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From foy...@apache.org
Subject [1/9] incubator-hawq git commit: HAWQ-149. Add orafce, gp_cancel_query, pgbench and extprotocol to HAWQ
Date Thu, 12 Nov 2015 20:25:18 GMT
Repository: incubator-hawq
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/master 0b0bad4dd -> e74af5450


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-hawq/blob/e74af545/src/bin/pgbench/pgbench.c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/bin/pgbench/pgbench.c b/src/bin/pgbench/pgbench.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..93a84bd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/bin/pgbench/pgbench.c
@@ -0,0 +1,2558 @@
+/*
+ * pgbench.c
+ *
+ * A simple benchmark program for PostgreSQL
+ * Originally written by Tatsuo Ishii and enhanced by many contributors.
+ *
+ * $PostgreSQL: pgsql/contrib/pgbench/pgbench.c,v 1.93 2009/12/15 07:17:57 itagaki Exp $
+ * Copyright (c) 2000-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
+ * ALL RIGHTS RESERVED;
+ *
+ * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
+ * documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement
+ * is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this
+ * paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.
+ *
+ * IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR
+ * DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING
+ * LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS
+ * DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE
+ * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,
+ * INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
+ * AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS
+ * ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO
+ * PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifdef WIN32
+#define FD_SETSIZE 1024		/* set before winsock2.h is included */
+#endif   /* ! WIN32 */
+
+#include "postgres_fe.h"
+
+#include "libpq-fe.h"
+#include "pqsignal.h"
+#include "portability/instr_time.h"
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+
+#ifdef WIN32
+#include <win32.h>
+#else
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#endif   /* ! WIN32 */
+
+#ifdef HAVE_GETOPT_H
+#include <getopt.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifdef HAVE_SYS_SELECT_H
+#include <sys/select.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
+#include <sys/resource.h>		/* for getrlimit */
+#endif
+
+#ifndef INT64_MAX
+#define INT64_MAX	INT64CONST(0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Multi-platform pthread implementations
+ */
+
+#ifdef WIN32
+/* Use native win32 threads on Windows */
+typedef struct win32_pthread   *pthread_t;
+typedef int						pthread_attr_t;
+
+static int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, pthread_attr_t *attr, void * (*start_routine)(void *), void *arg);
+static int pthread_join(pthread_t th, void **thread_return);
+
+#elif defined(ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY)
+/* Use platform-dependent pthread capability */
+#include <pthread.h>
+
+#else
+/* Use emulation with fork. Rename pthread identifiers to avoid conflicts */
+
+#include <sys/wait.h>
+
+#define pthread_t				pg_pthread_t
+#define pthread_attr_t			pg_pthread_attr_t
+#define pthread_create			pg_pthread_create
+#define pthread_join			pg_pthread_join
+
+typedef struct fork_pthread	   *pthread_t;
+typedef int						pthread_attr_t;
+
+static int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, pthread_attr_t *attr, void * (*start_routine)(void *), void *arg);
+static int pthread_join(pthread_t th, void **thread_return);
+
+#endif
+
+extern char *optarg;
+extern int	optind;
+
+
+/********************************************************************
+ * some configurable parameters */
+
+/* max number of clients allowed */
+#ifdef FD_SETSIZE
+#define MAXCLIENTS	(FD_SETSIZE - 10)
+#else
+#define MAXCLIENTS	1024
+#endif
+
+#define DEFAULT_NXACTS	10		/* default nxacts */
+
+int			nxacts = 0;			/* number of transactions per client */
+int			duration = 0;		/* duration in seconds */
+
+/*
+ * scaling factor. for example, scale = 10 will make 1000000 tuples in
+ * pgbench_accounts table.
+ */
+int			scale = 1;
+
+/*
+ * fillfactor. for example, fillfactor = 90 will use only 90 percent
+ * space during inserts and leave 10 percent free.
+ */
+int			fillfactor = 100;
+
+/*
+ * end of configurable parameters
+ *********************************************************************/
+
+#define nbranches	1  /* Makes little sense to change this.  Change -s instead */
+#define ntellers	10
+#define naccounts	100000
+
+FILE	   *LOGFILE = NULL;
+
+bool		use_log;			/* log transaction latencies to a file */
+
+int			is_connect;			/* establish connection for each transaction */
+int			use_unique_key=1;	/* indexes will be primary key if set, otherwise non-unique indexes */
+
+char	   *pghost = "";
+char	   *pgport = "";
+char	   *storage_clause = "appendonly=false";
+char	   *pgoptions = NULL;
+char	   *pgtty = NULL;
+char	   *login = NULL;
+char	   *dbName;
+
+volatile bool timer_exceeded = false;	/* flag from signal handler */
+
+/* variable definitions */
+typedef struct
+{
+	char	   *name;			/* variable name */
+	char	   *value;			/* its value */
+} Variable;
+
+#define MAX_FILES		128		/* max number of SQL script files allowed */
+#define SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE	256	/* maximum size allowed for shell command */
+
+/*
+ * structures used in custom query mode
+ */
+
+typedef struct
+{
+	PGconn	   *con;			/* connection handle to DB */
+	int			id;				/* client No. */
+	int			state;			/* state No. */
+	int			cnt;			/* xacts count */
+	int			ecnt;			/* error count */
+	int			listen;			/* 0 indicates that an async query has been
+								 * sent */
+	int			sleeping;		/* 1 indicates that the client is napping */
+	int64		until;			/* napping until (usec) */
+	Variable   *variables;		/* array of variable definitions */
+	int			nvariables;
+	instr_time	txn_begin;		/* used for measuring latencies */
+	int			use_file;		/* index in sql_files for this client */
+	bool		prepared[MAX_FILES];
+} CState;
+
+/*
+ * Thread state and result
+ */
+typedef struct
+{
+	pthread_t		thread;		/* thread handle */
+	CState		   *state;		/* array of CState */
+	int				nstate;		/* length of state[] */
+	instr_time		start_time;	/* thread start time */
+} TState;
+
+#define INVALID_THREAD		((pthread_t) 0)
+
+typedef struct
+{
+	instr_time		conn_time;
+	int				xacts;
+} TResult;
+
+/*
+ * queries read from files
+ */
+#define SQL_COMMAND		1
+#define META_COMMAND	2
+#define MAX_ARGS		10
+
+typedef enum QueryMode
+{
+	QUERY_SIMPLE,				/* simple query */
+	QUERY_EXTENDED,				/* extended query */
+	QUERY_PREPARED,				/* extended query with prepared statements */
+	NUM_QUERYMODE
+} QueryMode;
+
+static QueryMode querymode = QUERY_SIMPLE;
+static const char *QUERYMODE[] = {"simple", "extended", "prepared"};
+
+typedef struct
+{
+	int			type;			/* command type (SQL_COMMAND or META_COMMAND) */
+	int			argc;			/* number of commands */
+	char	   *argv[MAX_ARGS]; /* command list */
+} Command;
+
+static Command	  **sql_files[MAX_FILES];	/* SQL script files */
+static int			num_files;				/* number of script files */
+static int			debug = 0;				/* debug flag */
+
+/* default scenario */
+static char *tpc_b = {
+	"\\set nbranches " CppAsString2(nbranches) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\set ntellers " CppAsString2(ntellers) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\set naccounts " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
+	"\\setrandom bid 1 :nbranches\n"
+	"\\setrandom tid 1 :ntellers\n"
+	"\\setrandom delta -5000 5000\n"
+	"BEGIN;\n"
+	"UPDATE pgbench_accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
+	"SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
+	"UPDATE pgbench_tellers SET tbalance = tbalance + :delta WHERE tid = :tid;\n"
+	"UPDATE pgbench_branches SET bbalance = bbalance + :delta WHERE bid = :bid;\n"
+	"INSERT INTO pgbench_history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
+	"END;\n"
+};
+
+/* -N case */
+static char *simple_update = {
+	"\\set nbranches " CppAsString2(nbranches) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\set ntellers " CppAsString2(ntellers) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\set naccounts " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
+	"\\setrandom bid 1 :nbranches\n"
+	"\\setrandom tid 1 :ntellers\n"
+	"\\setrandom delta -5000 5000\n"
+	"BEGIN;\n"
+	"UPDATE pgbench_accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
+	"SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
+	"INSERT INTO pgbench_history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
+	"END;\n"
+};
+
+/* -S case */
+static char *select_only = {
+	"\\set naccounts " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale\n"
+	"\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
+	"SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
+};
+
+/* Function prototypes */
+static void setalarm(int seconds);
+static void* threadRun(void *arg);
+
+static void
+usage(const char *progname)
+{
+	printf("%s is a benchmarking tool for PostgreSQL.\n\n"
+		   "Usage:\n"
+		   "  %s [OPTIONS]... [DBNAME]\n"
+		   "\nInitialization options:\n"
+		   "  -i           invokes initialization mode\n"
+		   "  -x STRING    append this string to the storage clause e.g. 'appendonly=true, orientation=column'\n"
+		   "  -q           make the indexes that are created non-unique indexes (default: unique)\n"
+		   "  -F NUM       fill factor\n"
+		   "  -s NUM       scaling factor\n"
+		   "\nBenchmarking options:\n"
+		"  -c NUM       number of concurrent database clients (default: 1)\n"
+		   "  -C           establish new connection for each transaction\n"
+		   "  -D VARNAME=VALUE\n"
+		   "               define variable for use by custom script\n"
+		   "  -f FILENAME  read transaction script from FILENAME\n"
+		   "  -j NUM       number of threads (default: 1)\n"
+		   "  -l           write transaction times to log file\n"
+		   "  -M {simple|extended|prepared}\n"
+		   "               protocol for submitting queries to server (default: simple)\n"
+		   "  -n           do not run VACUUM before tests\n"
+		   "  -N           do not update tables \"pgbench_tellers\" and \"pgbench_branches\"\n"
+		   "  -s NUM       report this scale factor in output\n"
+		   "  -S           perform SELECT-only transactions\n"
+	 "  -t NUM       number of transactions each client runs (default: 10)\n"
+		   "  -T NUM       duration of benchmark test in seconds\n"
+		   "  -v           vacuum all four standard tables before tests\n"
+		   "\nCommon options:\n"
+		   "  -d           print debugging output\n"
+		   "  -h HOSTNAME  database server host or socket directory\n"
+		   "  -p PORT      database server port number\n"
+		   "  -U USERNAME  connect as specified database user\n"
+		   "  --help       show this help, then exit\n"
+		   "  --version    output version information, then exit\n"
+		   "\n"
+		   "Report bugs to <pgsql-bugs@postgresql.org>.\n",
+		   progname, progname);
+}
+
+/* random number generator: uniform distribution from min to max inclusive */
+static int
+getrand(int min, int max)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Odd coding is so that min and max have approximately the same chance of
+	 * being selected as do numbers between them.
+	 */
+	return min + (int) (((max - min + 1) * (double) random()) / (MAX_RANDOM_VALUE + 1.0));
+}
+
+/* call PQexec() and exit() on failure */
+static void
+executeStatement(PGconn *con, const char *sql)
+{
+	PGresult   *res;
+
+	res = PQexec(con, sql);
+	if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
+		exit(1);
+	}
+	PQclear(res);
+}
+
+/* set up a connection to the backend */
+static PGconn *
+doConnect(void)
+{
+	PGconn	   *conn;
+	static char *password = NULL;
+	bool		new_pass;
+
+	/*
+	 * Start the connection.  Loop until we have a password if requested by
+	 * backend.
+	 */
+	do
+	{
+		new_pass = false;
+
+		conn = PQsetdbLogin(pghost, pgport, pgoptions, pgtty, dbName,
+							login, password);
+		if (!conn)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database \"%s\" failed\n",
+					dbName);
+			return NULL;
+		}
+
+		if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD &&
+			PQconnectionNeedsPassword(conn) &&
+			password == NULL)
+		{
+			PQfinish(conn);
+			password = simple_prompt("Password: ", 100, false);
+			new_pass = true;
+		}
+	} while (new_pass);
+
+	/* check to see that the backend connection was successfully made */
+	if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database \"%s\" failed:\n%s",
+				dbName, PQerrorMessage(conn));
+		PQfinish(conn);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	return conn;
+}
+
+/* throw away response from backend */
+static void
+discard_response(CState *state)
+{
+	PGresult   *res;
+
+	do
+	{
+		res = PQgetResult(state->con);
+		if (res)
+			PQclear(res);
+	} while (res);
+}
+
+static int
+compareVariables(const void *v1, const void *v2)
+{
+	return strcmp(((const Variable *) v1)->name,
+				  ((const Variable *) v2)->name);
+}
+
+static char *
+getVariable(CState *st, char *name)
+{
+	Variable	key,
+			   *var;
+
+	/* On some versions of Solaris, bsearch of zero items dumps core */
+	if (st->nvariables <= 0)
+		return NULL;
+
+	key.name = name;
+	var = (Variable *) bsearch((void *) &key,
+							   (void *) st->variables,
+							   st->nvariables,
+							   sizeof(Variable),
+							   compareVariables);
+	if (var != NULL)
+		return var->value;
+	else
+		return NULL;
+}
+
+static int
+putVariable(CState *st, char *name, char *value)
+{
+	Variable	key,
+			   *var;
+
+	key.name = name;
+	/* On some versions of Solaris, bsearch of zero items dumps core */
+	if (st->nvariables > 0)
+		var = (Variable *) bsearch((void *) &key,
+								   (void *) st->variables,
+								   st->nvariables,
+								   sizeof(Variable),
+								   compareVariables);
+	else
+		var = NULL;
+
+	if (var == NULL)
+	{
+		Variable   *newvars;
+
+		if (st->variables)
+			newvars = (Variable *) realloc(st->variables,
+									(st->nvariables + 1) * sizeof(Variable));
+		else
+			newvars = (Variable *) malloc(sizeof(Variable));
+
+		if (newvars == NULL)
+			return false;
+
+		st->variables = newvars;
+
+		var = &newvars[st->nvariables];
+
+		var->name = NULL;
+		var->value = NULL;
+
+		if ((var->name = strdup(name)) == NULL ||
+			(var->value = strdup(value)) == NULL)
+		{
+			free(var->name);
+			free(var->value);
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		st->nvariables++;
+
+		qsort((void *) st->variables, st->nvariables, sizeof(Variable),
+			  compareVariables);
+	}
+	else
+	{
+		char	   *val;
+
+		if ((val = strdup(value)) == NULL)
+			return false;
+
+		free(var->value);
+		var->value = val;
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+static char *
+parseVariable(const char *sql, int *eaten)
+{
+	int			i = 0;
+	char	   *name;
+
+	do
+	{
+		i++;
+	} while (isalnum((unsigned char) sql[i]) || sql[i] == '_');
+	if (i == 1)
+		return NULL;
+
+	name = malloc(i);
+	if (name == NULL)
+		return NULL;
+	memcpy(name, &sql[1], i - 1);
+	name[i - 1] = '\0';
+
+	*eaten = i;
+	return name;
+}
+
+static char *
+replaceVariable(char **sql, char *param, int len, char *value)
+{
+	int			valueln = strlen(value);
+
+	if (valueln > len)
+	{
+		char	   *tmp;
+		size_t		offset = param - *sql;
+
+		tmp = realloc(*sql, strlen(*sql) - len + valueln + 1);
+		if (tmp == NULL)
+		{
+			free(*sql);
+			return NULL;
+		}
+		*sql = tmp;
+		param = *sql + offset;
+	}
+
+	if (valueln != len)
+		memmove(param + valueln, param + len, strlen(param + len) + 1);
+	strncpy(param, value, valueln);
+
+	return param + valueln;
+}
+
+static char *
+assignVariables(CState *st, char *sql)
+{
+	char	   *p,
+			   *name,
+			   *val;
+
+	p = sql;
+	while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
+	{
+		int			eaten;
+
+		name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
+		if (name == NULL)
+		{
+			while (*p == ':')
+			{
+				p++;
+			}
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		val = getVariable(st, name);
+		free(name);
+		if (val == NULL)
+		{
+			p++;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if ((p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, val)) == NULL)
+			return NULL;
+	}
+
+	return sql;
+}
+
+static void
+getQueryParams(CState *st, const Command *command, const char **params)
+{
+	int			i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < command->argc - 1; i++)
+		params[i] = getVariable(st, command->argv[i + 1]);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Run a shell command. The result is assigned to the variable if not NULL.
+ * Return true if succeeded, or false on error.
+ */
+static bool
+runShellCommand(CState *st, char *variable, char **argv, int argc)
+{
+	char	command[SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE];
+	int		i,
+			len = 0;
+	FILE   *fp;
+	char	res[64];
+	char   *endptr;
+	int		retval;
+
+	/*
+	 * Join arguments with whilespace separaters. Arguments starting with
+	 * exactly one colon are treated as variables:
+	 *	name - append a string "name"
+	 *	:var - append a variable named 'var'.
+	 *	::name - append a string ":name"
+	 */
+	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
+	{
+		char   *arg;
+		int		arglen;
+
+		if (argv[i][0] != ':')
+		{
+			arg = argv[i];	/* a string literal */
+		}
+		else if (argv[i][1] == ':')
+		{
+			arg = argv[i] + 1;	/* a string literal starting with colons */
+		}
+		else if ((arg = getVariable(st, argv[i] + 1)) == NULL)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[i]);
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		arglen = strlen(arg);
+		if (len + arglen + (i > 0 ? 1 : 0) >= SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE - 1)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s: too long shell command\n", argv[0]);
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		if (i > 0)
+			command[len++] = ' ';
+		memcpy(command + len, arg, arglen);
+		len += arglen;
+	}
+
+	command[len] = '\0';
+
+	/* Fast path for non-assignment case */
+	if (variable == NULL)
+	{
+		if (system(command))
+		{
+			if (!timer_exceeded)
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: cannot launch shell command\n", argv[0]);
+			return false;
+		}
+		return true;
+	}
+
+	/* Execute the command with pipe and read the standard output. */
+	if ((fp = popen(command, "r")) == NULL)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s: cannot launch shell command\n", argv[0]);
+		return false;
+	}
+	if (fgets(res, sizeof(res), fp) == NULL)
+	{
+		if (!timer_exceeded)
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s: cannot read the result\n", argv[0]);
+		return false;
+	}
+	if (pclose(fp) < 0)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s: cannot close shell command\n", argv[0]);
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	/* Check whether the result is an integer and assign it to the variable */
+	retval = (int) strtol(res, &endptr, 10);
+	while (*endptr != '\0' && isspace((unsigned char) *endptr))
+		endptr++;
+	if (*res == '\0' || *endptr != '\0')
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s: must return an integer ('%s' returned)\n", argv[0], res);
+		return false;
+	}
+	snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", retval);
+	if (!putVariable(st, variable, res))
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s: out of memory\n", argv[0]);
+		return false;
+	}
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	printf("shell parameter name: %s, value: %s\n", argv[1], res);
+#endif
+	return true;
+}
+
+#define MAX_PREPARE_NAME		32
+static void
+preparedStatementName(char *buffer, int file, int state)
+{
+	sprintf(buffer, "P%d_%d", file, state);
+}
+
+static bool
+clientDone(CState *st, bool ok)
+{
+	(void) ok;	/* unused */
+
+	if (st->con != NULL)
+	{
+		PQfinish(st->con);
+		st->con = NULL;
+	}
+	return false;	/* always false */
+}
+
+/* return false iff client should be disconnected */
+static bool
+doCustom(CState *st, instr_time *conn_time)
+{
+	PGresult   *res;
+	Command   **commands;
+
+top:
+	commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
+
+	if (st->sleeping)
+	{							/* are we sleeping? */
+		instr_time	now;
+
+		INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(now);
+		if (st->until <= INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(now))
+			st->sleeping = 0;	/* Done sleeping, go ahead with next command */
+		else
+			return true;		/* Still sleeping, nothing to do here */
+	}
+
+	if (st->listen)
+	{							/* are we receiver? */
+		if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
+		{
+			if (debug)
+				fprintf(stderr, "client %d receiving\n", st->id);
+			if (!PQconsumeInput(st->con))
+			{					/* there's something wrong */
+				fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Probably the backend died while processing.\n", st->id, st->state);
+				return clientDone(st, false);
+			}
+			if (PQisBusy(st->con))
+				return true;	/* don't have the whole result yet */
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * transaction finished: record the time it took in the log
+		 */
+		if (use_log && commands[st->state + 1] == NULL)
+		{
+			instr_time	now;
+			instr_time	diff;
+			double		usec;
+
+			INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(now);
+			diff = now;
+			INSTR_TIME_SUBTRACT(diff, st->txn_begin);
+			usec = (double) INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(diff);
+
+#ifndef WIN32
+			/* This is more than we really ought to know about instr_time */
+			fprintf(LOGFILE, "%d %d %.0f %d %ld %ld\n",
+					st->id, st->cnt, usec, st->use_file,
+					(long) now.tv_sec, (long) now.tv_usec);
+#else
+			/* On Windows, instr_time doesn't provide a timestamp anyway */
+			fprintf(LOGFILE, "%d %d %.0f %d 0 0\n",
+					st->id, st->cnt, usec, st->use_file);
+#endif
+		}
+
+		if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
+		{
+			res = PQgetResult(st->con);
+			switch (PQresultStatus(res))
+			{
+				case PGRES_COMMAND_OK:
+				case PGRES_TUPLES_OK:
+					break;	/* OK */
+				default:
+					fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d: %s",
+						st->id, st->state, PQerrorMessage(st->con));
+					PQclear(res);
+					return clientDone(st, false);
+			}
+			PQclear(res);
+			discard_response(st);
+		}
+
+		if (commands[st->state + 1] == NULL)
+		{
+			if (is_connect)
+			{
+				PQfinish(st->con);
+				st->con = NULL;
+			}
+
+			++st->cnt;
+			if ((st->cnt >= nxacts && duration <= 0) || timer_exceeded)
+				return clientDone(st, true);	/* exit success */
+		}
+
+		/* increment state counter */
+		st->state++;
+		if (commands[st->state] == NULL)
+		{
+			st->state = 0;
+			st->use_file = getrand(0, num_files - 1);
+			commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (st->con == NULL)
+	{
+		instr_time	start, end;
+
+		INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(start);
+		if ((st->con = doConnect()) == NULL)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in establishing connection.\n", st->id);
+			return clientDone(st, false);
+		}
+		INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(end);
+		INSTR_TIME_ACCUM_DIFF(*conn_time, end, start);
+	}
+
+	if (use_log && st->state == 0)
+		INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(st->txn_begin);
+
+	if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
+	{
+		const Command *command = commands[st->state];
+		int			r;
+
+		if (querymode == QUERY_SIMPLE)
+		{
+			char	   *sql;
+
+			if ((sql = strdup(command->argv[0])) == NULL
+				|| (sql = assignVariables(st, sql)) == NULL)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "out of memory\n");
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+
+			if (debug)
+				fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", st->id, sql);
+			r = PQsendQuery(st->con, sql);
+			free(sql);
+		}
+		else if (querymode == QUERY_EXTENDED)
+		{
+			const char *sql = command->argv[0];
+			const char *params[MAX_ARGS];
+
+			getQueryParams(st, command, params);
+
+			if (debug)
+				fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", st->id, sql);
+			r = PQsendQueryParams(st->con, sql, command->argc - 1,
+								  NULL, params, NULL, NULL, 0);
+		}
+		else if (querymode == QUERY_PREPARED)
+		{
+			char		name[MAX_PREPARE_NAME];
+			const char *params[MAX_ARGS];
+
+			if (!st->prepared[st->use_file])
+			{
+				int			j;
+
+				for (j = 0; commands[j] != NULL; j++)
+				{
+					PGresult   *res;
+					char		name[MAX_PREPARE_NAME];
+
+					if (commands[j]->type != SQL_COMMAND)
+						continue;
+					preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, j);
+					res = PQprepare(st->con, name,
+						  commands[j]->argv[0], commands[j]->argc - 1, NULL);
+					if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
+						fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
+					PQclear(res);
+				}
+				st->prepared[st->use_file] = true;
+			}
+
+			getQueryParams(st, command, params);
+			preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, st->state);
+
+			if (debug)
+				fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", st->id, name);
+			r = PQsendQueryPrepared(st->con, name, command->argc - 1,
+									params, NULL, NULL, 0);
+		}
+		else	/* unknown sql mode */
+			r = 0;
+
+		if (r == 0)
+		{
+			if (debug)
+				fprintf(stderr, "client %d cannot send %s\n", st->id, command->argv[0]);
+			st->ecnt++;
+		}
+		else
+			st->listen = 1;		/* flags that should be listened */
+	}
+	else if (commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND)
+	{
+		int			argc = commands[st->state]->argc,
+					i;
+		char	  **argv = commands[st->state]->argv;
+
+		if (debug)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "client %d executing \\%s", st->id, argv[0]);
+			for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
+				fprintf(stderr, " %s", argv[i]);
+			fprintf(stderr, "\n");
+		}
+
+		if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "setrandom") == 0)
+		{
+			char	   *var;
+			int			min,
+						max;
+			char		res[64];
+
+			if (*argv[2] == ':')
+			{
+				if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[2] + 1)) == NULL)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[2]);
+					st->ecnt++;
+					return true;
+				}
+				min = atoi(var);
+			}
+			else
+				min = atoi(argv[2]);
+
+#ifdef NOT_USED
+			if (min < 0)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: invalid minimum number %d\n", argv[0], min);
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return;
+			}
+#endif
+
+			if (*argv[3] == ':')
+			{
+				if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[3] + 1)) == NULL)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[3]);
+					st->ecnt++;
+					return true;
+				}
+				max = atoi(var);
+			}
+			else
+				max = atoi(argv[3]);
+
+			if (max < min || max > MAX_RANDOM_VALUE)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: invalid maximum number %d\n", argv[0], max);
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+			printf("min: %d max: %d random: %d\n", min, max, getrand(min, max));
+#endif
+			snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", getrand(min, max));
+
+			if (putVariable(st, argv[1], res) == false)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: out of memory\n", argv[0]);
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+
+			st->listen = 1;
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "set") == 0)
+		{
+			char	   *var;
+			int			ope1,
+						ope2;
+			char		res[64];
+
+			if (*argv[2] == ':')
+			{
+				if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[2] + 1)) == NULL)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[2]);
+					st->ecnt++;
+					return true;
+				}
+				ope1 = atoi(var);
+			}
+			else
+				ope1 = atoi(argv[2]);
+
+			if (argc < 5)
+				snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1);
+			else
+			{
+				if (*argv[4] == ':')
+				{
+					if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[4] + 1)) == NULL)
+					{
+						fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[4]);
+						st->ecnt++;
+						return true;
+					}
+					ope2 = atoi(var);
+				}
+				else
+					ope2 = atoi(argv[4]);
+
+				if (strcmp(argv[3], "+") == 0)
+					snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 + ope2);
+				else if (strcmp(argv[3], "-") == 0)
+					snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 - ope2);
+				else if (strcmp(argv[3], "*") == 0)
+					snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 * ope2);
+				else if (strcmp(argv[3], "/") == 0)
+				{
+					if (ope2 == 0)
+					{
+						fprintf(stderr, "%s: division by zero\n", argv[0]);
+						st->ecnt++;
+						return true;
+					}
+					snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 / ope2);
+				}
+				else
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: unsupported operator %s\n", argv[0], argv[3]);
+					st->ecnt++;
+					return true;
+				}
+			}
+
+			if (putVariable(st, argv[1], res) == false)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: out of memory\n", argv[0]);
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+
+			st->listen = 1;
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "sleep") == 0)
+		{
+			char	   *var;
+			int			usec;
+			instr_time now;
+
+			if (*argv[1] == ':')
+			{
+				if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[1] + 1)) == NULL)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[1]);
+					st->ecnt++;
+					return true;
+				}
+				usec = atoi(var);
+			}
+			else
+				usec = atoi(argv[1]);
+
+			if (argc > 2)
+			{
+				if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "ms") == 0)
+					usec *= 1000;
+				else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "s") == 0)
+					usec *= 1000000;
+			}
+			else
+				usec *= 1000000;
+
+			INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(now);
+			st->until = INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(now) + usec;
+			st->sleeping = 1;
+
+			st->listen = 1;
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "setshell") == 0)
+		{
+			bool	ret = runShellCommand(st, argv[1], argv + 2, argc - 2);
+
+			if (timer_exceeded)	/* timeout */
+				return clientDone(st, true);
+			else if (!ret)		/* on error */
+			{
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+			else	/* succeeded */
+				st->listen = 1;
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "shell") == 0)
+		{
+			bool	ret = runShellCommand(st, NULL, argv + 1, argc - 1);
+
+			if (timer_exceeded)	/* timeout */
+				return clientDone(st, true);
+			else if (!ret)		/* on error */
+			{
+				st->ecnt++;
+				return true;
+			}
+			else	/* succeeded */
+				st->listen = 1;
+		}
+		goto top;
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* discard connections */
+static void
+disconnect_all(CState *state, int length)
+{
+	int			i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < length; i++)
+	{
+		if (state[i].con)
+		{
+			PQfinish(state[i].con);
+			state[i].con = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/* create tables and setup data */
+static void
+init(void)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Note: TPC-B requires at least 100 bytes per row, and the "filler"
+	 * fields in these table declarations were intended to comply with that.
+	 * But because they default to NULLs, they don't actually take any space.
+	 * We could fix that by giving them non-null default values. However, that
+	 * would completely break comparability of pgbench results with prior
+	 * versions.  Since pgbench has never pretended to be fully TPC-B
+	 * compliant anyway, we stick with the historical behavior.
+	 */
+	static char *DDLs[] = {
+		"drop table if exists pgbench_branches",
+		"create table pgbench_branches(bid int not null,bbalance int,filler char(88)) with (fillfactor=%d, %s) DISTRIBUTED BY (bid)",
+		"drop table if exists pgbench_tellers",
+		"create table pgbench_tellers(tid int not null,bid int,tbalance int,filler char(84)) with (fillfactor=%d, %s) DISTRIBUTED BY (tid)",
+		"drop table if exists pgbench_accounts",
+		"create table pgbench_accounts(aid int not null,bid int,abalance int,filler char(84)) with (fillfactor=%d, %s) DISTRIBUTED BY (aid)",
+		"drop table if exists pgbench_history",
+		"create table pgbench_history(tid int,bid int,aid int,delta int,mtime timestamp,filler char(22)) with (%s) DISTRIBUTED BY (tid)"
+	};
+	static char *DDLAFTERs[] = {
+		"alter table pgbench_branches add primary key (bid)",
+		"alter table pgbench_tellers add primary key (tid)",
+		"alter table pgbench_accounts add primary key (aid)"
+	};
+	static char *NON_UNIQUE_INDEX_DDLAFTERs[] = {
+		"CREATE INDEX branch_idx ON pgbench_branches (bid) ",
+		"CREATE INDEX teller_idx ON pgbench_tellers (tid) ",
+		"CREATE INDEX account_idx ON pgbench_accounts (aid) "
+	};
+
+	PGconn	   *con;
+	PGresult   *res;
+	char		sql[256];
+	int			i;
+
+	if ((con = doConnect()) == NULL)
+		exit(1);
+
+	fprintf(stderr, "creating tables...\n");
+
+	for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLs); i++)
+	{
+		/*
+		 * set fillfactor for branches, tellers and accounts tables
+		 */
+		if ((strstr(DDLs[i], "create table pgbench_branches") == DDLs[i]) ||
+			(strstr(DDLs[i], "create table pgbench_tellers") == DDLs[i]) ||
+			(strstr(DDLs[i], "create table pgbench_accounts") == DDLs[i]))
+		{
+			char		ddl_stmt[256];
+			snprintf(ddl_stmt, 256, DDLs[i], fillfactor, storage_clause);
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", ddl_stmt); 
+			executeStatement(con, ddl_stmt);
+		}
+		else if (strstr(DDLs[i], "create table pgbench_history") == DDLs[i])
+		{
+			char		ddl_stmt[256];
+			snprintf(ddl_stmt, 256, DDLs[i], storage_clause);
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", ddl_stmt); 
+			executeStatement(con, ddl_stmt);
+		}
+		else
+		{
+			executeStatement(con, DDLs[i]);
+		}
+	}
+
+	executeStatement(con, "begin");
+
+	for (i = 0; i < nbranches * scale; i++)
+	{
+		snprintf(sql, 256, "insert into pgbench_branches(bid,bbalance) values(%d,0)", i + 1);
+		executeStatement(con, sql);
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ntellers * scale; i++)
+	{
+		snprintf(sql, 256, "insert into pgbench_tellers(tid,bid,tbalance) values (%d,%d,0)",
+				 i + 1, i / ntellers + 1);
+		executeStatement(con, sql);
+	}
+
+	executeStatement(con, "commit");
+
+	/*
+	 * fill the pgbench_accounts table with some data
+	 */
+
+	executeStatement(con, "begin");
+	executeStatement(con, "truncate pgbench_accounts");
+
+	res = PQexec(con, "copy pgbench_accounts from stdin");
+	if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COPY_IN)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
+		exit(1);
+	}
+	PQclear(res);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < naccounts * scale; i++)
+	{
+		int			j = i + 1;
+
+		snprintf(sql, 256, "%d\t%d\t%d\t\n", j, i / naccounts + 1, 0);
+		if (PQputline(con, sql))
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "PQputline failed\n");
+			exit(1);
+		}
+
+		if (j % 10000 == 0)
+			fprintf(stderr, "%d tuples done.\n", j);
+	}
+	if (PQputline(con, "\\.\n"))
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "very last PQputline failed\n");
+		exit(1);
+	}
+	if (PQendcopy(con))
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "PQendcopy failed\n");
+		exit(1);
+	}
+	executeStatement(con, "commit");
+
+	/*
+	 * create indexes
+	 */
+	fprintf(stderr, "creating indexes...\n");
+	if (use_unique_key)
+	{
+		for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLAFTERs); i++)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", DDLAFTERs[i]);
+			executeStatement(con, DDLAFTERs[i]);
+		}
+	}
+	else
+	{
+		for (i = 0; i < lengthof(NON_UNIQUE_INDEX_DDLAFTERs); i++)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", NON_UNIQUE_INDEX_DDLAFTERs[i]);
+			executeStatement(con, NON_UNIQUE_INDEX_DDLAFTERs[i]);
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* vacuum */
+	fprintf(stderr, "vacuum...");
+	executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_branches");
+	executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_tellers");
+	executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_accounts");
+	executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_history");
+
+	fprintf(stderr, "done.\n");
+	PQfinish(con);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Parse the raw sql and replace :param to $n.
+ */
+static bool
+parseQuery(Command *cmd, const char *raw_sql)
+{
+	char	   *sql,
+			   *p;
+
+	sql = strdup(raw_sql);
+	if (sql == NULL)
+		return false;
+	cmd->argc = 1;
+
+	p = sql;
+	while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
+	{
+		char		var[12];
+		char	   *name;
+		int			eaten;
+
+		name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
+		if (name == NULL)
+		{
+			while (*p == ':')
+			{
+				p++;
+			}
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (cmd->argc >= MAX_ARGS)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "statement has too many arguments (maximum is %d): %s\n", MAX_ARGS - 1, raw_sql);
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		sprintf(var, "$%d", cmd->argc);
+		if ((p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, var)) == NULL)
+			return false;
+
+		cmd->argv[cmd->argc] = name;
+		cmd->argc++;
+	}
+
+	cmd->argv[0] = sql;
+	return true;
+}
+
+static Command *
+process_commands(char *buf)
+{
+	const char	delim[] = " \f\n\r\t\v";
+
+	Command    *my_commands;
+	int			j;
+	char	   *p,
+			   *tok;
+
+	if ((p = strchr(buf, '\n')) != NULL)
+		*p = '\0';
+
+	p = buf;
+	while (isspace((unsigned char) *p))
+		p++;
+
+	if (*p == '\0' || strncmp(p, "--", 2) == 0)
+	{
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	my_commands = (Command *) malloc(sizeof(Command));
+	if (my_commands == NULL)
+	{
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	my_commands->argc = 0;
+
+	if (*p == '\\')
+	{
+		my_commands->type = META_COMMAND;
+
+		j = 0;
+		tok = strtok(++p, delim);
+
+		while (tok != NULL)
+		{
+			if ((my_commands->argv[j] = strdup(tok)) == NULL)
+				return NULL;
+
+			my_commands->argc++;
+
+			j++;
+			tok = strtok(NULL, delim);
+		}
+
+		if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "setrandom") == 0)
+		{
+			if (my_commands->argc < 4)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+				return NULL;
+			}
+
+			for (j = 4; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
+						my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "set") == 0)
+		{
+			if (my_commands->argc < 3)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+				return NULL;
+			}
+
+			for (j = my_commands->argc < 5 ? 3 : 5; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
+						my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "sleep") == 0)
+		{
+			if (my_commands->argc < 2)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+				return NULL;
+			}
+
+			/*
+			 * Split argument into number and unit to allow "sleep 1ms" etc.
+			 * We don't have to terminate the number argument with null
+			 * because it will be parsed with atoi, which ignores trailing
+			 * non-digit characters.
+			 */
+			if (my_commands->argv[1][0] != ':')
+			{
+				char	*c = my_commands->argv[1];
+
+				while (isdigit((unsigned char) *c))
+					c++;
+				if (*c)
+				{
+					my_commands->argv[2] = c;
+					if (my_commands->argc < 3)
+						my_commands->argc = 3;
+				}
+			}
+
+			if (my_commands->argc >= 3)
+			{
+				if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "us") != 0 &&
+					pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "ms") != 0 &&
+					pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "s"))
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "%s: unknown time unit '%s' - must be us, ms or s\n",
+							my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[2]);
+					return NULL;
+				}
+			}
+
+			for (j = 3; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
+						my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "setshell") == 0)
+		{
+			if (my_commands->argc < 3)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+				return NULL;
+			}
+		}
+		else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "shell") == 0)
+		{
+			if (my_commands->argc < 1)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing command\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+				return NULL;
+			}
+		}
+		else
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Invalid command %s\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
+			return NULL;
+		}
+	}
+	else
+	{
+		my_commands->type = SQL_COMMAND;
+
+		switch (querymode)
+		{
+			case QUERY_SIMPLE:
+				if ((my_commands->argv[0] = strdup(p)) == NULL)
+					return NULL;
+				my_commands->argc++;
+				break;
+			case QUERY_EXTENDED:
+			case QUERY_PREPARED:
+				if (!parseQuery(my_commands, p))
+					return NULL;
+				break;
+			default:
+				return NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return my_commands;
+}
+
+static int
+process_file(char *filename)
+{
+#define COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM 128
+
+	Command   **my_commands;
+	FILE	   *fd;
+	int			lineno;
+	char		buf[BUFSIZ];
+	int			alloc_num;
+
+	if (num_files >= MAX_FILES)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "Up to only %d SQL files are allowed\n", MAX_FILES);
+		exit(1);
+	}
+
+	alloc_num = COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
+	my_commands = (Command **) malloc(sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
+	if (my_commands == NULL)
+		return false;
+
+	if (strcmp(filename, "-") == 0)
+		fd = stdin;
+	else if ((fd = fopen(filename, "r")) == NULL)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", filename, strerror(errno));
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	lineno = 0;
+
+	while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), fd) != NULL)
+	{
+		Command    *commands;
+		int			i;
+
+		i = 0;
+		while (isspace((unsigned char) buf[i]))
+			i++;
+
+		if (buf[i] != '\0' && strncmp(&buf[i], "--", 2) != 0)
+		{
+			commands = process_commands(&buf[i]);
+			if (commands == NULL)
+			{
+				fclose(fd);
+				return false;
+			}
+		}
+		else
+			continue;
+
+		my_commands[lineno] = commands;
+		lineno++;
+
+		if (lineno >= alloc_num)
+		{
+			alloc_num += COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
+			my_commands = realloc(my_commands, sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
+			if (my_commands == NULL)
+			{
+				fclose(fd);
+				return false;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	fclose(fd);
+
+	my_commands[lineno] = NULL;
+
+	sql_files[num_files++] = my_commands;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+static Command **
+process_builtin(char *tb)
+{
+#define COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM 128
+
+	Command   **my_commands;
+	int			lineno;
+	char		buf[BUFSIZ];
+	int			alloc_num;
+
+	if (*tb == '\0')
+		return NULL;
+
+	alloc_num = COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
+	my_commands = (Command **) malloc(sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
+	if (my_commands == NULL)
+		return NULL;
+
+	lineno = 0;
+
+	for (;;)
+	{
+		char	   *p;
+		Command    *commands;
+
+		p = buf;
+		while (*tb && *tb != '\n')
+			*p++ = *tb++;
+
+		if (*tb == '\0')
+			break;
+
+		if (*tb == '\n')
+			tb++;
+
+		*p = '\0';
+
+		commands = process_commands(buf);
+		if (commands == NULL)
+		{
+			return NULL;
+		}
+
+		my_commands[lineno] = commands;
+		lineno++;
+
+		if (lineno >= alloc_num)
+		{
+			alloc_num += COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
+			my_commands = realloc(my_commands, sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
+			if (my_commands == NULL)
+			{
+				return NULL;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	my_commands[lineno] = NULL;
+
+	return my_commands;
+}
+
+/* print out results */
+static void
+printResults(int ttype, int normal_xacts, int nclients, int nthreads,
+			 instr_time total_time, instr_time conn_total_time)
+{
+	double		time_include,
+				tps_include,
+				tps_exclude;
+	char	   *s;
+
+	time_include = INSTR_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(total_time);
+	tps_include = normal_xacts / time_include;
+	tps_exclude = normal_xacts / (time_include -
+		(INSTR_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(conn_total_time) / nthreads));
+
+	if (ttype == 0)
+		s = "TPC-B (sort of)";
+	else if (ttype == 2)
+		s = "Update only pgbench_accounts";
+	else if (ttype == 1)
+		s = "SELECT only";
+	else
+		s = "Custom query";
+
+	printf("transaction type: %s\n", s);
+	printf("scaling factor: %d\n", scale);
+	printf("query mode: %s\n", QUERYMODE[querymode]);
+	printf("number of clients: %d\n", nclients);
+	printf("number of threads: %d\n", nthreads);
+	if (duration <= 0)
+	{
+		printf("number of transactions per client: %d\n", nxacts);
+		printf("number of transactions actually processed: %d/%d\n",
+			   normal_xacts, nxacts * nclients);
+	}
+	else
+	{
+		printf("duration: %d s\n", duration);
+		printf("number of transactions actually processed: %d\n",
+			   normal_xacts);
+	}
+	printf("tps = %f (including connections establishing)\n", tps_include);
+	printf("tps = %f (excluding connections establishing)\n", tps_exclude);
+}
+
+
+int
+main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int			c;
+	int			nclients = 1;		/* default number of simulated clients */
+	int			nthreads = 1;		/* default number of threads */
+	int			is_init_mode = 0;		/* initialize mode? */
+	int			is_no_vacuum = 0;		/* no vacuum at all before testing? */
+	int			do_vacuum_accounts = 0; /* do vacuum accounts before testing? */
+	int			ttype = 0;		/* transaction type. 0: TPC-B, 1: SELECT only,
+								 * 2: skip update of branches and tellers */
+	char	   *filename = NULL;
+	bool		scale_given = false;
+
+	CState	   *state;			/* status of clients */
+	TState	   *threads;		/* array of thread */
+
+	instr_time	start_time;		/* start up time */
+	instr_time	total_time;
+	instr_time	conn_total_time;
+	int			total_xacts;
+
+	int			i;
+
+#ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
+	struct rlimit rlim;
+#endif
+
+	PGconn	   *con;
+	PGresult   *res;
+	char	   *env;
+
+	char		val[64];
+
+	const char *progname;
+
+	progname = get_progname(argv[0]);
+
+	if (argc > 1)
+	{
+		if (strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-?") == 0)
+		{
+			usage(progname);
+			exit(0);
+		}
+		if (strcmp(argv[1], "--version") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-V") == 0)
+		{
+			puts("pgbench (PostgreSQL) " PG_VERSION);
+			exit(0);
+		}
+	}
+
+#ifdef WIN32
+	/* stderr is buffered on Win32. */
+	setvbuf(stderr, NULL, _IONBF, 0);
+#endif
+
+	if ((env = getenv("PGHOST")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
+		pghost = env;
+	if ((env = getenv("PGPORT")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
+		pgport = env;
+	else if ((env = getenv("PGUSER")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
+		login = env;
+
+	state = (CState *) malloc(sizeof(CState));
+	if (state == NULL)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for state\n");
+		exit(1);
+	}
+
+	memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));
+
+	while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "ih:nvp:dSNc:Cs:t:T:U:lf:D:F:M:j:x:q")) != -1)
+	{
+		switch (c)
+		{
+			case 'i':
+				is_init_mode++;
+				break;
+			case 'q':
+				use_unique_key = 0;
+				break;
+			case 'x':
+				storage_clause = optarg;
+				break;
+			case 'h':
+				pghost = optarg;
+				break;
+			case 'n':
+				is_no_vacuum++;
+				break;
+			case 'v':
+				do_vacuum_accounts++;
+				break;
+			case 'p':
+				pgport = optarg;
+				break;
+			case 'd':
+				debug++;
+				break;
+			case 'S':
+				ttype = 1;
+				break;
+			case 'N':
+				ttype = 2;
+				break;
+			case 'c':
+				nclients = atoi(optarg);
+				if (nclients <= 0 || nclients > MAXCLIENTS)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid number of clients: %d\n", nclients);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+#ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
+#ifdef RLIMIT_NOFILE			/* most platforms use RLIMIT_NOFILE */
+				if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rlim) == -1)
+#else							/* but BSD doesn't ... */
+				if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_OFILE, &rlim) == -1)
+#endif   /* RLIMIT_NOFILE */
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "getrlimit failed: %s\n", strerror(errno));
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				if (rlim.rlim_cur <= (nclients + 2))
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "You need at least %d open files but you are only allowed to use %ld.\n", nclients + 2, (long) rlim.rlim_cur);
+					fprintf(stderr, "Use limit/ulimit to increase the limit before using pgbench.\n");
+					exit(1);
+				}
+#endif   /* HAVE_GETRLIMIT */
+				break;
+			case 'j':	/* jobs */
+				nthreads = atoi(optarg);
+				if (nthreads <= 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid number of threads: %d\n", nthreads);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			case 'C':
+				is_connect = 1;
+				break;
+			case 's':
+				scale_given = true;
+				scale = atoi(optarg);
+				if (scale <= 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid scaling factor: %d\n", scale);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			case 't':
+				if (duration > 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "specify either a number of transactions (-t) or a duration (-T), not both.\n");
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				nxacts = atoi(optarg);
+				if (nxacts <= 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid number of transactions: %d\n", nxacts);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			case 'T':
+				if (nxacts > 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "specify either a number of transactions (-t) or a duration (-T), not both.\n");
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				duration = atoi(optarg);
+				if (duration <= 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid duration: %d\n", duration);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			case 'U':
+				login = optarg;
+				break;
+			case 'l':
+				use_log = true;
+				break;
+			case 'f':
+				ttype = 3;
+				filename = optarg;
+				if (process_file(filename) == false || *sql_files[num_files - 1] == NULL)
+					exit(1);
+				break;
+			case 'D':
+				{
+					char	   *p;
+
+					if ((p = strchr(optarg, '=')) == NULL || p == optarg || *(p + 1) == '\0')
+					{
+						fprintf(stderr, "invalid variable definition: %s\n", optarg);
+						exit(1);
+					}
+
+					*p++ = '\0';
+					if (putVariable(&state[0], optarg, p) == false)
+					{
+						fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
+						exit(1);
+					}
+				}
+				break;
+			case 'F':
+				fillfactor = atoi(optarg);
+				if ((fillfactor < 10) || (fillfactor > 100))
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid fillfactor: %d\n", fillfactor);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			case 'M':
+				if (num_files > 0)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "query mode (-M) should be specifiled before transaction scripts (-f)\n");
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				for (querymode = 0; querymode < NUM_QUERYMODE; querymode++)
+					if (strcmp(optarg, QUERYMODE[querymode]) == 0)
+						break;
+				if (querymode >= NUM_QUERYMODE)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "invalid query mode (-M): %s\n", optarg);
+					exit(1);
+				}
+				break;
+			default:
+				fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"), progname);
+				exit(1);
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (argc > optind)
+		dbName = argv[optind];
+	else
+	{
+		if ((env = getenv("PGDATABASE")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
+			dbName = env;
+		else if (login != NULL && *login != '\0')
+			dbName = login;
+		else
+			dbName = "";
+	}
+
+	if (is_init_mode)
+	{
+		init();
+		exit(0);
+	}
+
+	/* Use DEFAULT_NXACTS if neither nxacts nor duration is specified. */
+	if (nxacts <= 0 && duration <= 0)
+		nxacts = DEFAULT_NXACTS;
+
+	if (nclients % nthreads != 0)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "number of clients (%d) must be a multiple of number of threads (%d)\n", nclients, nthreads);
+		exit(1);
+	}
+
+	if (nclients > 1)
+	{
+		state = (CState *) realloc(state, sizeof(CState) * nclients);
+		if (state == NULL)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for state\n");
+			exit(1);
+		}
+
+		memset(state + 1, 0, sizeof(*state) * (nclients - 1));
+
+		/* copy any -D switch values to all clients */
+		for (i = 1; i < nclients; i++)
+		{
+			int			j;
+
+			state[i].id = i;
+			for (j = 0; j < state[0].nvariables; j++)
+			{
+				if (putVariable(&state[i], state[0].variables[j].name, state[0].variables[j].value) == false)
+				{
+					fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
+					exit(1);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (use_log)
+	{
+		char		logpath[64];
+
+		snprintf(logpath, 64, "pgbench_log.%d", (int) getpid());
+		LOGFILE = fopen(logpath, "w");
+
+		if (LOGFILE == NULL)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't open logfile \"%s\": %s", logpath, strerror(errno));
+			exit(1);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (debug)
+	{
+		if (duration <= 0)
+			printf("pghost: %s pgport: %s nclients: %d nxacts: %d dbName: %s\n",
+				   pghost, pgport, nclients, nxacts, dbName);
+		else
+			printf("pghost: %s pgport: %s nclients: %d duration: %d dbName: %s\n",
+				   pghost, pgport, nclients, duration, dbName);
+	}
+
+	/* opening connection... */
+	con = doConnect();
+	if (con == NULL)
+		exit(1);
+
+	if (PQstatus(con) == CONNECTION_BAD)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database '%s' failed.\n", dbName);
+		fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
+		exit(1);
+	}
+
+	if (ttype != 3)
+	{
+		/*
+		 * get the scaling factor that should be same as count(*) from
+		 * pgbench_branches if this is not a custom query
+		 */
+		res = PQexec(con, "select count(*) from pgbench_branches");
+		if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
+			exit(1);
+		}
+		scale = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));
+		if (scale < 0)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "count(*) from pgbench_branches invalid (%d)\n", scale);
+			exit(1);
+		}
+		PQclear(res);
+
+		/* warn if we override user-given -s switch */
+		if (scale_given)
+			fprintf(stderr,
+			"Scale option ignored, using pgbench_branches table count = %d\n",
+					scale);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * :scale variables normally get -s or database scale, but don't override
+	 * an explicit -D switch
+	 */
+	if (getVariable(&state[0], "scale") == NULL)
+	{
+		snprintf(val, sizeof(val), "%d", scale);
+		for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
+		{
+			if (putVariable(&state[i], "scale", val) == false)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
+				exit(1);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!is_no_vacuum)
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum...");
+		executeStatement(con, "vacuum pgbench_branches");
+		executeStatement(con, "vacuum pgbench_tellers");
+		executeStatement(con, "truncate pgbench_history");
+		fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");
+
+		if (do_vacuum_accounts)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum pgbench_accounts...");
+			executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_accounts");
+			fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");
+		}
+	}
+	PQfinish(con);
+
+	/* set random seed */
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(start_time);
+	srandom((unsigned int) INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(start_time));
+
+	/* process builtin SQL scripts */
+	switch (ttype)
+	{
+		case 0:
+			sql_files[0] = process_builtin(tpc_b);
+			num_files = 1;
+			break;
+
+		case 1:
+			sql_files[0] = process_builtin(select_only);
+			num_files = 1;
+			break;
+
+		case 2:
+			sql_files[0] = process_builtin(simple_update);
+			num_files = 1;
+			break;
+
+		default:
+			break;
+	}
+
+	/* get start up time */
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(start_time);
+
+	/* set alarm if duration is specified. */
+	if (duration > 0)
+		setalarm(duration);
+
+	/* start threads */
+	threads = (TState *) malloc(sizeof(TState) * nthreads);
+	for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++)
+	{
+		threads[i].state = &state[nclients / nthreads * i];
+		threads[i].nstate = nclients / nthreads;
+		INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(threads[i].start_time);
+
+		/* the first thread (i = 0) is executed by main thread */
+		if (i > 0)
+		{
+			int err = pthread_create(&threads[i].thread, NULL, threadRun, &threads[i]);
+			if (err != 0 || threads[i].thread == INVALID_THREAD)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "cannot create thread: %s\n", strerror(err));
+				exit(1);
+			}
+		}
+		else
+		{
+			threads[i].thread = INVALID_THREAD;
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* wait for threads and accumulate results */
+	total_xacts = 0;
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_ZERO(conn_total_time);
+	for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++)
+	{
+		void *ret = NULL;
+
+		if (threads[i].thread == INVALID_THREAD)
+			ret = threadRun(&threads[i]);
+		else
+			pthread_join(threads[i].thread, &ret);
+
+		if (ret != NULL)
+		{
+			TResult *r = (TResult *) ret;
+			total_xacts += r->xacts;
+			INSTR_TIME_ADD(conn_total_time, r->conn_time);
+			free(ret);
+		}
+	}
+	disconnect_all(state, nclients);
+
+	/* get end time */
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(total_time);
+	INSTR_TIME_SUBTRACT(total_time, start_time);
+	printResults(ttype, total_xacts, nclients, nthreads, total_time, conn_total_time);
+	if (LOGFILE)
+		fclose(LOGFILE);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void *
+threadRun(void *arg)
+{
+	TState	   *thread = (TState *) arg;
+	CState	   *state = thread->state;
+	TResult	   *result;
+	instr_time	start, end;
+	int			nstate = thread->nstate;
+	int			remains = nstate;	/* number of remaining clients */
+	int			i;
+
+	result = malloc(sizeof(TResult));
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_ZERO(result->conn_time);
+
+	if (is_connect == 0)
+	{
+		/* make connections to the database */
+		for (i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
+		{
+			if ((state[i].con = doConnect()) == NULL)
+				goto done;
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* time after thread and connections set up */
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(result->conn_time);
+	INSTR_TIME_SUBTRACT(result->conn_time, thread->start_time);
+
+	/* send start up queries in async manner */
+	for (i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
+	{
+		CState	   *st = &state[i];
+		Command   **commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
+		int			prev_ecnt = st->ecnt;
+
+		st->use_file = getrand(0, num_files - 1);
+		if (!doCustom(st, &result->conn_time))
+			remains--;		/* I've aborted */
+
+		if (st->ecnt > prev_ecnt && commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND)
+		{
+			fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Execution meta-command failed.\n", i, st->state);
+			remains--;			/* I've aborted */
+			PQfinish(st->con);
+			st->con = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	while (remains > 0)
+	{
+		fd_set			input_mask;
+		int				maxsock;		/* max socket number to be waited */
+		int64			now_usec = 0;
+		int64			min_usec;
+
+		FD_ZERO(&input_mask);
+
+		maxsock = -1;
+		min_usec = INT64_MAX;
+		for (i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
+		{
+			CState	   *st = &state[i];
+			Command   **commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
+			int			sock;
+
+			if (st->sleeping)
+			{
+				int			this_usec;
+
+				if (min_usec == INT64_MAX)
+				{
+					instr_time	now;
+					INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(now);
+					now_usec = INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(now);
+				}
+
+				this_usec = st->until - now_usec;
+				if (min_usec > this_usec)
+					min_usec = this_usec;
+			}
+			else if (st->con == NULL)
+			{
+				continue;
+			}
+			else if (commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND)
+			{
+				min_usec = 0;	/* the connection is ready to run */
+				break;
+			}
+
+			sock = PQsocket(st->con);
+			if (sock < 0)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "bad socket: %s\n", strerror(errno));
+				goto done;
+			}
+
+			FD_SET(sock, &input_mask);
+			if (maxsock < sock)
+				maxsock = sock;
+		}
+
+		if (min_usec > 0 && maxsock != -1)
+		{
+			int		nsocks;			/* return from select(2) */
+
+			if (min_usec != INT64_MAX)
+			{
+				struct timeval	timeout;
+				timeout.tv_sec = min_usec / 1000000;
+				timeout.tv_usec = min_usec % 1000000;
+				nsocks = select(maxsock + 1, &input_mask, NULL, NULL, &timeout);
+			}
+			else
+				nsocks = select(maxsock + 1, &input_mask, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+			if (nsocks < 0)
+			{
+				if (errno == EINTR)
+					continue;
+				/* must be something wrong */
+				fprintf(stderr, "select failed: %s\n", strerror(errno));
+				goto done;
+			}
+		}
+
+		/* ok, backend returns reply */
+		for (i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
+		{
+			CState	   *st = &state[i];
+			Command   **commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
+			int			prev_ecnt = st->ecnt;
+
+			if (st->con && (FD_ISSET(PQsocket(st->con), &input_mask)
+						  || commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND))
+			{
+				if (!doCustom(st, &result->conn_time))
+					remains--;		/* I've aborted */
+			}
+
+			if (st->ecnt > prev_ecnt && commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND)
+			{
+				fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Execution of meta-command failed.\n", i, st->state);
+				remains--;		/* I've aborted */
+				PQfinish(st->con);
+				st->con = NULL;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+done:
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(start);
+	disconnect_all(state, nstate);
+	result->xacts = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
+		result->xacts += state[i].cnt;
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(end);
+	INSTR_TIME_ACCUM_DIFF(result->conn_time, end, start);
+	return result;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Support for duration option: set timer_exceeded after so many seconds.
+ */
+
+#ifndef WIN32
+
+static void
+handle_sig_alarm(SIGNAL_ARGS)
+{
+	timer_exceeded = true;
+}
+
+static void
+setalarm(int seconds)
+{
+	pqsignal(SIGALRM, handle_sig_alarm);
+	alarm(seconds);
+}
+
+#ifndef ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY
+
+/*
+ * implements pthread using fork.
+ */
+
+typedef struct fork_pthread
+{
+	pid_t	pid;
+	int		pipes[2];
+} fork_pthread;
+
+static int
+pthread_create(pthread_t *thread,
+			   pthread_attr_t *attr,
+			   void * (*start_routine)(void *),
+			   void *arg)
+{
+	fork_pthread   *th;
+	void		   *ret;
+	instr_time		start_time;
+
+	th = (fork_pthread *) malloc(sizeof(fork_pthread));
+	pipe(th->pipes);
+
+	th->pid = fork();
+	if (th->pid == -1)	/* error */
+	{
+		free(th);
+		return errno;
+	}
+	if (th->pid != 0)	/* in parent process */
+	{
+		close(th->pipes[1]);
+		*thread = th;
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	/* in child process */
+	close(th->pipes[0]);
+
+	/* set alarm again because the child does not inherit timers */
+	if (duration > 0)
+		setalarm(duration);
+
+	/*
+	 * Set a different random seed in each child process.  Otherwise they
+	 * all inherit the parent's state and generate the same "random"
+	 * sequence.  (In the threaded case, the different threads will obtain
+	 * subsets of the output of a single random() sequence, which should be
+	 * okay for our purposes.)
+	 */
+	INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(start_time);
+	srandom(((unsigned int) INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(start_time)) +
+			((unsigned int) getpid()));
+
+	ret = start_routine(arg);
+	write(th->pipes[1], ret, sizeof(TResult));
+	close(th->pipes[1]);
+	free(th);
+	exit(0);
+}
+
+static int
+pthread_join(pthread_t th, void **thread_return)
+{
+	int		status;
+
+	while (waitpid(th->pid, &status, 0) != th->pid)
+	{
+		if (errno != EINTR)
+			return errno;
+	}
+
+	if (thread_return != NULL)
+	{
+		/* assume result is TResult */
+		*thread_return = malloc(sizeof(TResult));
+		if (read(th->pipes[0], *thread_return, sizeof(TResult)) != sizeof(TResult))
+		{
+			free(*thread_return);
+			*thread_return = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+	close(th->pipes[0]);
+
+	free(th);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+#endif
+
+#else							/* WIN32 */
+
+static VOID CALLBACK
+win32_timer_callback(PVOID lpParameter, BOOLEAN TimerOrWaitFired)
+{
+	timer_exceeded = true;
+}
+
+static void
+setalarm(int seconds)
+{
+	HANDLE		queue;
+	HANDLE		timer;
+
+	/* This function will be called at most once, so we can cheat a bit. */
+	queue = CreateTimerQueue();
+	if (seconds > ((DWORD) -1) / 1000 ||
+		!CreateTimerQueueTimer(&timer, queue,
+							   win32_timer_callback, NULL, seconds * 1000, 0,
+							   WT_EXECUTEINTIMERTHREAD | WT_EXECUTEONLYONCE))
+	{
+		fprintf(stderr, "Failed to set timer\n");
+		exit(1);
+	}
+}
+
+/* partial pthread implementation for Windows */
+
+typedef struct win32_pthread
+{
+	HANDLE		handle;
+	void	   *(*routine)(void *);
+	void	   *arg;
+	void	   *result;
+} win32_pthread;
+
+static unsigned __stdcall
+win32_pthread_run(void *arg)
+{
+	win32_pthread *th = (win32_pthread *) arg;
+
+	th->result = th->routine(th->arg);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+pthread_create(pthread_t *thread,
+			   pthread_attr_t *attr,
+			   void * (*start_routine)(void *),
+			   void *arg)
+{
+	int				save_errno;
+	win32_pthread   *th;
+
+	th = (win32_pthread *) malloc(sizeof(win32_pthread));
+	th->routine = start_routine;
+	th->arg = arg;
+	th->result = NULL;
+
+	th->handle = (HANDLE) _beginthreadex(NULL, 0, win32_pthread_run, th, 0, NULL);
+	if (th->handle == NULL)
+	{
+		save_errno = errno;
+		free(th);
+		return save_errno;
+	}
+
+	*thread = th;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int
+pthread_join(pthread_t th, void **thread_return)
+{
+	if (th == NULL || th->handle == NULL)
+		return errno = EINVAL;
+
+	if (WaitForSingleObject(th->handle, INFINITE) != WAIT_OBJECT_0)
+	{
+		_dosmaperr(GetLastError());
+		return errno;
+	}
+
+	if (thread_return)
+		*thread_return = th->result;
+
+	CloseHandle(th->handle);
+	free(th);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+#endif   /* WIN32 */


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