hawq-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From m..@apache.org
Subject [39/45] incubator-hawq git commit: HAWQ-618. Import libhdfs3 library for internal management and LICENSE modified
Date Fri, 01 Apr 2016 09:36:48 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/bc0904ab/depends/libhdfs3/gmock/include/gmock/gmock-matchers.h
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/depends/libhdfs3/gmock/include/gmock/gmock-matchers.h b/depends/libhdfs3/gmock/include/gmock/gmock-matchers.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..44055c9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/depends/libhdfs3/gmock/include/gmock/gmock-matchers.h
@@ -0,0 +1,3986 @@
+// Copyright 2007, Google Inc.
+// All rights reserved.
+//
+// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
+// met:
+//
+//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
+// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
+// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
+// distribution.
+//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
+// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
+// this software without specific prior written permission.
+//
+// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
+// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
+// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
+// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
+// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
+// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
+// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
+// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
+// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+//
+// Author: wan@google.com (Zhanyong Wan)
+
+// Google Mock - a framework for writing C++ mock classes.
+//
+// This file implements some commonly used argument matchers.  More
+// matchers can be defined by the user implementing the
+// MatcherInterface<T> interface if necessary.
+
+#ifndef GMOCK_INCLUDE_GMOCK_GMOCK_MATCHERS_H_
+#define GMOCK_INCLUDE_GMOCK_GMOCK_MATCHERS_H_
+
+#include <math.h>
+#include <algorithm>
+#include <iterator>
+#include <limits>
+#include <ostream>  // NOLINT
+#include <sstream>
+#include <string>
+#include <utility>
+#include <vector>
+
+#include "gmock/internal/gmock-internal-utils.h"
+#include "gmock/internal/gmock-port.h"
+#include "gtest/gtest.h"
+
+#if GTEST_LANG_CXX11
+#include <initializer_list>  // NOLINT -- must be after gtest.h
+#endif
+
+namespace testing {
+
+// To implement a matcher Foo for type T, define:
+//   1. a class FooMatcherImpl that implements the
+//      MatcherInterface<T> interface, and
+//   2. a factory function that creates a Matcher<T> object from a
+//      FooMatcherImpl*.
+//
+// The two-level delegation design makes it possible to allow a user
+// to write "v" instead of "Eq(v)" where a Matcher is expected, which
+// is impossible if we pass matchers by pointers.  It also eases
+// ownership management as Matcher objects can now be copied like
+// plain values.
+
+// MatchResultListener is an abstract class.  Its << operator can be
+// used by a matcher to explain why a value matches or doesn't match.
+//
+// TODO(wan@google.com): add method
+//   bool InterestedInWhy(bool result) const;
+// to indicate whether the listener is interested in why the match
+// result is 'result'.
+class MatchResultListener {
+ public:
+  // Creates a listener object with the given underlying ostream.  The
+  // listener does not own the ostream, and does not dereference it
+  // in the constructor or destructor.
+  explicit MatchResultListener(::std::ostream* os) : stream_(os) {}
+  virtual ~MatchResultListener() = 0;  // Makes this class abstract.
+
+  // Streams x to the underlying ostream; does nothing if the ostream
+  // is NULL.
+  template <typename T>
+  MatchResultListener& operator<<(const T& x) {
+    if (stream_ != NULL)
+      *stream_ << x;
+    return *this;
+  }
+
+  // Returns the underlying ostream.
+  ::std::ostream* stream() { return stream_; }
+
+  // Returns true iff the listener is interested in an explanation of
+  // the match result.  A matcher's MatchAndExplain() method can use
+  // this information to avoid generating the explanation when no one
+  // intends to hear it.
+  bool IsInterested() const { return stream_ != NULL; }
+
+ private:
+  ::std::ostream* const stream_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN_(MatchResultListener);
+};
+
+inline MatchResultListener::~MatchResultListener() {
+}
+
+// An instance of a subclass of this knows how to describe itself as a
+// matcher.
+class MatcherDescriberInterface {
+ public:
+  virtual ~MatcherDescriberInterface() {}
+
+  // Describes this matcher to an ostream.  The function should print
+  // a verb phrase that describes the property a value matching this
+  // matcher should have.  The subject of the verb phrase is the value
+  // being matched.  For example, the DescribeTo() method of the Gt(7)
+  // matcher prints "is greater than 7".
+  virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const = 0;
+
+  // Describes the negation of this matcher to an ostream.  For
+  // example, if the description of this matcher is "is greater than
+  // 7", the negated description could be "is not greater than 7".
+  // You are not required to override this when implementing
+  // MatcherInterface, but it is highly advised so that your matcher
+  // can produce good error messages.
+  virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "not (";
+    DescribeTo(os);
+    *os << ")";
+  }
+};
+
+// The implementation of a matcher.
+template <typename T>
+class MatcherInterface : public MatcherDescriberInterface {
+ public:
+  // Returns true iff the matcher matches x; also explains the match
+  // result to 'listener' if necessary (see the next paragraph), in
+  // the form of a non-restrictive relative clause ("which ...",
+  // "whose ...", etc) that describes x.  For example, the
+  // MatchAndExplain() method of the Pointee(...) matcher should
+  // generate an explanation like "which points to ...".
+  //
+  // Implementations of MatchAndExplain() should add an explanation of
+  // the match result *if and only if* they can provide additional
+  // information that's not already present (or not obvious) in the
+  // print-out of x and the matcher's description.  Whether the match
+  // succeeds is not a factor in deciding whether an explanation is
+  // needed, as sometimes the caller needs to print a failure message
+  // when the match succeeds (e.g. when the matcher is used inside
+  // Not()).
+  //
+  // For example, a "has at least 10 elements" matcher should explain
+  // what the actual element count is, regardless of the match result,
+  // as it is useful information to the reader; on the other hand, an
+  // "is empty" matcher probably only needs to explain what the actual
+  // size is when the match fails, as it's redundant to say that the
+  // size is 0 when the value is already known to be empty.
+  //
+  // You should override this method when defining a new matcher.
+  //
+  // It's the responsibility of the caller (Google Mock) to guarantee
+  // that 'listener' is not NULL.  This helps to simplify a matcher's
+  // implementation when it doesn't care about the performance, as it
+  // can talk to 'listener' without checking its validity first.
+  // However, in order to implement dummy listeners efficiently,
+  // listener->stream() may be NULL.
+  virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const = 0;
+
+  // Inherits these methods from MatcherDescriberInterface:
+  //   virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const = 0;
+  //   virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const;
+};
+
+// A match result listener that stores the explanation in a string.
+class StringMatchResultListener : public MatchResultListener {
+ public:
+  StringMatchResultListener() : MatchResultListener(&ss_) {}
+
+  // Returns the explanation accumulated so far.
+  internal::string str() const { return ss_.str(); }
+
+  // Clears the explanation accumulated so far.
+  void Clear() { ss_.str(""); }
+
+ private:
+  ::std::stringstream ss_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN_(StringMatchResultListener);
+};
+
+namespace internal {
+
+// A match result listener that ignores the explanation.
+class DummyMatchResultListener : public MatchResultListener {
+ public:
+  DummyMatchResultListener() : MatchResultListener(NULL) {}
+
+ private:
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN_(DummyMatchResultListener);
+};
+
+// A match result listener that forwards the explanation to a given
+// ostream.  The difference between this and MatchResultListener is
+// that the former is concrete.
+class StreamMatchResultListener : public MatchResultListener {
+ public:
+  explicit StreamMatchResultListener(::std::ostream* os)
+      : MatchResultListener(os) {}
+
+ private:
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN_(StreamMatchResultListener);
+};
+
+// An internal class for implementing Matcher<T>, which will derive
+// from it.  We put functionalities common to all Matcher<T>
+// specializations here to avoid code duplication.
+template <typename T>
+class MatcherBase {
+ public:
+  // Returns true iff the matcher matches x; also explains the match
+  // result to 'listener'.
+  bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return impl_->MatchAndExplain(x, listener);
+  }
+
+  // Returns true iff this matcher matches x.
+  bool Matches(T x) const {
+    DummyMatchResultListener dummy;
+    return MatchAndExplain(x, &dummy);
+  }
+
+  // Describes this matcher to an ostream.
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { impl_->DescribeTo(os); }
+
+  // Describes the negation of this matcher to an ostream.
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    impl_->DescribeNegationTo(os);
+  }
+
+  // Explains why x matches, or doesn't match, the matcher.
+  void ExplainMatchResultTo(T x, ::std::ostream* os) const {
+    StreamMatchResultListener listener(os);
+    MatchAndExplain(x, &listener);
+  }
+
+  // Returns the describer for this matcher object; retains ownership
+  // of the describer, which is only guaranteed to be alive when
+  // this matcher object is alive.
+  const MatcherDescriberInterface* GetDescriber() const {
+    return impl_.get();
+  }
+
+ protected:
+  MatcherBase() {}
+
+  // Constructs a matcher from its implementation.
+  explicit MatcherBase(const MatcherInterface<T>* impl)
+      : impl_(impl) {}
+
+  virtual ~MatcherBase() {}
+
+ private:
+  // shared_ptr (util/gtl/shared_ptr.h) and linked_ptr have similar
+  // interfaces.  The former dynamically allocates a chunk of memory
+  // to hold the reference count, while the latter tracks all
+  // references using a circular linked list without allocating
+  // memory.  It has been observed that linked_ptr performs better in
+  // typical scenarios.  However, shared_ptr can out-perform
+  // linked_ptr when there are many more uses of the copy constructor
+  // than the default constructor.
+  //
+  // If performance becomes a problem, we should see if using
+  // shared_ptr helps.
+  ::testing::internal::linked_ptr<const MatcherInterface<T> > impl_;
+};
+
+}  // namespace internal
+
+// A Matcher<T> is a copyable and IMMUTABLE (except by assignment)
+// object that can check whether a value of type T matches.  The
+// implementation of Matcher<T> is just a linked_ptr to const
+// MatcherInterface<T>, so copying is fairly cheap.  Don't inherit
+// from Matcher!
+template <typename T>
+class Matcher : public internal::MatcherBase<T> {
+ public:
+  // Constructs a null matcher.  Needed for storing Matcher objects in STL
+  // containers.  A default-constructed matcher is not yet initialized.  You
+  // cannot use it until a valid value has been assigned to it.
+  Matcher() {}
+
+  // Constructs a matcher from its implementation.
+  explicit Matcher(const MatcherInterface<T>* impl)
+      : internal::MatcherBase<T>(impl) {}
+
+  // Implicit constructor here allows people to write
+  // EXPECT_CALL(foo, Bar(5)) instead of EXPECT_CALL(foo, Bar(Eq(5))) sometimes
+  Matcher(T value);  // NOLINT
+};
+
+// The following two specializations allow the user to write str
+// instead of Eq(str) and "foo" instead of Eq("foo") when a string
+// matcher is expected.
+template <>
+class GTEST_API_ Matcher<const internal::string&>
+    : public internal::MatcherBase<const internal::string&> {
+ public:
+  Matcher() {}
+
+  explicit Matcher(const MatcherInterface<const internal::string&>* impl)
+      : internal::MatcherBase<const internal::string&>(impl) {}
+
+  // Allows the user to write str instead of Eq(str) sometimes, where
+  // str is a string object.
+  Matcher(const internal::string& s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to write "foo" instead of Eq("foo") sometimes.
+  Matcher(const char* s);  // NOLINT
+};
+
+template <>
+class GTEST_API_ Matcher<internal::string>
+    : public internal::MatcherBase<internal::string> {
+ public:
+  Matcher() {}
+
+  explicit Matcher(const MatcherInterface<internal::string>* impl)
+      : internal::MatcherBase<internal::string>(impl) {}
+
+  // Allows the user to write str instead of Eq(str) sometimes, where
+  // str is a string object.
+  Matcher(const internal::string& s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to write "foo" instead of Eq("foo") sometimes.
+  Matcher(const char* s);  // NOLINT
+};
+
+#if GTEST_HAS_STRING_PIECE_
+// The following two specializations allow the user to write str
+// instead of Eq(str) and "foo" instead of Eq("foo") when a StringPiece
+// matcher is expected.
+template <>
+class GTEST_API_ Matcher<const StringPiece&>
+    : public internal::MatcherBase<const StringPiece&> {
+ public:
+  Matcher() {}
+
+  explicit Matcher(const MatcherInterface<const StringPiece&>* impl)
+      : internal::MatcherBase<const StringPiece&>(impl) {}
+
+  // Allows the user to write str instead of Eq(str) sometimes, where
+  // str is a string object.
+  Matcher(const internal::string& s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to write "foo" instead of Eq("foo") sometimes.
+  Matcher(const char* s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to pass StringPieces directly.
+  Matcher(StringPiece s);  // NOLINT
+};
+
+template <>
+class GTEST_API_ Matcher<StringPiece>
+    : public internal::MatcherBase<StringPiece> {
+ public:
+  Matcher() {}
+
+  explicit Matcher(const MatcherInterface<StringPiece>* impl)
+      : internal::MatcherBase<StringPiece>(impl) {}
+
+  // Allows the user to write str instead of Eq(str) sometimes, where
+  // str is a string object.
+  Matcher(const internal::string& s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to write "foo" instead of Eq("foo") sometimes.
+  Matcher(const char* s);  // NOLINT
+
+  // Allows the user to pass StringPieces directly.
+  Matcher(StringPiece s);  // NOLINT
+};
+#endif  // GTEST_HAS_STRING_PIECE_
+
+// The PolymorphicMatcher class template makes it easy to implement a
+// polymorphic matcher (i.e. a matcher that can match values of more
+// than one type, e.g. Eq(n) and NotNull()).
+//
+// To define a polymorphic matcher, a user should provide an Impl
+// class that has a DescribeTo() method and a DescribeNegationTo()
+// method, and define a member function (or member function template)
+//
+//   bool MatchAndExplain(const Value& value,
+//                        MatchResultListener* listener) const;
+//
+// See the definition of NotNull() for a complete example.
+template <class Impl>
+class PolymorphicMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit PolymorphicMatcher(const Impl& an_impl) : impl_(an_impl) {}
+
+  // Returns a mutable reference to the underlying matcher
+  // implementation object.
+  Impl& mutable_impl() { return impl_; }
+
+  // Returns an immutable reference to the underlying matcher
+  // implementation object.
+  const Impl& impl() const { return impl_; }
+
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return Matcher<T>(new MonomorphicImpl<T>(impl_));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  template <typename T>
+  class MonomorphicImpl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+   public:
+    explicit MonomorphicImpl(const Impl& impl) : impl_(impl) {}
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      impl_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      impl_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      return impl_.MatchAndExplain(x, listener);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Impl impl_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(MonomorphicImpl);
+  };
+
+  Impl impl_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(PolymorphicMatcher);
+};
+
+// Creates a matcher from its implementation.  This is easier to use
+// than the Matcher<T> constructor as it doesn't require you to
+// explicitly write the template argument, e.g.
+//
+//   MakeMatcher(foo);
+// vs
+//   Matcher<const string&>(foo);
+template <typename T>
+inline Matcher<T> MakeMatcher(const MatcherInterface<T>* impl) {
+  return Matcher<T>(impl);
+}
+
+// Creates a polymorphic matcher from its implementation.  This is
+// easier to use than the PolymorphicMatcher<Impl> constructor as it
+// doesn't require you to explicitly write the template argument, e.g.
+//
+//   MakePolymorphicMatcher(foo);
+// vs
+//   PolymorphicMatcher<TypeOfFoo>(foo);
+template <class Impl>
+inline PolymorphicMatcher<Impl> MakePolymorphicMatcher(const Impl& impl) {
+  return PolymorphicMatcher<Impl>(impl);
+}
+
+// Anything inside the 'internal' namespace IS INTERNAL IMPLEMENTATION
+// and MUST NOT BE USED IN USER CODE!!!
+namespace internal {
+
+// The MatcherCastImpl class template is a helper for implementing
+// MatcherCast().  We need this helper in order to partially
+// specialize the implementation of MatcherCast() (C++ allows
+// class/struct templates to be partially specialized, but not
+// function templates.).
+
+// This general version is used when MatcherCast()'s argument is a
+// polymorphic matcher (i.e. something that can be converted to a
+// Matcher but is not one yet; for example, Eq(value)) or a value (for
+// example, "hello").
+template <typename T, typename M>
+class MatcherCastImpl {
+ public:
+  static Matcher<T> Cast(M polymorphic_matcher_or_value) {
+    // M can be a polymorhic matcher, in which case we want to use
+    // its conversion operator to create Matcher<T>.  Or it can be a value
+    // that should be passed to the Matcher<T>'s constructor.
+    //
+    // We can't call Matcher<T>(polymorphic_matcher_or_value) when M is a
+    // polymorphic matcher because it'll be ambiguous if T has an implicit
+    // constructor from M (this usually happens when T has an implicit
+    // constructor from any type).
+    //
+    // It won't work to unconditionally implict_cast
+    // polymorphic_matcher_or_value to Matcher<T> because it won't trigger
+    // a user-defined conversion from M to T if one exists (assuming M is
+    // a value).
+    return CastImpl(
+        polymorphic_matcher_or_value,
+        BooleanConstant<
+            internal::ImplicitlyConvertible<M, Matcher<T> >::value>());
+  }
+
+ private:
+  static Matcher<T> CastImpl(M value, BooleanConstant<false>) {
+    // M can't be implicitly converted to Matcher<T>, so M isn't a polymorphic
+    // matcher.  It must be a value then.  Use direct initialization to create
+    // a matcher.
+    return Matcher<T>(ImplicitCast_<T>(value));
+  }
+
+  static Matcher<T> CastImpl(M polymorphic_matcher_or_value,
+                             BooleanConstant<true>) {
+    // M is implicitly convertible to Matcher<T>, which means that either
+    // M is a polymorhpic matcher or Matcher<T> has an implicit constructor
+    // from M.  In both cases using the implicit conversion will produce a
+    // matcher.
+    //
+    // Even if T has an implicit constructor from M, it won't be called because
+    // creating Matcher<T> would require a chain of two user-defined conversions
+    // (first to create T from M and then to create Matcher<T> from T).
+    return polymorphic_matcher_or_value;
+  }
+};
+
+// This more specialized version is used when MatcherCast()'s argument
+// is already a Matcher.  This only compiles when type T can be
+// statically converted to type U.
+template <typename T, typename U>
+class MatcherCastImpl<T, Matcher<U> > {
+ public:
+  static Matcher<T> Cast(const Matcher<U>& source_matcher) {
+    return Matcher<T>(new Impl(source_matcher));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+   public:
+    explicit Impl(const Matcher<U>& source_matcher)
+        : source_matcher_(source_matcher) {}
+
+    // We delegate the matching logic to the source matcher.
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      return source_matcher_.MatchAndExplain(static_cast<U>(x), listener);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      source_matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      source_matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Matcher<U> source_matcher_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+};
+
+// This even more specialized version is used for efficiently casting
+// a matcher to its own type.
+template <typename T>
+class MatcherCastImpl<T, Matcher<T> > {
+ public:
+  static Matcher<T> Cast(const Matcher<T>& matcher) { return matcher; }
+};
+
+}  // namespace internal
+
+// In order to be safe and clear, casting between different matcher
+// types is done explicitly via MatcherCast<T>(m), which takes a
+// matcher m and returns a Matcher<T>.  It compiles only when T can be
+// statically converted to the argument type of m.
+template <typename T, typename M>
+inline Matcher<T> MatcherCast(M matcher) {
+  return internal::MatcherCastImpl<T, M>::Cast(matcher);
+}
+
+// Implements SafeMatcherCast().
+//
+// We use an intermediate class to do the actual safe casting as Nokia's
+// Symbian compiler cannot decide between
+// template <T, M> ... (M) and
+// template <T, U> ... (const Matcher<U>&)
+// for function templates but can for member function templates.
+template <typename T>
+class SafeMatcherCastImpl {
+ public:
+  // This overload handles polymorphic matchers and values only since
+  // monomorphic matchers are handled by the next one.
+  template <typename M>
+  static inline Matcher<T> Cast(M polymorphic_matcher_or_value) {
+    return internal::MatcherCastImpl<T, M>::Cast(polymorphic_matcher_or_value);
+  }
+
+  // This overload handles monomorphic matchers.
+  //
+  // In general, if type T can be implicitly converted to type U, we can
+  // safely convert a Matcher<U> to a Matcher<T> (i.e. Matcher is
+  // contravariant): just keep a copy of the original Matcher<U>, convert the
+  // argument from type T to U, and then pass it to the underlying Matcher<U>.
+  // The only exception is when U is a reference and T is not, as the
+  // underlying Matcher<U> may be interested in the argument's address, which
+  // is not preserved in the conversion from T to U.
+  template <typename U>
+  static inline Matcher<T> Cast(const Matcher<U>& matcher) {
+    // Enforce that T can be implicitly converted to U.
+    GTEST_COMPILE_ASSERT_((internal::ImplicitlyConvertible<T, U>::value),
+                          T_must_be_implicitly_convertible_to_U);
+    // Enforce that we are not converting a non-reference type T to a reference
+    // type U.
+    GTEST_COMPILE_ASSERT_(
+        internal::is_reference<T>::value || !internal::is_reference<U>::value,
+        cannot_convert_non_referentce_arg_to_reference);
+    // In case both T and U are arithmetic types, enforce that the
+    // conversion is not lossy.
+    typedef GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_AND_CONST_(T) RawT;
+    typedef GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_AND_CONST_(U) RawU;
+    const bool kTIsOther = GMOCK_KIND_OF_(RawT) == internal::kOther;
+    const bool kUIsOther = GMOCK_KIND_OF_(RawU) == internal::kOther;
+    GTEST_COMPILE_ASSERT_(
+        kTIsOther || kUIsOther ||
+        (internal::LosslessArithmeticConvertible<RawT, RawU>::value),
+        conversion_of_arithmetic_types_must_be_lossless);
+    return MatcherCast<T>(matcher);
+  }
+};
+
+template <typename T, typename M>
+inline Matcher<T> SafeMatcherCast(const M& polymorphic_matcher) {
+  return SafeMatcherCastImpl<T>::Cast(polymorphic_matcher);
+}
+
+// A<T>() returns a matcher that matches any value of type T.
+template <typename T>
+Matcher<T> A();
+
+// Anything inside the 'internal' namespace IS INTERNAL IMPLEMENTATION
+// and MUST NOT BE USED IN USER CODE!!!
+namespace internal {
+
+// If the explanation is not empty, prints it to the ostream.
+inline void PrintIfNotEmpty(const internal::string& explanation,
+                            ::std::ostream* os) {
+  if (explanation != "" && os != NULL) {
+    *os << ", " << explanation;
+  }
+}
+
+// Returns true if the given type name is easy to read by a human.
+// This is used to decide whether printing the type of a value might
+// be helpful.
+inline bool IsReadableTypeName(const string& type_name) {
+  // We consider a type name readable if it's short or doesn't contain
+  // a template or function type.
+  return (type_name.length() <= 20 ||
+          type_name.find_first_of("<(") == string::npos);
+}
+
+// Matches the value against the given matcher, prints the value and explains
+// the match result to the listener. Returns the match result.
+// 'listener' must not be NULL.
+// Value cannot be passed by const reference, because some matchers take a
+// non-const argument.
+template <typename Value, typename T>
+bool MatchPrintAndExplain(Value& value, const Matcher<T>& matcher,
+                          MatchResultListener* listener) {
+  if (!listener->IsInterested()) {
+    // If the listener is not interested, we do not need to construct the
+    // inner explanation.
+    return matcher.Matches(value);
+  }
+
+  StringMatchResultListener inner_listener;
+  const bool match = matcher.MatchAndExplain(value, &inner_listener);
+
+  UniversalPrint(value, listener->stream());
+#if GTEST_HAS_RTTI
+  const string& type_name = GetTypeName<Value>();
+  if (IsReadableTypeName(type_name))
+    *listener->stream() << " (of type " << type_name << ")";
+#endif
+  PrintIfNotEmpty(inner_listener.str(), listener->stream());
+
+  return match;
+}
+
+// An internal helper class for doing compile-time loop on a tuple's
+// fields.
+template <size_t N>
+class TuplePrefix {
+ public:
+  // TuplePrefix<N>::Matches(matcher_tuple, value_tuple) returns true
+  // iff the first N fields of matcher_tuple matches the first N
+  // fields of value_tuple, respectively.
+  template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+  static bool Matches(const MatcherTuple& matcher_tuple,
+                      const ValueTuple& value_tuple) {
+    using ::std::tr1::get;
+    return TuplePrefix<N - 1>::Matches(matcher_tuple, value_tuple)
+        && get<N - 1>(matcher_tuple).Matches(get<N - 1>(value_tuple));
+  }
+
+  // TuplePrefix<N>::ExplainMatchFailuresTo(matchers, values, os)
+  // describes failures in matching the first N fields of matchers
+  // against the first N fields of values.  If there is no failure,
+  // nothing will be streamed to os.
+  template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+  static void ExplainMatchFailuresTo(const MatcherTuple& matchers,
+                                     const ValueTuple& values,
+                                     ::std::ostream* os) {
+    using ::std::tr1::tuple_element;
+    using ::std::tr1::get;
+
+    // First, describes failures in the first N - 1 fields.
+    TuplePrefix<N - 1>::ExplainMatchFailuresTo(matchers, values, os);
+
+    // Then describes the failure (if any) in the (N - 1)-th (0-based)
+    // field.
+    typename tuple_element<N - 1, MatcherTuple>::type matcher =
+        get<N - 1>(matchers);
+    typedef typename tuple_element<N - 1, ValueTuple>::type Value;
+    Value value = get<N - 1>(values);
+    StringMatchResultListener listener;
+    if (!matcher.MatchAndExplain(value, &listener)) {
+      // TODO(wan): include in the message the name of the parameter
+      // as used in MOCK_METHOD*() when possible.
+      *os << "  Expected arg #" << N - 1 << ": ";
+      get<N - 1>(matchers).DescribeTo(os);
+      *os << "\n           Actual: ";
+      // We remove the reference in type Value to prevent the
+      // universal printer from printing the address of value, which
+      // isn't interesting to the user most of the time.  The
+      // matcher's MatchAndExplain() method handles the case when
+      // the address is interesting.
+      internal::UniversalPrint(value, os);
+      PrintIfNotEmpty(listener.str(), os);
+      *os << "\n";
+    }
+  }
+};
+
+// The base case.
+template <>
+class TuplePrefix<0> {
+ public:
+  template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+  static bool Matches(const MatcherTuple& /* matcher_tuple */,
+                      const ValueTuple& /* value_tuple */) {
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+  static void ExplainMatchFailuresTo(const MatcherTuple& /* matchers */,
+                                     const ValueTuple& /* values */,
+                                     ::std::ostream* /* os */) {}
+};
+
+// TupleMatches(matcher_tuple, value_tuple) returns true iff all
+// matchers in matcher_tuple match the corresponding fields in
+// value_tuple.  It is a compiler error if matcher_tuple and
+// value_tuple have different number of fields or incompatible field
+// types.
+template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+bool TupleMatches(const MatcherTuple& matcher_tuple,
+                  const ValueTuple& value_tuple) {
+  using ::std::tr1::tuple_size;
+  // Makes sure that matcher_tuple and value_tuple have the same
+  // number of fields.
+  GTEST_COMPILE_ASSERT_(tuple_size<MatcherTuple>::value ==
+                        tuple_size<ValueTuple>::value,
+                        matcher_and_value_have_different_numbers_of_fields);
+  return TuplePrefix<tuple_size<ValueTuple>::value>::
+      Matches(matcher_tuple, value_tuple);
+}
+
+// Describes failures in matching matchers against values.  If there
+// is no failure, nothing will be streamed to os.
+template <typename MatcherTuple, typename ValueTuple>
+void ExplainMatchFailureTupleTo(const MatcherTuple& matchers,
+                                const ValueTuple& values,
+                                ::std::ostream* os) {
+  using ::std::tr1::tuple_size;
+  TuplePrefix<tuple_size<MatcherTuple>::value>::ExplainMatchFailuresTo(
+      matchers, values, os);
+}
+
+// TransformTupleValues and its helper.
+//
+// TransformTupleValuesHelper hides the internal machinery that
+// TransformTupleValues uses to implement a tuple traversal.
+template <typename Tuple, typename Func, typename OutIter>
+class TransformTupleValuesHelper {
+ private:
+  typedef typename ::std::tr1::tuple_size<Tuple> TupleSize;
+
+ public:
+  // For each member of tuple 't', taken in order, evaluates '*out++ = f(t)'.
+  // Returns the final value of 'out' in case the caller needs it.
+  static OutIter Run(Func f, const Tuple& t, OutIter out) {
+    return IterateOverTuple<Tuple, TupleSize::value>()(f, t, out);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  template <typename Tup, size_t kRemainingSize>
+  struct IterateOverTuple {
+    OutIter operator() (Func f, const Tup& t, OutIter out) const {
+      *out++ = f(::std::tr1::get<TupleSize::value - kRemainingSize>(t));
+      return IterateOverTuple<Tup, kRemainingSize - 1>()(f, t, out);
+    }
+  };
+  template <typename Tup>
+  struct IterateOverTuple<Tup, 0> {
+    OutIter operator() (Func /* f */, const Tup& /* t */, OutIter out) const {
+      return out;
+    }
+  };
+};
+
+// Successively invokes 'f(element)' on each element of the tuple 't',
+// appending each result to the 'out' iterator. Returns the final value
+// of 'out'.
+template <typename Tuple, typename Func, typename OutIter>
+OutIter TransformTupleValues(Func f, const Tuple& t, OutIter out) {
+  return TransformTupleValuesHelper<Tuple, Func, OutIter>::Run(f, t, out);
+}
+
+// Implements A<T>().
+template <typename T>
+class AnyMatcherImpl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+ public:
+  virtual bool MatchAndExplain(
+      T /* x */, MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const { return true; }
+  virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { *os << "is anything"; }
+  virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    // This is mostly for completeness' safe, as it's not very useful
+    // to write Not(A<bool>()).  However we cannot completely rule out
+    // such a possibility, and it doesn't hurt to be prepared.
+    *os << "never matches";
+  }
+};
+
+// Implements _, a matcher that matches any value of any
+// type.  This is a polymorphic matcher, so we need a template type
+// conversion operator to make it appearing as a Matcher<T> for any
+// type T.
+class AnythingMatcher {
+ public:
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const { return A<T>(); }
+};
+
+// Implements a matcher that compares a given value with a
+// pre-supplied value using one of the ==, <=, <, etc, operators.  The
+// two values being compared don't have to have the same type.
+//
+// The matcher defined here is polymorphic (for example, Eq(5) can be
+// used to match an int, a short, a double, etc).  Therefore we use
+// a template type conversion operator in the implementation.
+//
+// We define this as a macro in order to eliminate duplicated source
+// code.
+//
+// The following template definition assumes that the Rhs parameter is
+// a "bare" type (i.e. neither 'const T' nor 'T&').
+#define GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_( \
+    name, op, relation, negated_relation) \
+  template <typename Rhs> class name##Matcher { \
+   public: \
+    explicit name##Matcher(const Rhs& rhs) : rhs_(rhs) {} \
+    template <typename Lhs> \
+    operator Matcher<Lhs>() const { \
+      return MakeMatcher(new Impl<Lhs>(rhs_)); \
+    } \
+   private: \
+    template <typename Lhs> \
+    class Impl : public MatcherInterface<Lhs> { \
+     public: \
+      explicit Impl(const Rhs& rhs) : rhs_(rhs) {} \
+      virtual bool MatchAndExplain(\
+          Lhs lhs, MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const { \
+        return lhs op rhs_; \
+      } \
+      virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { \
+        *os << relation  " "; \
+        UniversalPrint(rhs_, os); \
+      } \
+      virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const { \
+        *os << negated_relation  " "; \
+        UniversalPrint(rhs_, os); \
+      } \
+     private: \
+      Rhs rhs_; \
+      GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl); \
+    }; \
+    Rhs rhs_; \
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(name##Matcher); \
+  }
+
+// Implements Eq(v), Ge(v), Gt(v), Le(v), Lt(v), and Ne(v)
+// respectively.
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Eq, ==, "is equal to", "isn't equal to");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Ge, >=, "is >=", "isn't >=");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Gt, >, "is >", "isn't >");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Le, <=, "is <=", "isn't <=");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Lt, <, "is <", "isn't <");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_(Ne, !=, "isn't equal to", "is equal to");
+
+#undef GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON_MATCHER_
+
+// Implements the polymorphic IsNull() matcher, which matches any raw or smart
+// pointer that is NULL.
+class IsNullMatcher {
+ public:
+  template <typename Pointer>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const Pointer& p,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    return GetRawPointer(p) == NULL;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { *os << "is NULL"; }
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "isn't NULL";
+  }
+};
+
+// Implements the polymorphic NotNull() matcher, which matches any raw or smart
+// pointer that is not NULL.
+class NotNullMatcher {
+ public:
+  template <typename Pointer>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const Pointer& p,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    return GetRawPointer(p) != NULL;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { *os << "isn't NULL"; }
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "is NULL";
+  }
+};
+
+// Ref(variable) matches any argument that is a reference to
+// 'variable'.  This matcher is polymorphic as it can match any
+// super type of the type of 'variable'.
+//
+// The RefMatcher template class implements Ref(variable).  It can
+// only be instantiated with a reference type.  This prevents a user
+// from mistakenly using Ref(x) to match a non-reference function
+// argument.  For example, the following will righteously cause a
+// compiler error:
+//
+//   int n;
+//   Matcher<int> m1 = Ref(n);   // This won't compile.
+//   Matcher<int&> m2 = Ref(n);  // This will compile.
+template <typename T>
+class RefMatcher;
+
+template <typename T>
+class RefMatcher<T&> {
+  // Google Mock is a generic framework and thus needs to support
+  // mocking any function types, including those that take non-const
+  // reference arguments.  Therefore the template parameter T (and
+  // Super below) can be instantiated to either a const type or a
+  // non-const type.
+ public:
+  // RefMatcher() takes a T& instead of const T&, as we want the
+  // compiler to catch using Ref(const_value) as a matcher for a
+  // non-const reference.
+  explicit RefMatcher(T& x) : object_(x) {}  // NOLINT
+
+  template <typename Super>
+  operator Matcher<Super&>() const {
+    // By passing object_ (type T&) to Impl(), which expects a Super&,
+    // we make sure that Super is a super type of T.  In particular,
+    // this catches using Ref(const_value) as a matcher for a
+    // non-const reference, as you cannot implicitly convert a const
+    // reference to a non-const reference.
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<Super>(object_));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  template <typename Super>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<Super&> {
+   public:
+    explicit Impl(Super& x) : object_(x) {}  // NOLINT
+
+    // MatchAndExplain() takes a Super& (as opposed to const Super&)
+    // in order to match the interface MatcherInterface<Super&>.
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(
+        Super& x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      *listener << "which is located @" << static_cast<const void*>(&x);
+      return &x == &object_;
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "references the variable ";
+      UniversalPrinter<Super&>::Print(object_, os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "does not reference the variable ";
+      UniversalPrinter<Super&>::Print(object_, os);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Super& object_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+
+  T& object_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(RefMatcher);
+};
+
+// Polymorphic helper functions for narrow and wide string matchers.
+inline bool CaseInsensitiveCStringEquals(const char* lhs, const char* rhs) {
+  return String::CaseInsensitiveCStringEquals(lhs, rhs);
+}
+
+inline bool CaseInsensitiveCStringEquals(const wchar_t* lhs,
+                                         const wchar_t* rhs) {
+  return String::CaseInsensitiveWideCStringEquals(lhs, rhs);
+}
+
+// String comparison for narrow or wide strings that can have embedded NUL
+// characters.
+template <typename StringType>
+bool CaseInsensitiveStringEquals(const StringType& s1,
+                                 const StringType& s2) {
+  // Are the heads equal?
+  if (!CaseInsensitiveCStringEquals(s1.c_str(), s2.c_str())) {
+    return false;
+  }
+
+  // Skip the equal heads.
+  const typename StringType::value_type nul = 0;
+  const size_t i1 = s1.find(nul), i2 = s2.find(nul);
+
+  // Are we at the end of either s1 or s2?
+  if (i1 == StringType::npos || i2 == StringType::npos) {
+    return i1 == i2;
+  }
+
+  // Are the tails equal?
+  return CaseInsensitiveStringEquals(s1.substr(i1 + 1), s2.substr(i2 + 1));
+}
+
+// String matchers.
+
+// Implements equality-based string matchers like StrEq, StrCaseNe, and etc.
+template <typename StringType>
+class StrEqualityMatcher {
+ public:
+  StrEqualityMatcher(const StringType& str, bool expect_eq,
+                     bool case_sensitive)
+      : string_(str), expect_eq_(expect_eq), case_sensitive_(case_sensitive) {}
+
+  // Accepts pointer types, particularly:
+  //   const char*
+  //   char*
+  //   const wchar_t*
+  //   wchar_t*
+  template <typename CharType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(CharType* s, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    if (s == NULL) {
+      return !expect_eq_;
+    }
+    return MatchAndExplain(StringType(s), listener);
+  }
+
+  // Matches anything that can convert to StringType.
+  //
+  // This is a template, not just a plain function with const StringType&,
+  // because StringPiece has some interfering non-explicit constructors.
+  template <typename MatcheeStringType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const MatcheeStringType& s,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    const StringType& s2(s);
+    const bool eq = case_sensitive_ ? s2 == string_ :
+        CaseInsensitiveStringEquals(s2, string_);
+    return expect_eq_ == eq;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    DescribeToHelper(expect_eq_, os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    DescribeToHelper(!expect_eq_, os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  void DescribeToHelper(bool expect_eq, ::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << (expect_eq ? "is " : "isn't ");
+    *os << "equal to ";
+    if (!case_sensitive_) {
+      *os << "(ignoring case) ";
+    }
+    UniversalPrint(string_, os);
+  }
+
+  const StringType string_;
+  const bool expect_eq_;
+  const bool case_sensitive_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(StrEqualityMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the polymorphic HasSubstr(substring) matcher, which
+// can be used as a Matcher<T> as long as T can be converted to a
+// string.
+template <typename StringType>
+class HasSubstrMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit HasSubstrMatcher(const StringType& substring)
+      : substring_(substring) {}
+
+  // Accepts pointer types, particularly:
+  //   const char*
+  //   char*
+  //   const wchar_t*
+  //   wchar_t*
+  template <typename CharType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(CharType* s, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return s != NULL && MatchAndExplain(StringType(s), listener);
+  }
+
+  // Matches anything that can convert to StringType.
+  //
+  // This is a template, not just a plain function with const StringType&,
+  // because StringPiece has some interfering non-explicit constructors.
+  template <typename MatcheeStringType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const MatcheeStringType& s,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    const StringType& s2(s);
+    return s2.find(substring_) != StringType::npos;
+  }
+
+  // Describes what this matcher matches.
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "has substring ";
+    UniversalPrint(substring_, os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "has no substring ";
+    UniversalPrint(substring_, os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const StringType substring_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(HasSubstrMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the polymorphic StartsWith(substring) matcher, which
+// can be used as a Matcher<T> as long as T can be converted to a
+// string.
+template <typename StringType>
+class StartsWithMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit StartsWithMatcher(const StringType& prefix) : prefix_(prefix) {
+  }
+
+  // Accepts pointer types, particularly:
+  //   const char*
+  //   char*
+  //   const wchar_t*
+  //   wchar_t*
+  template <typename CharType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(CharType* s, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return s != NULL && MatchAndExplain(StringType(s), listener);
+  }
+
+  // Matches anything that can convert to StringType.
+  //
+  // This is a template, not just a plain function with const StringType&,
+  // because StringPiece has some interfering non-explicit constructors.
+  template <typename MatcheeStringType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const MatcheeStringType& s,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    const StringType& s2(s);
+    return s2.length() >= prefix_.length() &&
+        s2.substr(0, prefix_.length()) == prefix_;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "starts with ";
+    UniversalPrint(prefix_, os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "doesn't start with ";
+    UniversalPrint(prefix_, os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const StringType prefix_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(StartsWithMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the polymorphic EndsWith(substring) matcher, which
+// can be used as a Matcher<T> as long as T can be converted to a
+// string.
+template <typename StringType>
+class EndsWithMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit EndsWithMatcher(const StringType& suffix) : suffix_(suffix) {}
+
+  // Accepts pointer types, particularly:
+  //   const char*
+  //   char*
+  //   const wchar_t*
+  //   wchar_t*
+  template <typename CharType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(CharType* s, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return s != NULL && MatchAndExplain(StringType(s), listener);
+  }
+
+  // Matches anything that can convert to StringType.
+  //
+  // This is a template, not just a plain function with const StringType&,
+  // because StringPiece has some interfering non-explicit constructors.
+  template <typename MatcheeStringType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const MatcheeStringType& s,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    const StringType& s2(s);
+    return s2.length() >= suffix_.length() &&
+        s2.substr(s2.length() - suffix_.length()) == suffix_;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "ends with ";
+    UniversalPrint(suffix_, os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "doesn't end with ";
+    UniversalPrint(suffix_, os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const StringType suffix_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(EndsWithMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements polymorphic matchers MatchesRegex(regex) and
+// ContainsRegex(regex), which can be used as a Matcher<T> as long as
+// T can be converted to a string.
+class MatchesRegexMatcher {
+ public:
+  MatchesRegexMatcher(const RE* regex, bool full_match)
+      : regex_(regex), full_match_(full_match) {}
+
+  // Accepts pointer types, particularly:
+  //   const char*
+  //   char*
+  //   const wchar_t*
+  //   wchar_t*
+  template <typename CharType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(CharType* s, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return s != NULL && MatchAndExplain(internal::string(s), listener);
+  }
+
+  // Matches anything that can convert to internal::string.
+  //
+  // This is a template, not just a plain function with const internal::string&,
+  // because StringPiece has some interfering non-explicit constructors.
+  template <class MatcheeStringType>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const MatcheeStringType& s,
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    const internal::string& s2(s);
+    return full_match_ ? RE::FullMatch(s2, *regex_) :
+        RE::PartialMatch(s2, *regex_);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << (full_match_ ? "matches" : "contains")
+        << " regular expression ";
+    UniversalPrinter<internal::string>::Print(regex_->pattern(), os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "doesn't " << (full_match_ ? "match" : "contain")
+        << " regular expression ";
+    UniversalPrinter<internal::string>::Print(regex_->pattern(), os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const internal::linked_ptr<const RE> regex_;
+  const bool full_match_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(MatchesRegexMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements a matcher that compares the two fields of a 2-tuple
+// using one of the ==, <=, <, etc, operators.  The two fields being
+// compared don't have to have the same type.
+//
+// The matcher defined here is polymorphic (for example, Eq() can be
+// used to match a tuple<int, short>, a tuple<const long&, double>,
+// etc).  Therefore we use a template type conversion operator in the
+// implementation.
+//
+// We define this as a macro in order to eliminate duplicated source
+// code.
+#define GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(name, op, relation) \
+  class name##2Matcher { \
+   public: \
+    template <typename T1, typename T2> \
+    operator Matcher< ::std::tr1::tuple<T1, T2> >() const { \
+      return MakeMatcher(new Impl< ::std::tr1::tuple<T1, T2> >); \
+    } \
+    template <typename T1, typename T2> \
+    operator Matcher<const ::std::tr1::tuple<T1, T2>&>() const { \
+      return MakeMatcher(new Impl<const ::std::tr1::tuple<T1, T2>&>); \
+    } \
+   private: \
+    template <typename Tuple> \
+    class Impl : public MatcherInterface<Tuple> { \
+     public: \
+      virtual bool MatchAndExplain( \
+          Tuple args, \
+          MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const { \
+        return ::std::tr1::get<0>(args) op ::std::tr1::get<1>(args); \
+      } \
+      virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const { \
+        *os << "are " relation;                                 \
+      } \
+      virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const { \
+        *os << "aren't " relation; \
+      } \
+    }; \
+  }
+
+// Implements Eq(), Ge(), Gt(), Le(), Lt(), and Ne() respectively.
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(Eq, ==, "an equal pair");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(
+    Ge, >=, "a pair where the first >= the second");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(
+    Gt, >, "a pair where the first > the second");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(
+    Le, <=, "a pair where the first <= the second");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(
+    Lt, <, "a pair where the first < the second");
+GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_(Ne, !=, "an unequal pair");
+
+#undef GMOCK_IMPLEMENT_COMPARISON2_MATCHER_
+
+// Implements the Not(...) matcher for a particular argument type T.
+// We do not nest it inside the NotMatcher class template, as that
+// will prevent different instantiations of NotMatcher from sharing
+// the same NotMatcherImpl<T> class.
+template <typename T>
+class NotMatcherImpl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+ public:
+  explicit NotMatcherImpl(const Matcher<T>& matcher)
+      : matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return !matcher_.MatchAndExplain(x, listener);
+  }
+
+  virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+  }
+
+  virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const Matcher<T> matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(NotMatcherImpl);
+};
+
+// Implements the Not(m) matcher, which matches a value that doesn't
+// match matcher m.
+template <typename InnerMatcher>
+class NotMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit NotMatcher(InnerMatcher matcher) : matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  // This template type conversion operator allows Not(m) to be used
+  // to match any type m can match.
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return Matcher<T>(new NotMatcherImpl<T>(SafeMatcherCast<T>(matcher_)));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  InnerMatcher matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(NotMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the AllOf(m1, m2) matcher for a particular argument type
+// T. We do not nest it inside the BothOfMatcher class template, as
+// that will prevent different instantiations of BothOfMatcher from
+// sharing the same BothOfMatcherImpl<T> class.
+template <typename T>
+class BothOfMatcherImpl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+ public:
+  BothOfMatcherImpl(const Matcher<T>& matcher1, const Matcher<T>& matcher2)
+      : matcher1_(matcher1), matcher2_(matcher2) {}
+
+  virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "(";
+    matcher1_.DescribeTo(os);
+    *os << ") and (";
+    matcher2_.DescribeTo(os);
+    *os << ")";
+  }
+
+  virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "(";
+    matcher1_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    *os << ") or (";
+    matcher2_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    *os << ")";
+  }
+
+  virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    // If either matcher1_ or matcher2_ doesn't match x, we only need
+    // to explain why one of them fails.
+    StringMatchResultListener listener1;
+    if (!matcher1_.MatchAndExplain(x, &listener1)) {
+      *listener << listener1.str();
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    StringMatchResultListener listener2;
+    if (!matcher2_.MatchAndExplain(x, &listener2)) {
+      *listener << listener2.str();
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    // Otherwise we need to explain why *both* of them match.
+    const internal::string s1 = listener1.str();
+    const internal::string s2 = listener2.str();
+
+    if (s1 == "") {
+      *listener << s2;
+    } else {
+      *listener << s1;
+      if (s2 != "") {
+        *listener << ", and " << s2;
+      }
+    }
+    return true;
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const Matcher<T> matcher1_;
+  const Matcher<T> matcher2_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(BothOfMatcherImpl);
+};
+
+#if GTEST_LANG_CXX11
+// MatcherList provides mechanisms for storing a variable number of matchers in
+// a list structure (ListType) and creating a combining matcher from such a
+// list.
+// The template is defined recursively using the following template paramters:
+//   * kSize is the length of the MatcherList.
+//   * Head is the type of the first matcher of the list.
+//   * Tail denotes the types of the remaining matchers of the list.
+template <int kSize, typename Head, typename... Tail>
+struct MatcherList {
+  typedef MatcherList<kSize - 1, Tail...> MatcherListTail;
+  typedef ::std::pair<Head, typename MatcherListTail::ListType> ListType;
+
+  // BuildList stores variadic type values in a nested pair structure.
+  // Example:
+  // MatcherList<3, int, string, float>::BuildList(5, "foo", 2.0) will return
+  // the corresponding result of type pair<int, pair<string, float>>.
+  static ListType BuildList(const Head& matcher, const Tail&... tail) {
+    return ListType(matcher, MatcherListTail::BuildList(tail...));
+  }
+
+  // CreateMatcher<T> creates a Matcher<T> from a given list of matchers (built
+  // by BuildList()). CombiningMatcher<T> is used to combine the matchers of the
+  // list. CombiningMatcher<T> must implement MatcherInterface<T> and have a
+  // constructor taking two Matcher<T>s as input.
+  template <typename T, template <typename /* T */> class CombiningMatcher>
+  static Matcher<T> CreateMatcher(const ListType& matchers) {
+    return Matcher<T>(new CombiningMatcher<T>(
+        SafeMatcherCast<T>(matchers.first),
+        MatcherListTail::template CreateMatcher<T, CombiningMatcher>(
+            matchers.second)));
+  }
+};
+
+// The following defines the base case for the recursive definition of
+// MatcherList.
+template <typename Matcher1, typename Matcher2>
+struct MatcherList<2, Matcher1, Matcher2> {
+  typedef ::std::pair<Matcher1, Matcher2> ListType;
+
+  static ListType BuildList(const Matcher1& matcher1,
+                            const Matcher2& matcher2) {
+    return ::std::pair<Matcher1, Matcher2>(matcher1, matcher2);
+  }
+
+  template <typename T, template <typename /* T */> class CombiningMatcher>
+  static Matcher<T> CreateMatcher(const ListType& matchers) {
+    return Matcher<T>(new CombiningMatcher<T>(
+        SafeMatcherCast<T>(matchers.first),
+        SafeMatcherCast<T>(matchers.second)));
+  }
+};
+
+// VariadicMatcher is used for the variadic implementation of
+// AllOf(m_1, m_2, ...) and AnyOf(m_1, m_2, ...).
+// CombiningMatcher<T> is used to recursively combine the provided matchers
+// (of type Args...).
+template <template <typename T> class CombiningMatcher, typename... Args>
+class VariadicMatcher {
+ public:
+  VariadicMatcher(const Args&... matchers)  // NOLINT
+      : matchers_(MatcherListType::BuildList(matchers...)) {}
+
+  // This template type conversion operator allows an
+  // VariadicMatcher<Matcher1, Matcher2...> object to match any type that
+  // all of the provided matchers (Matcher1, Matcher2, ...) can match.
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return MatcherListType::template CreateMatcher<T, CombiningMatcher>(
+        matchers_);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  typedef MatcherList<sizeof...(Args), Args...> MatcherListType;
+
+  const typename MatcherListType::ListType matchers_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(VariadicMatcher);
+};
+
+template <typename... Args>
+using AllOfMatcher = VariadicMatcher<BothOfMatcherImpl, Args...>;
+
+#endif  // GTEST_LANG_CXX11
+
+// Used for implementing the AllOf(m_1, ..., m_n) matcher, which
+// matches a value that matches all of the matchers m_1, ..., and m_n.
+template <typename Matcher1, typename Matcher2>
+class BothOfMatcher {
+ public:
+  BothOfMatcher(Matcher1 matcher1, Matcher2 matcher2)
+      : matcher1_(matcher1), matcher2_(matcher2) {}
+
+  // This template type conversion operator allows a
+  // BothOfMatcher<Matcher1, Matcher2> object to match any type that
+  // both Matcher1 and Matcher2 can match.
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return Matcher<T>(new BothOfMatcherImpl<T>(SafeMatcherCast<T>(matcher1_),
+                                               SafeMatcherCast<T>(matcher2_)));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  Matcher1 matcher1_;
+  Matcher2 matcher2_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(BothOfMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the AnyOf(m1, m2) matcher for a particular argument type
+// T.  We do not nest it inside the AnyOfMatcher class template, as
+// that will prevent different instantiations of AnyOfMatcher from
+// sharing the same EitherOfMatcherImpl<T> class.
+template <typename T>
+class EitherOfMatcherImpl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+ public:
+  EitherOfMatcherImpl(const Matcher<T>& matcher1, const Matcher<T>& matcher2)
+      : matcher1_(matcher1), matcher2_(matcher2) {}
+
+  virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "(";
+    matcher1_.DescribeTo(os);
+    *os << ") or (";
+    matcher2_.DescribeTo(os);
+    *os << ")";
+  }
+
+  virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "(";
+    matcher1_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    *os << ") and (";
+    matcher2_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    *os << ")";
+  }
+
+  virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T x, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    // If either matcher1_ or matcher2_ matches x, we just need to
+    // explain why *one* of them matches.
+    StringMatchResultListener listener1;
+    if (matcher1_.MatchAndExplain(x, &listener1)) {
+      *listener << listener1.str();
+      return true;
+    }
+
+    StringMatchResultListener listener2;
+    if (matcher2_.MatchAndExplain(x, &listener2)) {
+      *listener << listener2.str();
+      return true;
+    }
+
+    // Otherwise we need to explain why *both* of them fail.
+    const internal::string s1 = listener1.str();
+    const internal::string s2 = listener2.str();
+
+    if (s1 == "") {
+      *listener << s2;
+    } else {
+      *listener << s1;
+      if (s2 != "") {
+        *listener << ", and " << s2;
+      }
+    }
+    return false;
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const Matcher<T> matcher1_;
+  const Matcher<T> matcher2_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(EitherOfMatcherImpl);
+};
+
+#if GTEST_LANG_CXX11
+// AnyOfMatcher is used for the variadic implementation of AnyOf(m_1, m_2, ...).
+template <typename... Args>
+using AnyOfMatcher = VariadicMatcher<EitherOfMatcherImpl, Args...>;
+
+#endif  // GTEST_LANG_CXX11
+
+// Used for implementing the AnyOf(m_1, ..., m_n) matcher, which
+// matches a value that matches at least one of the matchers m_1, ...,
+// and m_n.
+template <typename Matcher1, typename Matcher2>
+class EitherOfMatcher {
+ public:
+  EitherOfMatcher(Matcher1 matcher1, Matcher2 matcher2)
+      : matcher1_(matcher1), matcher2_(matcher2) {}
+
+  // This template type conversion operator allows a
+  // EitherOfMatcher<Matcher1, Matcher2> object to match any type that
+  // both Matcher1 and Matcher2 can match.
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return Matcher<T>(new EitherOfMatcherImpl<T>(
+        SafeMatcherCast<T>(matcher1_), SafeMatcherCast<T>(matcher2_)));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  Matcher1 matcher1_;
+  Matcher2 matcher2_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(EitherOfMatcher);
+};
+
+// Used for implementing Truly(pred), which turns a predicate into a
+// matcher.
+template <typename Predicate>
+class TrulyMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit TrulyMatcher(Predicate pred) : predicate_(pred) {}
+
+  // This method template allows Truly(pred) to be used as a matcher
+  // for type T where T is the argument type of predicate 'pred'.  The
+  // argument is passed by reference as the predicate may be
+  // interested in the address of the argument.
+  template <typename T>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(T& x,  // NOLINT
+                       MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+    // Without the if-statement, MSVC sometimes warns about converting
+    // a value to bool (warning 4800).
+    //
+    // We cannot write 'return !!predicate_(x);' as that doesn't work
+    // when predicate_(x) returns a class convertible to bool but
+    // having no operator!().
+    if (predicate_(x))
+      return true;
+    return false;
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "satisfies the given predicate";
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "doesn't satisfy the given predicate";
+  }
+
+ private:
+  Predicate predicate_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(TrulyMatcher);
+};
+
+// Used for implementing Matches(matcher), which turns a matcher into
+// a predicate.
+template <typename M>
+class MatcherAsPredicate {
+ public:
+  explicit MatcherAsPredicate(M matcher) : matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  // This template operator() allows Matches(m) to be used as a
+  // predicate on type T where m is a matcher on type T.
+  //
+  // The argument x is passed by reference instead of by value, as
+  // some matcher may be interested in its address (e.g. as in
+  // Matches(Ref(n))(x)).
+  template <typename T>
+  bool operator()(const T& x) const {
+    // We let matcher_ commit to a particular type here instead of
+    // when the MatcherAsPredicate object was constructed.  This
+    // allows us to write Matches(m) where m is a polymorphic matcher
+    // (e.g. Eq(5)).
+    //
+    // If we write Matcher<T>(matcher_).Matches(x) here, it won't
+    // compile when matcher_ has type Matcher<const T&>; if we write
+    // Matcher<const T&>(matcher_).Matches(x) here, it won't compile
+    // when matcher_ has type Matcher<T>; if we just write
+    // matcher_.Matches(x), it won't compile when matcher_ is
+    // polymorphic, e.g. Eq(5).
+    //
+    // MatcherCast<const T&>() is necessary for making the code work
+    // in all of the above situations.
+    return MatcherCast<const T&>(matcher_).Matches(x);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  M matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(MatcherAsPredicate);
+};
+
+// For implementing ASSERT_THAT() and EXPECT_THAT().  The template
+// argument M must be a type that can be converted to a matcher.
+template <typename M>
+class PredicateFormatterFromMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit PredicateFormatterFromMatcher(const M& m) : matcher_(m) {}
+
+  // This template () operator allows a PredicateFormatterFromMatcher
+  // object to act as a predicate-formatter suitable for using with
+  // Google Test's EXPECT_PRED_FORMAT1() macro.
+  template <typename T>
+  AssertionResult operator()(const char* value_text, const T& x) const {
+    // We convert matcher_ to a Matcher<const T&> *now* instead of
+    // when the PredicateFormatterFromMatcher object was constructed,
+    // as matcher_ may be polymorphic (e.g. NotNull()) and we won't
+    // know which type to instantiate it to until we actually see the
+    // type of x here.
+    //
+    // We write SafeMatcherCast<const T&>(matcher_) instead of
+    // Matcher<const T&>(matcher_), as the latter won't compile when
+    // matcher_ has type Matcher<T> (e.g. An<int>()).
+    // We don't write MatcherCast<const T&> either, as that allows
+    // potentially unsafe downcasting of the matcher argument.
+    const Matcher<const T&> matcher = SafeMatcherCast<const T&>(matcher_);
+    StringMatchResultListener listener;
+    if (MatchPrintAndExplain(x, matcher, &listener))
+      return AssertionSuccess();
+
+    ::std::stringstream ss;
+    ss << "Value of: " << value_text << "\n"
+       << "Expected: ";
+    matcher.DescribeTo(&ss);
+    ss << "\n  Actual: " << listener.str();
+    return AssertionFailure() << ss.str();
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const M matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(PredicateFormatterFromMatcher);
+};
+
+// A helper function for converting a matcher to a predicate-formatter
+// without the user needing to explicitly write the type.  This is
+// used for implementing ASSERT_THAT() and EXPECT_THAT().
+template <typename M>
+inline PredicateFormatterFromMatcher<M>
+MakePredicateFormatterFromMatcher(const M& matcher) {
+  return PredicateFormatterFromMatcher<M>(matcher);
+}
+
+// Implements the polymorphic floating point equality matcher, which matches
+// two float values using ULP-based approximation or, optionally, a
+// user-specified epsilon.  The template is meant to be instantiated with
+// FloatType being either float or double.
+template <typename FloatType>
+class FloatingEqMatcher {
+ public:
+  // Constructor for FloatingEqMatcher.
+  // The matcher's input will be compared with rhs.  The matcher treats two
+  // NANs as equal if nan_eq_nan is true.  Otherwise, under IEEE standards,
+  // equality comparisons between NANs will always return false.  We specify a
+  // negative max_abs_error_ term to indicate that ULP-based approximation will
+  // be used for comparison.
+  FloatingEqMatcher(FloatType rhs, bool nan_eq_nan) :
+    rhs_(rhs), nan_eq_nan_(nan_eq_nan), max_abs_error_(-1) {
+  }
+
+  // Constructor that supports a user-specified max_abs_error that will be used
+  // for comparison instead of ULP-based approximation.  The max absolute
+  // should be non-negative.
+  FloatingEqMatcher(FloatType rhs, bool nan_eq_nan, FloatType max_abs_error) :
+    rhs_(rhs), nan_eq_nan_(nan_eq_nan), max_abs_error_(max_abs_error) {
+    GTEST_CHECK_(max_abs_error >= 0)
+        << ", where max_abs_error is" << max_abs_error;
+  }
+
+  // Implements floating point equality matcher as a Matcher<T>.
+  template <typename T>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+   public:
+    Impl(FloatType rhs, bool nan_eq_nan, FloatType max_abs_error) :
+      rhs_(rhs), nan_eq_nan_(nan_eq_nan), max_abs_error_(max_abs_error) {}
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T value,
+                                 MatchResultListener* /* listener */) const {
+      const FloatingPoint<FloatType> lhs(value), rhs(rhs_);
+
+      // Compares NaNs first, if nan_eq_nan_ is true.
+      if (lhs.is_nan() || rhs.is_nan()) {
+        if (lhs.is_nan() && rhs.is_nan()) {
+          return nan_eq_nan_;
+        }
+        // One is nan; the other is not nan.
+        return false;
+      }
+      if (HasMaxAbsError()) {
+        // We perform an equality check so that inf will match inf, regardless
+        // of error bounds.  If the result of value - rhs_ would result in
+        // overflow or if either value is inf, the default result is infinity,
+        // which should only match if max_abs_error_ is also infinity.
+        return value == rhs_ || fabs(value - rhs_) <= max_abs_error_;
+      } else {
+        return lhs.AlmostEquals(rhs);
+      }
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      // os->precision() returns the previously set precision, which we
+      // store to restore the ostream to its original configuration
+      // after outputting.
+      const ::std::streamsize old_precision = os->precision(
+          ::std::numeric_limits<FloatType>::digits10 + 2);
+      if (FloatingPoint<FloatType>(rhs_).is_nan()) {
+        if (nan_eq_nan_) {
+          *os << "is NaN";
+        } else {
+          *os << "never matches";
+        }
+      } else {
+        *os << "is approximately " << rhs_;
+        if (HasMaxAbsError()) {
+          *os << " (absolute error <= " << max_abs_error_ << ")";
+        }
+      }
+      os->precision(old_precision);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      // As before, get original precision.
+      const ::std::streamsize old_precision = os->precision(
+          ::std::numeric_limits<FloatType>::digits10 + 2);
+      if (FloatingPoint<FloatType>(rhs_).is_nan()) {
+        if (nan_eq_nan_) {
+          *os << "isn't NaN";
+        } else {
+          *os << "is anything";
+        }
+      } else {
+        *os << "isn't approximately " << rhs_;
+        if (HasMaxAbsError()) {
+          *os << " (absolute error > " << max_abs_error_ << ")";
+        }
+      }
+      // Restore original precision.
+      os->precision(old_precision);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    bool HasMaxAbsError() const {
+      return max_abs_error_ >= 0;
+    }
+
+    const FloatType rhs_;
+    const bool nan_eq_nan_;
+    // max_abs_error will be used for value comparison when >= 0.
+    const FloatType max_abs_error_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+
+  // The following 3 type conversion operators allow FloatEq(rhs) and
+  // NanSensitiveFloatEq(rhs) to be used as a Matcher<float>, a
+  // Matcher<const float&>, or a Matcher<float&>, but nothing else.
+  // (While Google's C++ coding style doesn't allow arguments passed
+  // by non-const reference, we may see them in code not conforming to
+  // the style.  Therefore Google Mock needs to support them.)
+  operator Matcher<FloatType>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<FloatType>(rhs_, nan_eq_nan_, max_abs_error_));
+  }
+
+  operator Matcher<const FloatType&>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(
+        new Impl<const FloatType&>(rhs_, nan_eq_nan_, max_abs_error_));
+  }
+
+  operator Matcher<FloatType&>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<FloatType&>(rhs_, nan_eq_nan_, max_abs_error_));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const FloatType rhs_;
+  const bool nan_eq_nan_;
+  // max_abs_error will be used for value comparison when >= 0.
+  const FloatType max_abs_error_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(FloatingEqMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the Pointee(m) matcher for matching a pointer whose
+// pointee matches matcher m.  The pointer can be either raw or smart.
+template <typename InnerMatcher>
+class PointeeMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit PointeeMatcher(const InnerMatcher& matcher) : matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  // This type conversion operator template allows Pointee(m) to be
+  // used as a matcher for any pointer type whose pointee type is
+  // compatible with the inner matcher, where type Pointer can be
+  // either a raw pointer or a smart pointer.
+  //
+  // The reason we do this instead of relying on
+  // MakePolymorphicMatcher() is that the latter is not flexible
+  // enough for implementing the DescribeTo() method of Pointee().
+  template <typename Pointer>
+  operator Matcher<Pointer>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<Pointer>(matcher_));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  // The monomorphic implementation that works for a particular pointer type.
+  template <typename Pointer>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<Pointer> {
+   public:
+    typedef typename PointeeOf<GTEST_REMOVE_CONST_(  // NOLINT
+        GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_(Pointer))>::type Pointee;
+
+    explicit Impl(const InnerMatcher& matcher)
+        : matcher_(MatcherCast<const Pointee&>(matcher)) {}
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "points to a value that ";
+      matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "does not point to a value that ";
+      matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(Pointer pointer,
+                                 MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      if (GetRawPointer(pointer) == NULL)
+        return false;
+
+      *listener << "which points to ";
+      return MatchPrintAndExplain(*pointer, matcher_, listener);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Matcher<const Pointee&> matcher_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+
+  const InnerMatcher matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(PointeeMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the Field() matcher for matching a field (i.e. member
+// variable) of an object.
+template <typename Class, typename FieldType>
+class FieldMatcher {
+ public:
+  FieldMatcher(FieldType Class::*field,
+               const Matcher<const FieldType&>& matcher)
+      : field_(field), matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "is an object whose given field ";
+    matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "is an object whose given field ";
+    matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+  }
+
+  template <typename T>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const T& value, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return MatchAndExplainImpl(
+        typename ::testing::internal::
+            is_pointer<GTEST_REMOVE_CONST_(T)>::type(),
+        value, listener);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  // The first argument of MatchAndExplainImpl() is needed to help
+  // Symbian's C++ compiler choose which overload to use.  Its type is
+  // true_type iff the Field() matcher is used to match a pointer.
+  bool MatchAndExplainImpl(false_type /* is_not_pointer */, const Class& obj,
+                           MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    *listener << "whose given field is ";
+    return MatchPrintAndExplain(obj.*field_, matcher_, listener);
+  }
+
+  bool MatchAndExplainImpl(true_type /* is_pointer */, const Class* p,
+                           MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    if (p == NULL)
+      return false;
+
+    *listener << "which points to an object ";
+    // Since *p has a field, it must be a class/struct/union type and
+    // thus cannot be a pointer.  Therefore we pass false_type() as
+    // the first argument.
+    return MatchAndExplainImpl(false_type(), *p, listener);
+  }
+
+  const FieldType Class::*field_;
+  const Matcher<const FieldType&> matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(FieldMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements the Property() matcher for matching a property
+// (i.e. return value of a getter method) of an object.
+template <typename Class, typename PropertyType>
+class PropertyMatcher {
+ public:
+  // The property may have a reference type, so 'const PropertyType&'
+  // may cause double references and fail to compile.  That's why we
+  // need GTEST_REFERENCE_TO_CONST, which works regardless of
+  // PropertyType being a reference or not.
+  typedef GTEST_REFERENCE_TO_CONST_(PropertyType) RefToConstProperty;
+
+  PropertyMatcher(PropertyType (Class::*property)() const,
+                  const Matcher<RefToConstProperty>& matcher)
+      : property_(property), matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "is an object whose given property ";
+    matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+  }
+
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "is an object whose given property ";
+    matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+  }
+
+  template <typename T>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const T&value, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    return MatchAndExplainImpl(
+        typename ::testing::internal::
+            is_pointer<GTEST_REMOVE_CONST_(T)>::type(),
+        value, listener);
+  }
+
+ private:
+  // The first argument of MatchAndExplainImpl() is needed to help
+  // Symbian's C++ compiler choose which overload to use.  Its type is
+  // true_type iff the Property() matcher is used to match a pointer.
+  bool MatchAndExplainImpl(false_type /* is_not_pointer */, const Class& obj,
+                           MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    *listener << "whose given property is ";
+    // Cannot pass the return value (for example, int) to MatchPrintAndExplain,
+    // which takes a non-const reference as argument.
+    RefToConstProperty result = (obj.*property_)();
+    return MatchPrintAndExplain(result, matcher_, listener);
+  }
+
+  bool MatchAndExplainImpl(true_type /* is_pointer */, const Class* p,
+                           MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    if (p == NULL)
+      return false;
+
+    *listener << "which points to an object ";
+    // Since *p has a property method, it must be a class/struct/union
+    // type and thus cannot be a pointer.  Therefore we pass
+    // false_type() as the first argument.
+    return MatchAndExplainImpl(false_type(), *p, listener);
+  }
+
+  PropertyType (Class::*property_)() const;
+  const Matcher<RefToConstProperty> matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(PropertyMatcher);
+};
+
+// Type traits specifying various features of different functors for ResultOf.
+// The default template specifies features for functor objects.
+// Functor classes have to typedef argument_type and result_type
+// to be compatible with ResultOf.
+template <typename Functor>
+struct CallableTraits {
+  typedef typename Functor::result_type ResultType;
+  typedef Functor StorageType;
+
+  static void CheckIsValid(Functor /* functor */) {}
+  template <typename T>
+  static ResultType Invoke(Functor f, T arg) { return f(arg); }
+};
+
+// Specialization for function pointers.
+template <typename ArgType, typename ResType>
+struct CallableTraits<ResType(*)(ArgType)> {
+  typedef ResType ResultType;
+  typedef ResType(*StorageType)(ArgType);
+
+  static void CheckIsValid(ResType(*f)(ArgType)) {
+    GTEST_CHECK_(f != NULL)
+        << "NULL function pointer is passed into ResultOf().";
+  }
+  template <typename T>
+  static ResType Invoke(ResType(*f)(ArgType), T arg) {
+    return (*f)(arg);
+  }
+};
+
+// Implements the ResultOf() matcher for matching a return value of a
+// unary function of an object.
+template <typename Callable>
+class ResultOfMatcher {
+ public:
+  typedef typename CallableTraits<Callable>::ResultType ResultType;
+
+  ResultOfMatcher(Callable callable, const Matcher<ResultType>& matcher)
+      : callable_(callable), matcher_(matcher) {
+    CallableTraits<Callable>::CheckIsValid(callable_);
+  }
+
+  template <typename T>
+  operator Matcher<T>() const {
+    return Matcher<T>(new Impl<T>(callable_, matcher_));
+  }
+
+ private:
+  typedef typename CallableTraits<Callable>::StorageType CallableStorageType;
+
+  template <typename T>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<T> {
+   public:
+    Impl(CallableStorageType callable, const Matcher<ResultType>& matcher)
+        : callable_(callable), matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "is mapped by the given callable to a value that ";
+      matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "is mapped by the given callable to a value that ";
+      matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(T obj, MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      *listener << "which is mapped by the given callable to ";
+      // Cannot pass the return value (for example, int) to
+      // MatchPrintAndExplain, which takes a non-const reference as argument.
+      ResultType result =
+          CallableTraits<Callable>::template Invoke<T>(callable_, obj);
+      return MatchPrintAndExplain(result, matcher_, listener);
+    }
+
+   private:
+    // Functors often define operator() as non-const method even though
+    // they are actualy stateless. But we need to use them even when
+    // 'this' is a const pointer. It's the user's responsibility not to
+    // use stateful callables with ResultOf(), which does't guarantee
+    // how many times the callable will be invoked.
+    mutable CallableStorageType callable_;
+    const Matcher<ResultType> matcher_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };  // class Impl
+
+  const CallableStorageType callable_;
+  const Matcher<ResultType> matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(ResultOfMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements a matcher that checks the size of an STL-style container.
+template <typename SizeMatcher>
+class SizeIsMatcher {
+ public:
+  explicit SizeIsMatcher(const SizeMatcher& size_matcher)
+       : size_matcher_(size_matcher) {
+  }
+
+  template <typename Container>
+  operator Matcher<Container>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<Container>(size_matcher_));
+  }
+
+  template <typename Container>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<Container> {
+   public:
+    typedef internal::StlContainerView<
+         GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_AND_CONST_(Container)> ContainerView;
+    typedef typename ContainerView::type::size_type SizeType;
+    explicit Impl(const SizeMatcher& size_matcher)
+        : size_matcher_(MatcherCast<SizeType>(size_matcher)) {}
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "size ";
+      size_matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "size ";
+      size_matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(Container container,
+                                 MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      SizeType size = container.size();
+      StringMatchResultListener size_listener;
+      const bool result = size_matcher_.MatchAndExplain(size, &size_listener);
+      *listener
+          << "whose size " << size << (result ? " matches" : " doesn't match");
+      PrintIfNotEmpty(size_listener.str(), listener->stream());
+      return result;
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Matcher<SizeType> size_matcher_;
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+
+ private:
+  const SizeMatcher size_matcher_;
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(SizeIsMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements an equality matcher for any STL-style container whose elements
+// support ==. This matcher is like Eq(), but its failure explanations provide
+// more detailed information that is useful when the container is used as a set.
+// The failure message reports elements that are in one of the operands but not
+// the other. The failure messages do not report duplicate or out-of-order
+// elements in the containers (which don't properly matter to sets, but can
+// occur if the containers are vectors or lists, for example).
+//
+// Uses the container's const_iterator, value_type, operator ==,
+// begin(), and end().
+template <typename Container>
+class ContainerEqMatcher {
+ public:
+  typedef internal::StlContainerView<Container> View;
+  typedef typename View::type StlContainer;
+  typedef typename View::const_reference StlContainerReference;
+
+  // We make a copy of rhs in case the elements in it are modified
+  // after this matcher is created.
+  explicit ContainerEqMatcher(const Container& rhs) : rhs_(View::Copy(rhs)) {
+    // Makes sure the user doesn't instantiate this class template
+    // with a const or reference type.
+    (void)testing::StaticAssertTypeEq<Container,
+        GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_AND_CONST_(Container)>();
+  }
+
+  void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "equals ";
+    UniversalPrint(rhs_, os);
+  }
+  void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+    *os << "does not equal ";
+    UniversalPrint(rhs_, os);
+  }
+
+  template <typename LhsContainer>
+  bool MatchAndExplain(const LhsContainer& lhs,
+                       MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+    // GTEST_REMOVE_CONST_() is needed to work around an MSVC 8.0 bug
+    // that causes LhsContainer to be a const type sometimes.
+    typedef internal::StlContainerView<GTEST_REMOVE_CONST_(LhsContainer)>
+        LhsView;
+    typedef typename LhsView::type LhsStlContainer;
+    StlContainerReference lhs_stl_container = LhsView::ConstReference(lhs);
+    if (lhs_stl_container == rhs_)
+      return true;
+
+    ::std::ostream* const os = listener->stream();
+    if (os != NULL) {
+      // Something is different. Check for extra values first.
+      bool printed_header = false;
+      for (typename LhsStlContainer::const_iterator it =
+               lhs_stl_container.begin();
+           it != lhs_stl_container.end(); ++it) {
+        if (internal::ArrayAwareFind(rhs_.begin(), rhs_.end(), *it) ==
+            rhs_.end()) {
+          if (printed_header) {
+            *os << ", ";
+          } else {
+            *os << "which has these unexpected elements: ";
+            printed_header = true;
+          }
+          UniversalPrint(*it, os);
+        }
+      }
+
+      // Now check for missing values.
+      bool printed_header2 = false;
+      for (typename StlContainer::const_iterator it = rhs_.begin();
+           it != rhs_.end(); ++it) {
+        if (internal::ArrayAwareFind(
+                lhs_stl_container.begin(), lhs_stl_container.end(), *it) ==
+            lhs_stl_container.end()) {
+          if (printed_header2) {
+            *os << ", ";
+          } else {
+            *os << (printed_header ? ",\nand" : "which")
+                << " doesn't have these expected elements: ";
+            printed_header2 = true;
+          }
+          UniversalPrint(*it, os);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    return false;
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const StlContainer rhs_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(ContainerEqMatcher);
+};
+
+// A comparator functor that uses the < operator to compare two values.
+struct LessComparator {
+  template <typename T, typename U>
+  bool operator()(const T& lhs, const U& rhs) const { return lhs < rhs; }
+};
+
+// Implements WhenSortedBy(comparator, container_matcher).
+template <typename Comparator, typename ContainerMatcher>
+class WhenSortedByMatcher {
+ public:
+  WhenSortedByMatcher(const Comparator& comparator,
+                      const ContainerMatcher& matcher)
+      : comparator_(comparator), matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+  template <typename LhsContainer>
+  operator Matcher<LhsContainer>() const {
+    return MakeMatcher(new Impl<LhsContainer>(comparator_, matcher_));
+  }
+
+  template <typename LhsContainer>
+  class Impl : public MatcherInterface<LhsContainer> {
+   public:
+    typedef internal::StlContainerView<
+         GTEST_REMOVE_REFERENCE_AND_CONST_(LhsContainer)> LhsView;
+    typedef typename LhsView::type LhsStlContainer;
+    typedef typename LhsView::const_reference LhsStlContainerReference;
+    // Transforms std::pair<const Key, Value> into std::pair<Key, Value>
+    // so that we can match associative containers.
+    typedef typename RemoveConstFromKey<
+        typename LhsStlContainer::value_type>::type LhsValue;
+
+    Impl(const Comparator& comparator, const ContainerMatcher& matcher)
+        : comparator_(comparator), matcher_(matcher) {}
+
+    virtual void DescribeTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "(when sorted) ";
+      matcher_.DescribeTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual void DescribeNegationTo(::std::ostream* os) const {
+      *os << "(when sorted) ";
+      matcher_.DescribeNegationTo(os);
+    }
+
+    virtual bool MatchAndExplain(LhsContainer lhs,
+                                 MatchResultListener* listener) const {
+      LhsStlContainerReference lhs_stl_container = LhsView::ConstReference(lhs);
+      ::std::vector<LhsValue> sorted_container(lhs_stl_container.begin(),
+                                               lhs_stl_container.end());
+      ::std::sort(
+           sorted_container.begin(), sorted_container.end(), comparator_);
+
+      if (!listener->IsInterested()) {
+        // If the listener is not interested, we do not need to
+        // construct the inner explanation.
+        return matcher_.Matches(sorted_container);
+      }
+
+      *listener << "which is ";
+      UniversalPrint(sorted_container, listener->stream());
+      *listener << " when sorted";
+
+      StringMatchResultListener inner_listener;
+      const bool match = matcher_.MatchAndExplain(sorted_container,
+                                                  &inner_listener);
+      PrintIfNotEmpty(inner_listener.str(), listener->stream());
+      return match;
+    }
+
+   private:
+    const Comparator comparator_;
+    const Matcher<const ::std::vector<LhsValue>&> matcher_;
+
+    GTEST_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN_(Impl);
+  };
+
+ private:
+  const Comparator comparator_;
+  const ContainerMatcher matcher_;
+
+  GTEST_DISALLOW_ASSIGN_(WhenSortedByMatcher);
+};
+
+// Implements Pointwise(tu

<TRUNCATED>


Mime
View raw message