp_generator::csharp_thrift_usings() {
+  return string() + "using Thrift.Protocol;\n" + "using Thrift.Transport;\n";
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::close_generator() {
+}
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_typedef(t_typedef* ttypedef) {
+  (void)ttypedef;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_enum(t_enum* tenum) {
+  string f_enum_name = namespace_dir_ + "/" + (tenum->get_name()) + ".cs";
+  ofstream f_enum;
+  f_enum.open(f_enum_name.c_str());
+
+  f_enum << autogen_comment() << endl;
+
+  start_csharp_namespace(f_enum);
+
+  generate_csharp_doc(f_enum, tenum);
+
+  indent(f_enum) << "public enum " << tenum->get_name() << "\n";
+  scope_up(f_enum);
+
+  vector<t_enum_value*> constants = tenum->get_constants();
+  vector<t_enum_value*>::iterator c_iter;
+  for (c_iter = constants.begin(); c_iter != constants.end(); ++c_iter) {
+    generate_csharp_doc(f_enum, *c_iter);
+
+    int value = (*c_iter)->get_value();
+    indent(f_enum) << (*c_iter)->get_name() << " = " << value << "," << endl;
+  }
+
+  scope_down(f_enum);
+
+  end_csharp_namespace(f_enum);
+
+  f_enum.close();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_consts(std::vector<t_const*> consts) {
+  if (consts.empty()) {
+    return;
+  }
+  string f_consts_name = namespace_dir_ + '/' + program_name_ + ".Constants.cs";
+  ofstream f_consts;
+  f_consts.open(f_consts_name.c_str());
+
+  f_consts << autogen_comment() << csharp_type_usings() << endl;
+
+  start_csharp_namespace(f_consts);
+
+  indent(f_consts) << "public static class " << make_valid_csharp_identifier(program_name_)
+                   << "Constants" << endl;
+  scope_up(f_consts);
+
+  vector<t_const*>::iterator c_iter;
+  bool need_static_constructor = false;
+  for (c_iter = consts.begin(); c_iter != consts.end(); ++c_iter) {
+    generate_csharp_doc(f_consts, (*c_iter));
+    if (print_const_value(f_consts,
+                          (*c_iter)->get_name(),
+                          (*c_iter)->get_type(),
+                          (*c_iter)->get_value(),
+                          false)) {
+      need_static_constructor = true;
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (need_static_constructor) {
+    print_const_constructor(f_consts, consts);
+  }
+
+  scope_down(f_consts);
+  end_csharp_namespace(f_consts);
+  f_consts.close();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::print_const_def_value(std::ofstream& out,
+                                               string name,
+                                               t_type* type,
+                                               t_const_value* value) {
+  if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    const vector<t_field*>& fields = ((t_struct*)type)->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+    const map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>& val = value->get_map();
+    map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    prepare_member_name_mapping((t_struct*)type);
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      t_field* field = NULL;
+      for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+        if ((*f_iter)->get_name() == v_iter->first->get_string()) {
+          field = (*f_iter);
+        }
+      }
+      if (field == NULL) {
+        throw "type error: " + type->get_name() + " has no field " + v_iter->first->get_string();
+      }
+      t_type* field_type = field->get_type();
+      string val = render_const_value(out, name, field_type, v_iter->second);
+      indent(out) << name << "." << prop_name(field) << " = " << val << ";" << endl;
+    }
+    cleanup_member_name_mapping((t_struct*)type);
+  } else if (type->is_map()) {
+    t_type* ktype = ((t_map*)type)->get_key_type();
+    t_type* vtype = ((t_map*)type)->get_val_type();
+    const map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>& val = value->get_map();
+    map<t_const_value*, t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      string key = render_const_value(out, name, ktype, v_iter->first);
+      string val = render_const_value(out, name, vtype, v_iter->second);
+      indent(out) << name << "[" << key << "]"
+                  << " = " << val << ";" << endl;
+    }
+  } else if (type->is_list() || type->is_set()) {
+    t_type* etype;
+    if (type->is_list()) {
+      etype = ((t_list*)type)->get_elem_type();
+    } else {
+      etype = ((t_set*)type)->get_elem_type();
+    }
+
+    const vector<t_const_value*>& val = value->get_list();
+    vector<t_const_value*>::const_iterator v_iter;
+    for (v_iter = val.begin(); v_iter != val.end(); ++v_iter) {
+      string val = render_const_value(out, name, etype, *v_iter);
+      indent(out) << name << ".Add(" << val << ");" << endl;
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::print_const_constructor(std::ofstream& out, std::vector<t_const*> consts) {
+  indent(out) << "static " << make_valid_csharp_identifier(program_name_).c_str() << "Constants()"
+              << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  vector<t_const*>::iterator c_iter;
+  for (c_iter = consts.begin(); c_iter != consts.end(); ++c_iter) {
+    string name = (*c_iter)->get_name();
+    t_type* type = (*c_iter)->get_type();
+    t_const_value* value = (*c_iter)->get_value();
+
+    print_const_def_value(out, name, type, value);
+  }
+  scope_down(out);
+}
+
+// it seems like all that methods that call this are using in_static to be the opposite of what it
+// would imply
+bool t_csharp_generator::print_const_value(std::ofstream& out,
+                                           string name,
+                                           t_type* type,
+                                           t_const_value* value,
+                                           bool in_static,
+                                           bool defval,
+                                           bool needtype) {
+  indent(out);
+  bool need_static_construction = !in_static;
+  while (type->is_typedef()) {
+    type = ((t_typedef*)type)->get_type();
+  }
+
+  if (!defval || needtype) {
+    out << (in_static ? "" : type->is_base_type() ? "public const " : "public static ")
+        << type_name(type) << " ";
+  }
+  if (type->is_base_type()) {
+    string v2 = render_const_value(out, name, type, value);
+    out << name << " = " << v2 << ";" << endl;
+    need_static_construction = false;
+  } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+    out << name << " = " << type_name(type, false, true) << "." << value->get_identifier_name()
+        << ";" << endl;
+    need_static_construction = false;
+  } else if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    out << name << " = new " << type_name(type) << "();" << endl;
+  } else if (type->is_map()) {
+    out << name << " = new " << type_name(type, true, true) << "();" << endl;
+  } else if (type->is_list() || type->is_set()) {
+    out << name << " = new " << type_name(type) << "();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (defval && !type->is_base_type() && !type->is_enum()) {
+    print_const_def_value(out, name, type, value);
+  }
+
+  return need_static_construction;
+}
+
+std::string t_csharp_generator::render_const_value(ofstream& out,
+                                                   string name,
+                                                   t_type* type,
+                                                   t_const_value* value) {
+  (void)name;
+  std::ostringstream render;
+
+  if (type->is_base_type()) {
+    t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+    switch (tbase) {
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+      render << '"' << get_escaped_string(value) << '"';
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+      render << ((value->get_integer() > 0) ? "true" : "false");
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+      render << value->get_integer();
+      break;
+    case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+      if (value->get_type() == t_const_value::CV_INTEGER) {
+        render << value->get_integer();
+      } else {
+        render << value->get_double();
+      }
+      break;
+    default:
+      throw "compiler error: no const of base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+    }
+  } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+    render << type->get_name() << "." << value->get_identifier_name();
+  } else {
+    string t = tmp("tmp");
+    print_const_value(out, t, type, value, true, true, true);
+    render << t;
+  }
+
+  return render.str();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_struct(t_struct* tstruct) {
+  if (union_ && tstruct->is_union()) {
+    generate_csharp_union(tstruct);
+  } else {
+    generate_csharp_struct(tstruct, false);
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_xception(t_struct* txception) {
+  generate_csharp_struct(txception, true);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct(t_struct* tstruct, bool is_exception) {
+  string f_struct_name = namespace_dir_ + "/" + (tstruct->get_name()) + ".cs";
+  ofstream f_struct;
+
+  f_struct.open(f_struct_name.c_str());
+
+  f_struct << autogen_comment() << csharp_type_usings() << csharp_thrift_usings() << endl;
+
+  generate_csharp_struct_definition(f_struct, tstruct, is_exception);
+
+  f_struct.close();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_definition(ofstream& out,
+                                                           t_struct* tstruct,
+                                                           bool is_exception,
+                                                           bool in_class,
+                                                           bool is_result) {
+
+  if (!in_class) {
+    start_csharp_namespace(out);
+  }
+
+  out << endl;
+
+  generate_csharp_doc(out, tstruct);
+  prepare_member_name_mapping(tstruct);
+
+  indent(out) << "#if !SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "[Serializable]" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "#endif" << endl;
+  if ((serialize_ || wcf_) && !is_exception) {
+    indent(out) << "[DataContract(Namespace=\"" << wcf_namespace_ << "\")]"
+                << endl; // do not make exception classes directly WCF serializable, we provide a
+                         // separate "fault" for that
+  }
+  bool is_final = (tstruct->annotations_.find("final") != tstruct->annotations_.end());
+
+  indent(out) << "public " << (is_final ? "sealed " : "") << "partial class "
+              << normalize_name(tstruct->get_name()) << " : ";
+
+  if (is_exception) {
+    out << "TException, ";
+  }
+  out << "TBase";
+
+  out << endl;
+
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& members = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator m_iter;
+
+  // make private members with public Properties
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    // if the field is requied, then we use auto-properties
+    if (!field_is_required((*m_iter)) && (!nullable_ || field_has_default((*m_iter)))) {
+      indent(out) << "private " << declare_field(*m_iter, false, "_") << endl;
+    }
+  }
+  out << endl;
+
+  bool has_non_required_fields = false;
+  bool has_non_required_default_value_fields = false;
+  bool has_required_fields = false;
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    generate_csharp_doc(out, *m_iter);
+    generate_property(out, *m_iter, true, true);
+    bool is_required = field_is_required((*m_iter));
+    bool has_default = field_has_default((*m_iter));
+    if (is_required) {
+      has_required_fields = true;
+    } else {
+      if (has_default) {
+        has_non_required_default_value_fields = true;
+      }
+      has_non_required_fields = true;
+    }
+  }
+
+  bool generate_isset = (nullable_ && has_non_required_default_value_fields)
+                        || (!nullable_ && has_non_required_fields);
+  if (generate_isset) {
+    out << endl;
+    if (serialize_ || wcf_) {
+      out << indent() << "[XmlIgnore] // XmlSerializer" << endl << indent()
+          << "[DataMember(Order = 1)]  // XmlObjectSerializer, DataContractJsonSerializer, etc."
+          << endl;
+    }
+    out << indent() << "public Isset __isset;" << endl << indent() << "#if !SILVERLIGHT" << endl
+        << indent() << "[Serializable]" << endl << indent() << "#endif" << endl;
+    if (serialize_ || wcf_) {
+      indent(out) << "[DataContract]" << endl;
+    }
+    indent(out) << "public struct Isset {" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      bool is_required = field_is_required((*m_iter));
+      bool has_default = field_has_default((*m_iter));
+      // if it is required, don't need Isset for that variable
+      // if it is not required, if it has a default value, we need to generate Isset
+      // if we are not nullable, then we generate Isset
+      if (!is_required && (!nullable_ || has_default)) {
+        if (serialize_ || wcf_) {
+          indent(out) << "[DataMember]" << endl;
+        }
+        indent(out) << "public bool " << normalize_name((*m_iter)->get_name()) << ";" << endl;
+      }
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+    if (generate_isset && (serialize_ || wcf_)) {
+      indent(out) << "#region XmlSerializer support" << endl << endl;
+
+      for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+        bool is_required = field_is_required((*m_iter));
+        bool has_default = field_has_default((*m_iter));
+        // if it is required, don't need Isset for that variable
+        // if it is not required, if it has a default value, we need to generate Isset
+        // if we are not nullable, then we generate Isset
+        if (!is_required && (!nullable_ || has_default)) {
+          indent(out) << "public bool ShouldSerialize" << prop_name((*m_iter)) << "()" << endl;
+          indent(out) << "{" << endl;
+          indent_up();
+          indent(out) << "return __isset." << normalize_name((*m_iter)->get_name()) << ";" << endl;
+          indent_down();
+          indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      indent(out) << "#endregion XmlSerializer support" << endl << endl;
+    }
+  }
+
+  // We always want a default, no argument constructor for Reading
+  indent(out) << "public " << normalize_name(tstruct->get_name()) << "() {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    t_type* t = (*m_iter)->get_type();
+    while (t->is_typedef()) {
+      t = ((t_typedef*)t)->get_type();
+    }
+    if ((*m_iter)->get_value() != NULL) {
+      if (field_is_required((*m_iter))) {
+        print_const_value(out, "this." + prop_name(*m_iter), t, (*m_iter)->get_value(), true, true);
+      } else {
+        print_const_value(out,
+                          "this._" + (*m_iter)->get_name(),
+                          t,
+                          (*m_iter)->get_value(),
+                          true,
+                          true);
+        // Optionals with defaults are marked set
+        indent(out) << "this.__isset." << normalize_name((*m_iter)->get_name()) << " = true;"
+                    << endl;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+  if (has_required_fields) {
+    indent(out) << "public " << tstruct->get_name() << "(";
+    bool first = true;
+    for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      if (field_is_required((*m_iter))) {
+        if (first) {
+          first = false;
+        } else {
+          out << ", ";
+        }
+        out << type_name((*m_iter)->get_type()) << " " << (*m_iter)->get_name();
+      }
+    }
+    out << ") : this() {" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+      if (field_is_required((*m_iter))) {
+        indent(out) << "this." << prop_name((*m_iter)) << " = " << (*m_iter)->get_name() << ";"
+                    << endl;
+      }
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+    indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+  }
+
+  generate_csharp_struct_reader(out, tstruct);
+  if (is_result) {
+    generate_csharp_struct_result_writer(out, tstruct);
+  } else {
+    generate_csharp_struct_writer(out, tstruct);
+  }
+  if (hashcode_) {
+    generate_csharp_struct_equals(out, tstruct);
+    generate_csharp_struct_hashcode(out, tstruct);
+  }
+  generate_csharp_struct_tostring(out, tstruct);
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << endl;
+
+  // generate a corresponding WCF fault to wrap the exception
+  if ((serialize_ || wcf_) && is_exception) {
+    generate_csharp_wcffault(out, tstruct);
+  }
+
+  cleanup_member_name_mapping(tstruct);
+  if (!in_class) {
+    end_csharp_namespace(out);
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_wcffault(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  out << endl;
+  indent(out) << "#if !SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "[Serializable]" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "#endif" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "[DataContract]" << endl;
+  bool is_final = (tstruct->annotations_.find("final") != tstruct->annotations_.end());
+
+  indent(out) << "public " << (is_final ? "sealed " : "") << "partial class " << tstruct->get_name()
+              << "Fault" << endl;
+
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& members = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator m_iter;
+
+  // make private members with public Properties
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    indent(out) << "private " << declare_field(*m_iter, false, "_") << endl;
+  }
+  out << endl;
+
+  for (m_iter = members.begin(); m_iter != members.end(); ++m_iter) {
+    generate_property(out, *m_iter, true, false);
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_reader(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "public void Read (TProtocol iprot)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  out << indent() << "iprot.IncrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  out << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  // Required variables aren't in __isset, so we need tmp vars to check them
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (field_is_required((*f_iter))) {
+      indent(out) << "bool isset_" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " = false;" << endl;
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "TField field;" << endl << indent() << "iprot.ReadStructBegin();" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "while (true)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "field = iprot.ReadFieldBegin();" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "if (field.Type == TType.Stop) { " << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "break;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "switch (field.ID)" << endl;
+
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    bool is_required = field_is_required((*f_iter));
+    indent(out) << "case " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    indent(out) << "if (field.Type == " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type()) << ") {" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    generate_deserialize_field(out, *f_iter);
+    if (is_required) {
+      indent(out) << "isset_" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " = true;" << endl;
+    }
+
+    indent_down();
+    out << indent() << "} else { " << endl << indent() << "  TProtocolUtil.Skip(iprot, field.Type);"
+        << endl << indent() << "}" << endl << indent() << "break;" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "default: " << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "TProtocolUtil.Skip(iprot, field.Type);" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "break;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadFieldEnd();" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadStructEnd();" << endl;
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (field_is_required((*f_iter))) {
+      indent(out) << "if (!isset_" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << ")" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      indent(out) << "throw new TProtocolException(TProtocolException.INVALID_DATA);" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+    }
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << indent() << "finally" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  out << indent() << "iprot.DecrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_writer(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  out << indent() << "public void Write(TProtocol oprot) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  
+  out << indent() << "oprot.IncrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  out << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  string name = tstruct->get_name();
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_sorted_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  indent(out) << "TStruct struc = new TStruct(\"" << name << "\");" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteStructBegin(struc);" << endl;
+
+  if (fields.size() > 0) {
+    indent(out) << "TField field = new TField();" << endl;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      bool is_required = field_is_required((*f_iter));
+      bool has_default = field_has_default((*f_iter));
+      if (nullable_ && !has_default && !is_required) {
+        indent(out) << "if (" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " != null) {" << endl;
+        indent_up();
+      } else if (!is_required) {
+        bool null_allowed = type_can_be_null((*f_iter)->get_type());
+        if (null_allowed) {
+          indent(out) << "if (" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " != null && __isset."
+                      << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") {" << endl;
+          indent_up();
+        } else {
+          indent(out) << "if (__isset." << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") {" << endl;
+          indent_up();
+        }
+      }
+      indent(out) << "field.Name = \"" << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "\";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "field.Type = " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type()) << ";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "field.ID = " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldBegin(field);" << endl;
+
+      generate_serialize_field(out, *f_iter);
+
+      indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldEnd();" << endl;
+      if (!is_required) {
+        indent_down();
+        indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldStop();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteStructEnd();" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << indent() << "finally" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  out << indent() << "oprot.DecrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent_down();
+  
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_result_writer(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "public void Write(TProtocol oprot) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  out << indent() << "oprot.IncrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  out << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  string name = tstruct->get_name();
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_sorted_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  indent(out) << "TStruct struc = new TStruct(\"" << name << "\");" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteStructBegin(struc);" << endl;
+
+  if (fields.size() > 0) {
+    indent(out) << "TField field = new TField();" << endl;
+    bool first = true;
+    for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+      if (first) {
+        first = false;
+        out << endl << indent() << "if ";
+      } else {
+        out << " else if ";
+      }
+
+      if (nullable_) {
+        out << "(this." << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " != null) {" << endl;
+      } else {
+        out << "(this.__isset." << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") {" << endl;
+      }
+      indent_up();
+
+      bool null_allowed = !nullable_ && type_can_be_null((*f_iter)->get_type());
+      if (null_allowed) {
+        indent(out) << "if (" << prop_name(*f_iter) << " != null) {" << endl;
+        indent_up();
+      }
+
+      indent(out) << "field.Name = \"" << prop_name(*f_iter) << "\";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "field.Type = " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type()) << ";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "field.ID = " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ";" << endl;
+      indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldBegin(field);" << endl;
+
+      generate_serialize_field(out, *f_iter);
+
+      indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldEnd();" << endl;
+
+      if (null_allowed) {
+        indent_down();
+        indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+      }
+
+      indent_down();
+      indent(out) << "}";
+    }
+  }
+
+  out << endl << indent() << "oprot.WriteFieldStop();" << endl << indent()
+      << "oprot.WriteStructEnd();" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << indent() << "finally" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  out << indent() << "oprot.DecrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_tostring(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "public override string ToString() {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "StringBuilder __sb = new StringBuilder(\"" << tstruct->get_name() << "(\");"
+              << endl;
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  bool useFirstFlag = false;
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (!field_is_required((*f_iter))) {
+      indent(out) << "bool __first = true;" << endl;
+      useFirstFlag = true;
+    }
+    break;
+  }
+
+  bool had_required = false; // set to true after first required field has been processed
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    bool is_required = field_is_required((*f_iter));
+    bool has_default = field_has_default((*f_iter));
+    if (nullable_ && !has_default && !is_required) {
+      indent(out) << "if (" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " != null) {" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+    } else if (!is_required) {
+      bool null_allowed = type_can_be_null((*f_iter)->get_type());
+      if (null_allowed) {
+        indent(out) << "if (" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " != null && __isset."
+                    << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") {" << endl;
+        indent_up();
+      } else {
+        indent(out) << "if (__isset." << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") {" << endl;
+        indent_up();
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (useFirstFlag && (!had_required)) {
+      indent(out) << "if(!__first) { __sb.Append(\", \"); }" << endl;
+      if (!is_required) {
+        indent(out) << "__first = false;" << endl;
+      }
+      indent(out) << "__sb.Append(\"" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ": \");" << endl;
+    } else {
+      indent(out) << "__sb.Append(\", " << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ": \");" << endl;
+    }
+
+    t_type* ttype = (*f_iter)->get_type();
+    if (ttype->is_xception() || ttype->is_struct()) {
+      indent(out) << "__sb.Append(" << prop_name((*f_iter))
+                  << "== null ? \"<null>\" : " << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ".ToString());" << endl;
+    } else {
+      indent(out) << "__sb.Append(" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ");" << endl;
+    }
+
+    if (!is_required) {
+      indent_down();
+      indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+    } else {
+      had_required = true; // now __first must be false, so we don't need to check it anymore
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "__sb.Append(\")\");" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "return __sb.ToString();" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_union(t_struct* tunion) {
+  string f_union_name = namespace_dir_ + "/" + (tunion->get_name()) + ".cs";
+  ofstream f_union;
+
+  f_union.open(f_union_name.c_str());
+
+  f_union << autogen_comment() << csharp_type_usings() << csharp_thrift_usings() << endl;
+
+  generate_csharp_union_definition(f_union, tunion);
+
+  f_union.close();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_union_definition(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tunion) {
+  // Let's define the class first
+  start_csharp_namespace(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "public abstract partial class " << tunion->get_name() << " : TAbstractBase {"
+              << endl;
+
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "public abstract void Write(TProtocol protocol);" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "public readonly bool Isset;" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "public abstract object Data { get; }" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "protected " << tunion->get_name() << "(bool isset) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "Isset = isset;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "public class ___undefined : " << tunion->get_name() << " {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "public override object Data { get { return null; } }" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "public ___undefined() : base(false) {}" << endl << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "public override void Write(TProtocol protocol) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "throw new TProtocolException( TProtocolException.INVALID_DATA, \"Cannot persist "
+                 "an union type which is not set.\");" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tunion->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    generate_csharp_union_class(out, tunion, (*f_iter));
+  }
+
+  generate_csharp_union_reader(out, tunion);
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+
+  end_csharp_namespace(out);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_union_class(std::ofstream& out,
+                                                     t_struct* tunion,
+                                                     t_field* tfield) {
+  indent(out) << "public class " << tfield->get_name() << " : " << tunion->get_name() << " {"
+              << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "private " << type_name(tfield->get_type()) << " _data;" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "public override object Data { get { return _data; } }" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "public " << tfield->get_name() << "(" << type_name(tfield->get_type())
+              << " data) : base(true) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "this._data = data;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "public override void Write(TProtocol oprot) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  out << indent() << "oprot.IncrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  out << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "TStruct struc = new TStruct(\"" << tunion->get_name() << "\");" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteStructBegin(struc);" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "TField field = new TField();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "field.Name = \"" << tfield->get_name() << "\";" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "field.Type = " << type_to_enum(tfield->get_type()) << ";" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "field.ID = " << tfield->get_key() << ";" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldBegin(field);" << endl;
+
+  generate_serialize_field(out, tfield, "_data", true, true);
+
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldEnd();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteFieldStop();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "oprot.WriteStructEnd();" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << indent() << "finally" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  out << indent() << "oprot.DecrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_equals(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "public override bool Equals(object that) {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "var other = that as " << type_name(tstruct) << ";" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "if (other == null) return false;" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "if (ReferenceEquals(this, other)) return true;" << endl;
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  bool first = true;
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (first) {
+      first = false;
+      indent(out) << "return ";
+      indent_up();
+    } else {
+      out << endl;
+      indent(out) << "&& ";
+    }
+    if (!field_is_required((*f_iter)) && !(nullable_ && !field_has_default((*f_iter)))) {
+      out << "((__isset." << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << " == other.__isset."
+          << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") && ((!__isset."
+          << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << ") || (";
+    }
+    t_type* ttype = (*f_iter)->get_type();
+    if (ttype->is_container() || (ttype->is_base_type() && (((t_base_type*)ttype)->is_binary()))) {
+      out << "TCollections.Equals(";
+    } else {
+      out << "System.Object.Equals(";
+    }
+    out << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ", other." << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ")";
+    if (!field_is_required((*f_iter)) && !(nullable_ && !field_has_default((*f_iter)))) {
+      out << ")))";
+    }
+  }
+  if (first) {
+    indent(out) << "return true;" << endl;
+  } else {
+    out << ";" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_struct_hashcode(ofstream& out, t_struct* tstruct) {
+  indent(out) << "public override int GetHashCode() {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(out) << "int hashcode = 0;" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "unchecked {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tstruct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    t_type* ttype = (*f_iter)->get_type();
+    indent(out) << "hashcode = (hashcode * 397) ^ ";
+    if (field_is_required((*f_iter))) {
+      out << "(";
+    } else if (nullable_) {
+      out << "(" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << " == null ? 0 : ";
+    } else {
+      out << "(!__isset." << normalize_name((*f_iter)->get_name()) << " ? 0 : ";
+    }
+    if (ttype->is_container()) {
+      out << "(TCollections.GetHashCode(" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << "))";
+    } else {
+      out << "(" << prop_name((*f_iter)) << ".GetHashCode())";
+    }
+    out << ");" << endl;
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "return hashcode;" << endl;
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_service(t_service* tservice) {
+  string f_service_name = namespace_dir_ + "/" + service_name_ + ".cs";
+  f_service_.open(f_service_name.c_str());
+
+  f_service_ << autogen_comment() << csharp_type_usings() << csharp_thrift_usings() << endl;
+
+  start_csharp_namespace(f_service_);
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "public partial class " << normalize_name(service_name_) << " {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  generate_service_interface(tservice);
+  generate_service_client(tservice);
+  generate_service_server(tservice);
+  generate_service_helpers(tservice);
+
+  indent_down();
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "}" << endl;
+  end_csharp_namespace(f_service_);
+  f_service_.close();
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_service_interface(t_service* tservice) {
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_iface = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    extends_iface = " : " + extends + ".Iface";
+  }
+
+  generate_csharp_doc(f_service_, tservice);
+
+  if (wcf_) {
+    indent(f_service_) << "[ServiceContract(Namespace=\"" << wcf_namespace_ << "\")]" << endl;
+  }
+  indent(f_service_) << "public interface Iface" << extends_iface << " {" << endl;
+
+  indent_up();
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    generate_csharp_doc(f_service_, *f_iter);
+
+    // if we're using WCF, add the corresponding attributes
+    if (wcf_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "[OperationContract]" << endl;
+
+      const std::vector<t_field*>& xceptions = (*f_iter)->get_xceptions()->get_members();
+      vector<t_field*>::const_iterator x_iter;
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        indent(f_service_) << "[FaultContract(typeof("
+                              + type_name((*x_iter)->get_type(), false, false) + "Fault))]" << endl;
+      }
+    }
+
+    indent(f_service_) << function_signature(*f_iter) << ";" << endl;
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#if SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+    }
+    indent(f_service_) << function_signature_async_begin(*f_iter, "Begin_") << ";" << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << function_signature_async_end(*f_iter, "End_") << ";" << endl;
+    if (async_ || async_ctp_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << function_signature_async(*f_iter) << ";" << endl;
+    }
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#endif" << endl;
+    }
+  }
+  indent_down();
+  f_service_ << indent() << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_service_helpers(t_service* tservice) {
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    t_struct* ts = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    generate_csharp_struct_definition(f_service_, ts, false, true);
+    generate_function_helpers(*f_iter);
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_service_client(t_service* tservice) {
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_client = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    extends_client = extends + ".Client, ";
+  } else {
+    extends_client = "IDisposable, ";
+  }
+
+  generate_csharp_doc(f_service_, tservice);
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "public class Client : " << extends_client << "Iface {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(f_service_) << "public Client(TProtocol prot) : this(prot, prot)" << endl;
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "public Client(TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot)";
+  if (!extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << " : base(iprot, oprot)";
+  }
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "iprot_ = iprot;" << endl << indent() << "oprot_ = oprot;" << endl;
+  }
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "protected TProtocol iprot_;" << endl << indent()
+               << "protected TProtocol oprot_;" << endl << indent() << "protected int seqid_;"
+               << endl << endl;
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "public TProtocol InputProtocol" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "get { return iprot_; }" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "public TProtocol OutputProtocol" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "get { return oprot_; }" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    f_service_ << endl << endl;
+
+    indent(f_service_) << "#region \" IDisposable Support \"" << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << "private bool _IsDisposed;" << endl << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << "// IDisposable" << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << "public void Dispose()" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "Dispose(true);" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << endl << endl;
+    indent(f_service_) << "protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "if (!_IsDisposed)" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "if (disposing)" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "if (iprot_ != null)" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "((IDisposable)iprot_).Dispose();" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "if (oprot_ != null)" << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "((IDisposable)oprot_).Dispose();" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "_IsDisposed = true;" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "#endregion" << endl;
+    f_service_ << endl << endl;
+  }
+
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    string funname = (*f_iter)->get_name();
+
+    indent(f_service_) << endl;
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#if SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+    }
+    // Begin_
+    indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature_async_begin(*f_iter, "Begin_") << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "return "
+                       << "send_" << funname << "(callback, state";
+
+    t_struct* arg_struct = (*f_iter)->get_arglist();
+    prepare_member_name_mapping(arg_struct);
+
+    const vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+    vector<t_field*>::const_iterator fld_iter;
+    for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+      f_service_ << ", ";
+      f_service_ << normalize_name((*fld_iter)->get_name());
+    }
+    f_service_ << ");" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    // End
+    indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature_async_end(*f_iter, "End_") << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+    indent(f_service_) << "oprot_.Transport.EndFlush(asyncResult);" << endl;
+    if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+      f_service_ << indent();
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        f_service_ << "return ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << "recv_" << funname << "();" << endl;
+    }
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    // async
+    bool first;
+    if (async_ || async_ctp_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "public async " << function_signature_async(*f_iter, "") << endl;
+      scope_up(f_service_);
+
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        indent(f_service_) << type_name((*f_iter)->get_returntype()) << " retval;" << endl;
+        indent(f_service_) << "retval = ";
+      } else {
+        indent(f_service_);
+      }
+      if (async_) {
+        f_service_ << "await Task.Run(() =>" << endl;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << "await TaskEx.Run(() =>" << endl;
+      }
+      scope_up(f_service_);
+      indent(f_service_);
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        f_service_ << "return ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << funname << "(";
+      first = true;
+      for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+        if (first) {
+          first = false;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << ", ";
+        }
+        f_service_ << (*fld_iter)->get_name();
+      }
+      f_service_ << ");" << endl;
+      indent_down();
+      indent(f_service_) << "});" << endl;
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        indent(f_service_) << "return retval;" << endl;
+      }
+      scope_down(f_service_);
+      f_service_ << endl;
+    }
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#endif" << endl << endl;
+    }
+
+    // "Normal" Synchronous invoke
+    generate_csharp_doc(f_service_, *f_iter);
+    indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature(*f_iter) << endl;
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#if !SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "send_" << funname << "(";
+
+      first = true;
+      for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+        if (first) {
+          first = false;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << ", ";
+        }
+        f_service_ << normalize_name((*fld_iter)->get_name());
+      }
+      f_service_ << ");" << endl;
+
+      if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+        f_service_ << indent();
+        if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+          f_service_ << "return ";
+        }
+        f_service_ << "recv_" << funname << "();" << endl;
+      }
+      f_service_ << endl;
+
+      indent(f_service_) << "#else" << endl;
+    }
+
+    // Silverlight synchronous invoke
+    indent(f_service_) << "var asyncResult = Begin_" << funname << "(null, null";
+    for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+      f_service_ << ", " << normalize_name((*fld_iter)->get_name());
+    }
+    f_service_ << ");" << endl;
+
+    if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+      f_service_ << indent();
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        f_service_ << "return ";
+      }
+      f_service_ << "End_" << funname << "(asyncResult);" << endl;
+    }
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#endif" << endl;
+    }
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+
+    // Send
+    t_function send_function(g_type_void,
+                             string("send_") + (*f_iter)->get_name(),
+                             (*f_iter)->get_arglist());
+
+    string argsname = (*f_iter)->get_name() + "_args";
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#if SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+    }
+    indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature_async_begin(&send_function) << endl;
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#else" << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature(&send_function) << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "#endif" << endl;
+    }
+    scope_up(f_service_);
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "oprot_.WriteMessageBegin(new TMessage(\"" << funname << "\", "
+               << ((*f_iter)->is_oneway() ? "TMessageType.Oneway" : "TMessageType.Call")
+               << ", seqid_));" << endl << indent() << argsname << " args = new " << argsname
+               << "();" << endl;
+
+    for (fld_iter = fields.begin(); fld_iter != fields.end(); ++fld_iter) {
+      f_service_ << indent() << "args." << prop_name(*fld_iter) << " = "
+                 << normalize_name((*fld_iter)->get_name()) << ";" << endl;
+    }
+
+    f_service_ << indent() << "args.Write(oprot_);" << endl << indent()
+               << "oprot_.WriteMessageEnd();" << endl;
+    ;
+
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#if SILVERLIGHT" << endl;
+    }
+    indent(f_service_) << "return oprot_.Transport.BeginFlush(callback, state);" << endl;
+    if (!async_) {
+      indent(f_service_) << "#else" << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "oprot_.Transport.Flush();" << endl;
+      indent(f_service_) << "#endif" << endl;
+    }
+
+    cleanup_member_name_mapping(arg_struct);
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+    f_service_ << endl;
+
+    if (!(*f_iter)->is_oneway()) {
+      string resultname = (*f_iter)->get_name() + "_result";
+
+      t_struct noargs(program_);
+      t_function recv_function((*f_iter)->get_returntype(),
+                               string("recv_") + (*f_iter)->get_name(),
+                               &noargs,
+                               (*f_iter)->get_xceptions());
+      indent(f_service_) << "public " << function_signature(&recv_function) << endl;
+      scope_up(f_service_);
+
+      t_struct* xs = (*f_iter)->get_xceptions();
+      prepare_member_name_mapping(xs, xs->get_members(), resultname);
+
+      f_service_ << indent() << "TMessage msg = iprot_.ReadMessageBegin();" << endl << indent()
+                 << "if (msg.Type == TMessageType.Exception) {" << endl;
+      indent_up();
+      f_service_ << indent() << "TApplicationException x = TApplicationException.Read(iprot_);"
+                 << endl << indent() << "iprot_.ReadMessageEnd();" << endl << indent() << "throw x;"
+                 << endl;
+      indent_down();
+      f_service_ << indent() << "}" << endl << indent() << resultname << " result = new "
+                 << resultname << "();" << endl << indent() << "result.Read(iprot_);" << endl
+                 << indent() << "iprot_.ReadMessageEnd();" << endl;
+
+      if (!(*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        if (nullable_) {
+          if (type_can_be_null((*f_iter)->get_returntype())) {
+            f_service_ << indent() << "if (result.Success != null) {" << endl << indent()
+                       << "  return result.Success;" << endl << indent() << "}" << endl;
+          } else {
+            f_service_ << indent() << "if (result.Success.HasValue) {" << endl << indent()
+                       << "  return result.Success.Value;" << endl << indent() << "}" << endl;
+          }
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "if (result.__isset.success) {" << endl << indent()
+                     << "  return result.Success;" << endl << indent() << "}" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      const std::vector<t_field*>& xceptions = xs->get_members();
+      vector<t_field*>::const_iterator x_iter;
+      for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+        if (nullable_) {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "if (result." << prop_name(*x_iter) << " != null) {" << endl
+                     << indent() << "  throw result." << prop_name(*x_iter) << ";" << endl
+                     << indent() << "}" << endl;
+        } else {
+          f_service_ << indent() << "if (result.__isset." << normalize_name((*x_iter)->get_name())
+                     << ") {" << endl << indent() << "  throw result." << prop_name(*x_iter) << ";"
+                     << endl << indent() << "}" << endl;
+        }
+      }
+
+      if ((*f_iter)->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+        indent(f_service_) << "return;" << endl;
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << indent()
+                   << "throw new "
+                      "TApplicationException(TApplicationException.ExceptionType.MissingResult, \""
+                   << (*f_iter)->get_name() << " failed: unknown result\");" << endl;
+      }
+
+      cleanup_member_name_mapping((*f_iter)->get_xceptions());
+      scope_down(f_service_);
+      f_service_ << endl;
+    }
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(f_service_) << "}" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_service_server(t_service* tservice) {
+  vector<t_function*> functions = tservice->get_functions();
+  vector<t_function*>::iterator f_iter;
+
+  string extends = "";
+  string extends_processor = "";
+  if (tservice->get_extends() != NULL) {
+    extends = type_name(tservice->get_extends());
+    extends_processor = extends + ".Processor, ";
+  }
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "public class Processor : " << extends_processor << "TProcessor {" << endl;
+  indent_up();
+
+  indent(f_service_) << "public Processor(Iface iface)";
+  if (!extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << " : base(iface)";
+  }
+  f_service_ << endl;
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+  f_service_ << indent() << "iface_ = iface;" << endl;
+
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "processMap_[\"" << (*f_iter)->get_name()
+               << "\"] = " << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "_Process;" << endl;
+  }
+
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_
+        << indent()
+        << "protected delegate void ProcessFunction(int seqid, TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot);"
+        << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "private Iface iface_;" << endl;
+
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "protected Dictionary<string, ProcessFunction> processMap_ = new "
+                              "Dictionary<string, ProcessFunction>();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  if (extends.empty()) {
+    indent(f_service_) << "public bool Process(TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot)" << endl;
+  } else {
+    indent(f_service_) << "public new bool Process(TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot)" << endl;
+  }
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "TMessage msg = iprot.ReadMessageBegin();" << endl;
+
+  f_service_
+      << indent() << "ProcessFunction fn;" << endl << indent()
+      << "processMap_.TryGetValue(msg.Name, out fn);" << endl << indent() << "if (fn == null) {"
+      << endl << indent() << "  TProtocolUtil.Skip(iprot, TType.Struct);" << endl << indent()
+      << "  iprot.ReadMessageEnd();" << endl << indent()
+      << "  TApplicationException x = new TApplicationException "
+         "(TApplicationException.ExceptionType.UnknownMethod, \"Invalid method name: '\" + "
+         "msg.Name + \"'\");" << endl << indent()
+      << "  oprot.WriteMessageBegin(new TMessage(msg.Name, TMessageType.Exception, msg.SeqID));"
+      << endl << indent() << "  x.Write(oprot);" << endl << indent() << "  oprot.WriteMessageEnd();"
+      << endl << indent() << "  oprot.Transport.Flush();" << endl << indent() << "  return true;"
+      << endl << indent() << "}" << endl << indent() << "fn(msg.SeqID, iprot, oprot);" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "catch (IOException)" << endl;
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+  f_service_ << indent() << "return false;" << endl;
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "return true;" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+  f_service_ << endl;
+
+  for (f_iter = functions.begin(); f_iter != functions.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    generate_process_function(tservice, *f_iter);
+  }
+
+  indent_down();
+  indent(f_service_) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_function_helpers(t_function* tfunction) {
+  if (tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+    return;
+  }
+
+  t_struct result(program_, tfunction->get_name() + "_result");
+  t_field success(tfunction->get_returntype(), "success", 0);
+  if (!tfunction->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+    result.append(&success);
+  }
+
+  t_struct* xs = tfunction->get_xceptions();
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = xs->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    result.append(*f_iter);
+  }
+
+  generate_csharp_struct_definition(f_service_, &result, false, true, true);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_process_function(t_service* tservice, t_function* tfunction) {
+  (void)tservice;
+  indent(f_service_) << "public void " << tfunction->get_name()
+                     << "_Process(int seqid, TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot)" << endl;
+  scope_up(f_service_);
+
+  string argsname = tfunction->get_name() + "_args";
+  string resultname = tfunction->get_name() + "_result";
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << argsname << " args = new " << argsname << "();" << endl << indent()
+             << "args.Read(iprot);" << endl << indent() << "iprot.ReadMessageEnd();" << endl;
+
+  t_struct* xs = tfunction->get_xceptions();
+  const std::vector<t_field*>& xceptions = xs->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator x_iter;
+
+  if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << resultname << " result = new " << resultname << "();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (xceptions.size() > 0) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "try {" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+  }
+
+  t_struct* arg_struct = tfunction->get_arglist();
+  const std::vector<t_field*>& fields = arg_struct->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  f_service_ << indent();
+  if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && !tfunction->get_returntype()->is_void()) {
+    f_service_ << "result.Success = ";
+  }
+  f_service_ << "iface_." << normalize_name(tfunction->get_name()) << "(";
+  bool first = true;
+  prepare_member_name_mapping(arg_struct);
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    if (first) {
+      first = false;
+    } else {
+      f_service_ << ", ";
+    }
+    f_service_ << "args." << prop_name(*f_iter);
+    if (nullable_ && !type_can_be_null((*f_iter)->get_type())) {
+      f_service_ << ".Value";
+    }
+  }
+  cleanup_member_name_mapping(arg_struct);
+  f_service_ << ");" << endl;
+
+  if (!tfunction->is_oneway() && xceptions.size() > 0) {
+    indent_down();
+    f_service_ << indent() << "}";
+    prepare_member_name_mapping(xs, xs->get_members(), resultname);
+    for (x_iter = xceptions.begin(); x_iter != xceptions.end(); ++x_iter) {
+      f_service_ << " catch (" << type_name((*x_iter)->get_type(), false, false) << " "
+                 << (*x_iter)->get_name() << ") {" << endl;
+      if (!tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+        indent_up();
+        f_service_ << indent() << "result." << prop_name(*x_iter) << " = " << (*x_iter)->get_name()
+                   << ";" << endl;
+        indent_down();
+        f_service_ << indent() << "}";
+      } else {
+        f_service_ << "}";
+      }
+    }
+    cleanup_member_name_mapping(xs);
+    f_service_ << endl;
+  }
+
+  if (tfunction->is_oneway()) {
+    f_service_ << indent() << "return;" << endl;
+    scope_down(f_service_);
+
+    return;
+  }
+
+  f_service_ << indent() << "oprot.WriteMessageBegin(new TMessage(\"" << tfunction->get_name()
+             << "\", TMessageType.Reply, seqid)); " << endl << indent() << "result.Write(oprot);"
+             << endl << indent() << "oprot.WriteMessageEnd();" << endl << indent()
+             << "oprot.Transport.Flush();" << endl;
+
+  scope_down(f_service_);
+
+  f_service_ << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_csharp_union_reader(std::ofstream& out, t_struct* tunion) {
+  // Thanks to THRIFT-1768, we don't need to check for required fields in the union
+  const vector<t_field*>& fields = tunion->get_members();
+  vector<t_field*>::const_iterator f_iter;
+
+  indent(out) << "public static " << tunion->get_name() << " Read(TProtocol iprot)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  out << indent() << "iprot.IncrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  out << indent() << "try" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  indent(out) << tunion->get_name() << " retval;" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadStructBegin();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "TField field = iprot.ReadFieldBegin();" << endl;
+  // we cannot have the first field be a stop -- we must have a single field defined
+  indent(out) << "if (field.Type == TType.Stop)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadFieldEnd();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "retval = new ___undefined();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+  indent(out) << "else" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  indent(out) << "switch (field.ID)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  for (f_iter = fields.begin(); f_iter != fields.end(); ++f_iter) {
+    indent(out) << "case " << (*f_iter)->get_key() << ":" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+    indent(out) << "if (field.Type == " << type_to_enum((*f_iter)->get_type()) << ") {" << endl;
+    indent_up();
+
+    indent(out) << type_name((*f_iter)->get_type()) << " temp;" << endl;
+    generate_deserialize_field(out, (*f_iter), "temp", true);
+    indent(out) << "retval = new " << (*f_iter)->get_name() << "(temp);" << endl;
+
+    indent_down();
+    out << indent() << "} else { " << endl << indent() << "  TProtocolUtil.Skip(iprot, field.Type);"
+        << endl << indent() << "  retval = new ___undefined();" << endl << indent() << "}" << endl
+        << indent() << "break;" << endl;
+    indent_down();
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << "default: " << endl;
+  indent_up();
+  indent(out) << "TProtocolUtil.Skip(iprot, field.Type);" << endl << indent()
+              << "retval = new ___undefined();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "break;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadFieldEnd();" << endl;
+
+  indent(out) << "if (iprot.ReadFieldBegin().Type != TType.Stop)" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  indent(out) << "throw new TProtocolException(TProtocolException.INVALID_DATA);" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  // end of else for TStop
+  scope_down(out);
+  indent(out) << "iprot.ReadStructEnd();" << endl;
+  indent(out) << "return retval;" << endl;
+  indent_down();
+
+  scope_down(out);
+  out << indent() << "finally" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+  out << indent() << "iprot.DecrementRecursionDepth();" << endl;
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  indent(out) << "}" << endl << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_field(ofstream& out,
+                                                    t_field* tfield,
+                                                    string prefix,
+                                                    bool is_propertyless) {
+  t_type* type = tfield->get_type();
+  while (type->is_typedef()) {
+    type = ((t_typedef*)type)->get_type();
+  }
+
+  if (type->is_void()) {
+    throw "CANNOT GENERATE DESERIALIZE CODE FOR void TYPE: " + prefix + tfield->get_name();
+  }
+
+  string name = prefix + (is_propertyless ? "" : prop_name(tfield));
+
+  if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    generate_deserialize_struct(out, (t_struct*)type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_container()) {
+    generate_deserialize_container(out, type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_base_type() || type->is_enum()) {
+    indent(out) << name << " = ";
+
+    if (type->is_enum()) {
+      out << "(" << type_name(type, false, true) << ")";
+    }
+
+    out << "iprot.";
+
+    if (type->is_base_type()) {
+      t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+      switch (tbase) {
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_VOID:
+        throw "compiler error: cannot serialize void field in a struct: " + name;
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+        if (((t_base_type*)type)->is_binary()) {
+          out << "ReadBinary();";
+        } else {
+          out << "ReadString();";
+        }
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+        out << "ReadBool();";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+        out << "ReadByte();";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+        out << "ReadI16();";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+        out << "ReadI32();";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+        out << "ReadI64();";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+        out << "ReadDouble();";
+        break;
+      default:
+        throw "compiler error: no C# name for base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+      }
+    } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+      out << "ReadI32();";
+    }
+    out << endl;
+  } else {
+    printf("DO NOT KNOW HOW TO DESERIALIZE FIELD '%s' TYPE '%s'\n",
+           tfield->get_name().c_str(),
+           type_name(type).c_str());
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_struct(ofstream& out,
+                                                     t_struct* tstruct,
+                                                     string prefix) {
+  if (union_ && tstruct->is_union()) {
+    out << indent() << prefix << " = " << type_name(tstruct) << ".Read(iprot);" << endl;
+  } else {
+    out << indent() << prefix << " = new " << type_name(tstruct) << "();" << endl << indent()
+        << prefix << ".Read(iprot);" << endl;
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_container(ofstream& out,
+                                                        t_type* ttype,
+                                                        string prefix) {
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  string obj;
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    obj = tmp("_map");
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    obj = tmp("_set");
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    obj = tmp("_list");
+  }
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << " = new " << type_name(ttype, false, true) << "();" << endl;
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    out << indent() << "TMap " << obj << " = iprot.ReadMapBegin();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    out << indent() << "TSet " << obj << " = iprot.ReadSetBegin();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    out << indent() << "TList " << obj << " = iprot.ReadListBegin();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  string i = tmp("_i");
+  indent(out) << "for( int " << i << " = 0; " << i << " < " << obj << ".Count"
+              << "; "
+              << "++" << i << ")" << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    generate_deserialize_map_element(out, (t_map*)ttype, prefix);
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    generate_deserialize_set_element(out, (t_set*)ttype, prefix);
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    generate_deserialize_list_element(out, (t_list*)ttype, prefix);
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.ReadMapEnd();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.ReadSetEnd();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "iprot.ReadListEnd();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_map_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                          t_map* tmap,
+                                                          string prefix) {
+  string key = tmp("_key");
+  string val = tmp("_val");
+
+  t_field fkey(tmap->get_key_type(), key);
+  t_field fval(tmap->get_val_type(), val);
+
+  indent(out) << declare_field(&fkey) << endl;
+  indent(out) << declare_field(&fval) << endl;
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &fkey);
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &fval);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << "[" << key << "] = " << val << ";" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_set_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                          t_set* tset,
+                                                          string prefix) {
+  string elem = tmp("_elem");
+  t_field felem(tset->get_elem_type(), elem);
+
+  indent(out) << declare_field(&felem) << endl;
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &felem);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << ".Add(" << elem << ");" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_deserialize_list_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                           t_list* tlist,
+                                                           string prefix) {
+  string elem = tmp("_elem");
+  t_field felem(tlist->get_elem_type(), elem);
+
+  indent(out) << declare_field(&felem) << endl;
+
+  generate_deserialize_field(out, &felem);
+
+  indent(out) << prefix << ".Add(" << elem << ");" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_serialize_field(ofstream& out,
+                                                  t_field* tfield,
+                                                  string prefix,
+                                                  bool is_element,
+                                                  bool is_propertyless) {
+  t_type* type = tfield->get_type();
+  while (type->is_typedef()) {
+    type = ((t_typedef*)type)->get_type();
+  }
+
+  string name = prefix + (is_propertyless ? "" : prop_name(tfield));
+
+  if (type->is_void()) {
+    throw "CANNOT GENERATE SERIALIZE CODE FOR void TYPE: " + name;
+  }
+
+  if (type->is_struct() || type->is_xception()) {
+    generate_serialize_struct(out, (t_struct*)type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_container()) {
+    generate_serialize_container(out, type, name);
+  } else if (type->is_base_type() || type->is_enum()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.";
+
+    string nullable_name = nullable_ && !is_element && !field_is_required(tfield) ? name + ".Value"
+                                                                                  : name;
+
+    if (type->is_base_type()) {
+      t_base_type::t_base tbase = ((t_base_type*)type)->get_base();
+      switch (tbase) {
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_VOID:
+        throw "compiler error: cannot serialize void field in a struct: " + name;
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_STRING:
+        if (((t_base_type*)type)->is_binary()) {
+          out << "WriteBinary(";
+        } else {
+          out << "WriteString(";
+        }
+        out << name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BOOL:
+        out << "WriteBool(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_BYTE:
+        out << "WriteByte(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I16:
+        out << "WriteI16(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I32:
+        out << "WriteI32(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_I64:
+        out << "WriteI64(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      case t_base_type::TYPE_DOUBLE:
+        out << "WriteDouble(" << nullable_name << ");";
+        break;
+      default:
+        throw "compiler error: no C# name for base type " + t_base_type::t_base_name(tbase);
+      }
+    } else if (type->is_enum()) {
+      out << "WriteI32((int)" << nullable_name << ");";
+    }
+    out << endl;
+  } else {
+    printf("DO NOT KNOW HOW TO SERIALIZE '%s%s' TYPE '%s'\n",
+           prefix.c_str(),
+           tfield->get_name().c_str(),
+           type_name(type).c_str());
+  }
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_serialize_struct(ofstream& out,
+                                                   t_struct* tstruct,
+                                                   string prefix) {
+  (void)tstruct;
+  out << indent() << prefix << ".Write(oprot);" << endl;
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_serialize_container(ofstream& out, t_type* ttype, string prefix) {
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteMapBegin(new TMap(" << type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_key_type())
+                << ", " << type_to_enum(((t_map*)ttype)->get_val_type()) << ", " << prefix
+                << ".Count));" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteSetBegin(new TSet(" << type_to_enum(((t_set*)ttype)->get_elem_type())
+                << ", " << prefix << ".Count));" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteListBegin(new TList("
+                << type_to_enum(((t_list*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) << ", " << prefix << ".Count));"
+                << endl;
+  }
+
+  string iter = tmp("_iter");
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "foreach (" << type_name(((t_map*)ttype)->get_key_type()) << " " << iter
+                << " in " << prefix << ".Keys)";
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "foreach (" << type_name(((t_set*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) << " " << iter
+                << " in " << prefix << ")";
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "foreach (" << type_name(((t_list*)ttype)->get_elem_type()) << " " << iter
+                << " in " << prefix << ")";
+  }
+
+  out << endl;
+  scope_up(out);
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    generate_serialize_map_element(out, (t_map*)ttype, iter, prefix);
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    generate_serialize_set_element(out, (t_set*)ttype, iter);
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    generate_serialize_list_element(out, (t_list*)ttype, iter);
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+
+  if (ttype->is_map()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteMapEnd();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_set()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteSetEnd();" << endl;
+  } else if (ttype->is_list()) {
+    indent(out) << "oprot.WriteListEnd();" << endl;
+  }
+
+  scope_down(out);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_serialize_map_element(ofstream& out,
+                                                        t_map* tmap,
+                                                        string iter,
+                                                        string map) {
+  t_field kfield(tmap->get_key_type(), iter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &kfield, "", true);
+  t_field vfield(tmap->get_val_type(), map + "[" + iter + "]");
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &vfield, "", true);
+}
+
+void t_csharp_generator::generate_serialize_set_element(ofstream& out, t_set* tset, string iter) {
+  t_field efield(tset->get_elem_type(), iter);
+  generate_serialize_field(out, &efield, "", true);
+}
+
+void t

<TRUNCATED>


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