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From hinde...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r414794 [2/2] - in /incubator/harmony/enhanced/classlib/trunk/modules/luni/src: main/java/java/util/Formatter.java test/java/tests/api/java/util/FormatterTest.java
Date Fri, 16 Jun 2006 10:15:29 GMT
Modified: incubator/harmony/enhanced/classlib/trunk/modules/luni/src/test/java/tests/api/java/util/FormatterTest.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/harmony/enhanced/classlib/trunk/modules/luni/src/test/java/tests/api/java/util/FormatterTest.java?rev=414794&r1=414793&r2=414794&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- incubator/harmony/enhanced/classlib/trunk/modules/luni/src/test/java/tests/api/java/util/FormatterTest.java (original)
+++ incubator/harmony/enhanced/classlib/trunk/modules/luni/src/test/java/tests/api/java/util/FormatterTest.java Fri Jun 16 03:15:27 2006
@@ -50,1327 +50,1327 @@
 
 public class FormatterTest extends TestCase {
 
-	class MockAppendable implements Appendable {
-		public Appendable append(CharSequence arg0) throws IOException {
-			return null;
-		}
-
-		public Appendable append(char arg0) throws IOException {
-			return null;
-		}
-
-		public Appendable append(CharSequence arg0, int arg1, int arg2)
-				throws IOException {
-			return null;
-		}
-	}
-
-	class MockSecurityManager extends SecurityManager {
-		public void checkPermission(Permission p) {
-			if (p.getActions().equals("write") && p instanceof FilePermission) {
-				throw new SecurityException("Always throw security exception");
-			}
-		}
-
-		public void checkPermission(Permission p, Object ctx) {
-			checkPermission(p);
-		}
-	}
-
-	class MockFormattable implements Formattable {
-		public void formatTo(Formatter formatter, int flags, int width,
-				int precision) throws IllegalFormatException {
-			if ((flags & FormattableFlags.UPPERCASE) != 0) {
-				formatter.format("CUSTOMIZED FORMAT FUNCTION" + " WIDTH: "
-						+ width + " PRECISION: " + precision);
-			} else {
-				formatter.format("customized format function" + " width: "
-						+ width + " precision: " + precision);
-			}
-		}
-
-		public String toString() {
-			return "formattable object";
-		}
-
-		public int hashCode() {
-			return 0xf;
-		}
-	}
-
-	class MockDestination implements Appendable, Flushable {
-
-		private StringBuilder data = new StringBuilder();
-
-		private boolean enabled = false;
-
-		public Appendable append(char c) throws IOException {
-			if (enabled) {
-				data.append(c);
-				enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
-			} else {
-				throw new IOException();
-			}
-			return this;
-		}
-
-		public Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException {
-			if (enabled) {
-				data.append(csq);
-				enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
-			} else {
-				throw new IOException();
-			}
-			return this;
-		}
-
-		public Appendable append(CharSequence csq, int start, int end)
-				throws IOException {
-			if (enabled) {
-				data.append(csq, start, end);
-				enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
-			} else {
-				throw new IOException();
-			}
-			return this;
-		}
-
-		public void flush() throws IOException {
-			throw new IOException("Always throw IOException");
-		}
-
-		public String toString() {
-			return data.toString();
-		}
-	}
-
-	private File notExist;
-
-	private File fileWithContent;
-
-	private File readOnly;
-
-	private File secret;
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter()
-	 */
-	public void test_Constructor() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter();
-		assertNotNull(f);
-		assertTrue(f.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		assertNotNull(f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Appendable)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_Appendable() {
-		MockAppendable ma = new MockAppendable();
-		Formatter f1 = new Formatter(ma);
-		assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
-		assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		assertNotNull(f1.toString());
-
-		Formatter f2 = new Formatter((Appendable) null);
-		/*
-		 * If a(the input param) is null then a StringBuilder will be created
-		 * and the output can be attained by invoking the out() method. But RI
-		 * raises an error of FormatterClosedException when invoking out() or
-		 * toString().
-		 */
-		Appendable sb = f2.out();
-		assertTrue(sb instanceof StringBuilder);
-		assertNotNull(f2.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Locale)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_util_Locale() {
-		Formatter f1 = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
-		assertTrue(f1.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
-		assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.FRANCE);
-		assertNotNull(f1.toString());
-
-		Formatter f2 = new Formatter((Locale) null);
-		assertNull(f2.locale());
-		assertTrue(f2.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
-		assertNotNull(f2.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Appendable, Locale)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_AppendableLjava_util_Locale() {
-		MockAppendable ma = new MockAppendable();
-		Formatter f1 = new Formatter(ma, Locale.CANADA);
-		assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
-		assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.CANADA);
-
-		Formatter f2 = new Formatter(ma, null);
-		assertNull(f2.locale());
-		assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
-
-		Formatter f3 = new Formatter(null, Locale.GERMAN);
-		assertEquals(f3.locale(), Locale.GERMAN);
-		assertTrue(f3.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_String() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((String) null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath());
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		f.close();
-
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath());
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath());
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret.getPath());
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String, String)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_StringLjava_lang_String()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((String) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), "ISO 1111-1");
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String, String, Locale)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_StringLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((String) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
-					Locale.KOREA);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), null, Locale.KOREA);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
-				null);
-		assertNotNull(f);
-		f.close();
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
-				Locale.KOREA);
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.KOREA);
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), "ISO 1111-1", Locale.CHINA);
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE",
-				Locale.CANADA_FRENCH);
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset()
-					.name(), Locale.ITALY);
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(),
-					Charset.defaultCharset().name(), Locale.SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE);
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_File() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((File) null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist);
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		f.close();
-
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent);
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly);
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret);
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File, String)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_FileLjava_lang_String()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((File) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
-		f.close();
-
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent, "UTF-16BE");
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist, null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			if (notExist.exists()) {
-				// Fail on RI on Windows, because output stream is created and
-				// not closed when exception thrown
-				assertTrue(notExist.delete());
-			}
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist, "ISO 1111-1");
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			if (notExist.exists()) {
-				// Fail on RI on Windows, because output stream is created and
-				// not closed when exception thrown
-				assertTrue(notExist.delete());
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File, String, Locale)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_FileLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((File) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
-					Locale.KOREA);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist, null, Locale.KOREA);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name(), null);
-		assertNotNull(f);
-		f.close();
-
-		f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
-				Locale.KOREA);
-		assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.KOREA);
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(notExist, "ISO 1111-1", Locale.CHINA);
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-		f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE",
-				Locale.CANADA_FRENCH);
-		assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset()
-					.name(), Locale.ITALY);
-			fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
-		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
-		System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(),
-					Charset.defaultCharset().name(), Locale.SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE);
-			fail("should throw SecurityException");
-		} catch (SecurityException se) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(PrintStream)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_PrintStream() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((PrintStream) null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		PrintStream ps = new PrintStream(notExist, "UTF-16BE");
-		f = new Formatter(ps);
-		assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
-		f.close();
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(OutputStream)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStream() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		OutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
-		f = new Formatter(os);
-		assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
-		f.close();
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(OutputStream, String)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStreamLjava_lang_String()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null, Charset.defaultCharset()
-					.name());
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		OutputStream os = null;
-		try {
-			os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
-			f = new Formatter(os, null);
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			os.close();
-		}
-
-		try {
-			os = new PipedOutputStream();
-			f = new Formatter(os, "TMP-1111");
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			os.close();
-		}
-
-		os = new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent);
-		f = new Formatter(os, "UTF-16BE");
-		assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
-		f.close();
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * Test method for 'java.util.Formatter.Formatter(OutputStream, String,
-	 * Locale)
-	 */
-	public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStreamLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
-			throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null, Charset.defaultCharset()
-					.name(), Locale.getDefault());
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		OutputStream os = null;
-		try {
-			os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
-			f = new Formatter(os, null, Locale.getDefault());
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e2) {
-			// expected
-		} finally {
-			os.close();
-		}
-
-		os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
-		f = new Formatter(os, Charset.defaultCharset().name(), null);
-		f.close();
-
-		try {
-			os = new PipedOutputStream();
-			f = new Formatter(os, "TMP-1111", Locale.getDefault());
-			fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		os = new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent);
-		f = new Formatter(os, "UTF-16BE", Locale.ENGLISH);
-		assertEquals(Locale.ENGLISH, f.locale());
-		f.close();
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#locale()
-	 */
-	public void test_locale() {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		f = new Formatter((Locale) null);
-		assertNull(f.locale());
-
-		f.close();
-		try {
-			f.locale();
-			fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
-		} catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#out()
-	 */
-	public void test_out() {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		f = new Formatter();
-		assertNotNull(f.out());
-		assertTrue(f.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
-		f.close();
-		try {
-			f.out();
-			fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
-		} catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#flush()
-	 */
-	public void test_flush() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		f = new Formatter(notExist);
-		assertTrue(f instanceof Flushable);
-		f.close();
-		try {
-			f.flush();
-			fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
-		} catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter();
-		// For destination that does not implement Flushable
-		// No exception should be thrown
-		f.flush();
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#close()
-	 */
-	public void test_close() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(notExist);
-		assertTrue(f instanceof Closeable);
-		f.close();
-		// close next time will not throw exception
-		f.close();
-		assertNull(f.ioException());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#toString()
-	 */
-	public void test_toString() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter();
-		assertNotNull(f.toString());
-		assertEquals(f.out().toString(), f.toString());
-		f.close();
-		try {
-			f.toString();
-			fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
-		} catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#ioException()
-	 */
-	public void test_ioException() throws IOException {
-		Formatter f = null;
-		f = new Formatter(new MockDestination());
-		assertNull(f.ioException());
-		f.flush();
-		assertNotNull(f.ioException());
-		f.close();
-
-		MockDestination md = new MockDestination();
-		f = new Formatter(md);
-		f.format("%s%s", "1", "2");
-		// format stop working after IOException
-		assertNotNull(f.ioException());
-		assertEquals("", f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for null parameter
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_null() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter();
-		try {
-			f.format((String) null, "parameter");
-			fail("should throw NullPointerException");
-		} catch (NullPointerException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter();
-		f.format("hello", (Object[]) null);
-		assertEquals("hello", f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for argument index
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_ArgIndex() {
-		Formatter formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		formatter.format("%1$s%2$s%3$s%4$s%5$s%6$s%7$s%8$s%9$s%11$s%10$s", "1",
-				"2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "11");
-		assertEquals("1234567891110", formatter.toString());
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.JAPAN);
-		formatter.format("%0$s", "hello");
-		assertEquals("hello", formatter.toString());
-
-		try {
-			formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			formatter.format("%-1$s", "1", "2");
-			fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-		} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			formatter.format("%$s", "hello", "2");
-			fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-		} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
-		formatter.format("%1$s%2$s%3$s%4$s%5$s%6$s%7$s%8$s%<s%s%s%<s", "1",
-				"2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "11");
-		assertEquals("123456788122", formatter.toString());
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
-		formatter.format(
-				"xx%1$s22%2$s%s%<s%5$s%<s&%7$h%2$s%8$s%<s%s%s%<ssuffix", "1",
-				"2", "3", "4", "5", "6", 7, "8", "9", "10", "11");
-		assertEquals("xx12221155&7288233suffix", formatter.toString());
-
-		try {
-			formatter.format("%<s", "hello");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			formatter.format("%123$s", "hello");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			// 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
-			formatter.format("%2147483648$s", "hello");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			// 2147483647 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE
-			formatter.format("%2147483647$s", "hello");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			formatter.format("%s%s", "hello");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		formatter.format("$100", 100);
-		assertEquals("$100", formatter.toString());
-
-		formatter = new Formatter(Locale.UK);
-		formatter.format("%01$s", "string");
-		assertEquals("string", formatter.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for width
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Width() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%1$8s", "1");
-		assertEquals("       1", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%1$-1%", "string");
-		assertEquals("%", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
-		// 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
-		f.format("%2147483648s", "string");
-		assertEquals("string", f.toString());
-
-		// the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE will allocate about 4G bytes of
-		// memory.
-		// It may cause OutOfMemoryError, so this value is not tested
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for precision
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Precision() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%.5s", "123456");
-		assertEquals("12345", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		// 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
-		f.format("%.2147483648s", "...");
-		assertEquals("...", f.toString());
-
-		// the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE will allocate about 4G bytes of
-		// memory.
-		// It may cause OutOfMemoryError, so this value is not tested
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%10.0b", Boolean.TRUE);
-		assertEquals("          ", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%10.01s", "hello");
-		assertEquals("         h", f.toString());
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			f.format("%.s", "hello", "2");
-			fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-		} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			f.format("%.-5s", "123456");
-			fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-		} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			f.format("%1.s", "hello", "2");
-			fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-		} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%5.1s", "hello");
-		assertEquals("    h", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
-		f.format("%.0s", "hello", "2");
-		assertEquals("", f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for line sperator
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_LineSperator() {
-		Formatter f = null;
-
-		String oldSeparator = System.getProperty("line.separator");
-		System.setProperty("line.separator", "!\n");
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%1$n", 1);
-		assertEquals("!\n", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREAN);
-		f.format("head%1$n%2$n", 1, new Date());
-		assertEquals("head!\n!\n", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%n%s", "hello");
-		assertEquals("!\nhello", f.toString());
-
-		System.setProperty("line.separator", oldSeparator);
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		final String[] illFlags = { "%-n", "%+n", "%#n", "% n", "%0n", "%,n",
-				"%(n" };
-		for (int i = 0; i < illFlags.length; i++) {
-			try {
-				f.format(illFlags[i]);
-				fail("should throw IllegalFormatFlagsException: " + illFlags[i]);
-			} catch (IllegalFormatFlagsException e) {
-				// expected
-			}
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%4n");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatWidthException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatWidthException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%-4n");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatWidthException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatWidthException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%.9n");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%5.9n");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for percent
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Percent() {
-		Formatter f = null;
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.ENGLISH);
-		f.format("%1$%", 100);
-		assertEquals("%", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-		f.format("%1$%%%", "hello", new Object());
-		assertEquals("%%", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-		f.format("%%%s", "hello");
-		assertEquals("%hello", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%.9%");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%5.9%");
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		final String[] illFlags = { "%+%", "%#%", "% %", "%0%", "%,%", "%(%" };
-		for (int i = 0; i < illFlags.length; i++) {
-			try {
-				f.format(illFlags[i]);
-				fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException: "
-						+ illFlags[i]);
-				/*
-				 * error on RI, throw IllegalFormatFlagsException specification
-				 * says FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException should be thrown
-				 */
-			} catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
-				// expected
-			}
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREAN);
-		f.format("%4%", 1);
-		/*
-		 * fail on RI the output string should be right justified by appending
-		 * spaces till the whole string is 4 chars width.
-		 */
-		assertEquals("   %", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%-4%", 100);
-		/*
-		 * fail on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException the output string
-		 * should be left justified by appending spaces till the whole string is
-		 * 4 chars width.
-		 */
-		assertEquals("%   ", f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for flag
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Flag() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		try {
-			f.format("%1$-#-8s", "something");
-			fail("should throw DuplicateFormatFlagsException");
-		} catch (DuplicateFormatFlagsException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		final char[] chars = { '-', '#', '+', ' ', '0', ',', '(', '%', '<' };
-		Arrays.sort(chars);
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		for (char i = 0; i <= 256; i++) {
-			// test 8 bit character
-			if (Arrays.binarySearch(chars, i) >= 0 || Character.isDigit(i)
-					|| Character.isLetter(i)) {
-				// Do not test 0-9, a-z, A-Z and characters in the chars array.
-				// They are characters used as flags, width or conversions
-				continue;
-			}
-			try {
-				f.format("%" + i + "s", 1);
-				fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
-			} catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
-				// expected
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for general
-	 *        conversion
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_GeneralConversion() {
-		final String[] flagMismatch = { "%#b", "%+b", "% b", "%0b", "%,b",
-				"%(b", "%#B", "%+B", "% B", "%0B", "%,B", "%(B", "%#h", "%+h",
-				"% h", "%0h", "%,h", "%(h", "%#H", "%+H", "% H", "%0H", "%,H",
-				"%(H", "%+s", "% s", "%0s", "%,s", "%(s", "%+S", "% S", "%0S",
-				"%,S", "%(S" };
-
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-
-		for (int i = 0; i < flagMismatch.length; i++) {
-			try {
-				f.format(flagMismatch[i], "something");
-				fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
-			} catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
-				// expected
-			}
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f.format("%-.8s", "something");
-			fail("should throw MissingFormatWidthException");
-		} catch (MissingFormatWidthException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		final Object[] args = { Boolean.FALSE, Boolean.TRUE,
-				new Character('c'), new Byte((byte) 0x01),
-				new Short((short) 0x0001), new Integer(1), new Float(1.1f),
-				new Double(1.1d), "", "string content", new MockFormattable(),
-				(Object) null };
-
-		final String[] bResult = { " fa", "false", "fa", " tr", "true", "tr",
-				" tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
-				" tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
-				" tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
-				" fa", "false", "fa" };
-		for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPANESE);
-			f.format("prefix%3.2b", args[i]);
-			assertEquals("prefix" + bResult[resultCount], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPANESE);
-			f.format("prefix%3.2B", args[i]);
-			assertEquals("prefix" + bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f
-					.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
-			f.format("%-4.6b", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(bResult[resultCount], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
-			f.format("%-4.6B", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
-			f.format("%.2bsuffix", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(bResult[resultCount] + "suffix", f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
-			f.format("%.2Bsuffix", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase() + "suffix", f
-					.toString());
-		}
-
-		final String[] sResult = { "fal", "fals  ", "false", "tru", "true  ",
-				"true", " c", "c     ", "c", " 1", "1     ", "1", " 1",
-				"1     ", "1", " 1", "1     ", "1", "1.1", "1.1   ", "1.1",
-				"1.1", "1.1   ", "1.1", "  ", "      ", "", "str", "stri  ",
-				"strin", "customized format function width: 2 precision: 3",
-				"customized format function width: 6 precision: 4",
-				"customized format function width: -1 precision: 5", "nul",
-				"null  ", "null" };
-		for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-			f.format("%2.3s", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-			f.format("%2.3S", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
-			f.format("%-6.4s", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
-			f.format("%-6.4S", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
-			f.format("%.5s", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
-			f.format("%.5S", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
-		}
-
-		// skip args[length-1]: null, do it seperately
-		for (int i = 0; i < args.length - 1; i++) {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-			f.format("%h", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(Integer.toHexString(args[i].hashCode()), f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
-			f.format("%H", args[i]);
-			assertEquals(Integer.toHexString(args[i].hashCode()).toUpperCase(),
-					f.toString());
-		}
-
-		/*
-		 * In Turkish locale, the upper case of '\u0069' is '\u0130'. The
-		 * following test indicate that '\u0069' is coverted to upper case
-		 * without using the turkish locale.
-		 */
-		f = new Formatter(new Locale("tr"));
-		f.format("%S", "\u0069");
-		assertEquals("\u0049", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
-		for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
-			if (!(args[i] instanceof Formattable)) {
-				try {
-					f.format("%#s", args[i]);
-					/*
-					 * fail on RI If the '#' flag is present and the argument is
-					 * not a Formattable , then a
-					 * FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException should be thrown.
-					 */
-					fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
-				} catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
-					// expected
-				}
-			} else {
-				f.format("%#s%<-#8s", args[i]);
-				assertEquals(
-						"customized format function width: -1 precision: -1customized format function width: 8 precision: -1",
-						f.toString());
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for Character
-	 *        conversion
-	 */
-	public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_CharacterConversion() {
-		Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		final Object[] illArgs = { Boolean.TRUE, new Float(1.1f),
-				new Double(1.1d), "string content", new Float(1.1f), new Date() };
-		for (int i = 0; i < illArgs.length; i++) {
-			try {
-				f.format("%c", illArgs[i]);
-				fail("should throw IllegalFormatConversionException");
-			} catch (IllegalFormatConversionException e) {
-				// expected
-			}
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f.format("%c", Integer.MAX_VALUE);
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatCodePointException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatCodePointException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		try {
-			f.format("%#c", 'c');
-			fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
-		} catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		final Object[] legalArgs = { 'c', '\u0123', (byte) 0x11,
-				(short) 0x1111, 0x11 };
-		final Object[] result = { "c", "c ", "\u0123", "\u0123 ", "\u0011",
-				"\u0011 ", "\u1111", "\u1111 ", "\u0011", "\u0011 " };
-
-		for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < legalArgs.length; i++) {
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-			f.format("pre%c", legalArgs[i]);
-			assertEquals("pre" + result[resultCount++], f.toString());
-
-			f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMANY);
-			f.format("%-2c.txt", legalArgs[i]);
-			assertEquals(result[resultCount++] + ".txt", f.toString());
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%c", 0x10000);
-		assertEquals(0x10000, f.toString().codePointAt(0));
-
-		try {
-			f.format("%2.2c", 'c');
-			fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
-		} catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
-			// expected
-		}
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
-		f.format("%C", 'w');
-		// error on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException
-		// RI do not support converter 'C'
-		assertEquals("W", f.toString());
-
-		f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPAN);
-		f.format("%Ced", 0x1111);
-		// error on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException
-		// RI do not support converter 'C'
-		assertEquals("\u1111ed", f.toString());
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * Setup resource files for testing
-	 */
-	protected void setUp() throws IOException {
-		notExist = File.createTempFile("notexist", null);
-		notExist.delete();
-
-		fileWithContent = File.createTempFile("filewithcontent", null);
-		BufferedOutputStream bw = new BufferedOutputStream(
-				new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent));
-		bw.write(1);// write something into the file
-		bw.close();
-
-		readOnly = File.createTempFile("readonly", null);
-		readOnly.setReadOnly();
-
-		secret = File.createTempFile("secret", null);
-	}
-
-	/**
-	 * Delete the resource files if they exist
-	 */
-	protected void tearDown() {
-		if (notExist.exists()) {
-			notExist.delete();
-		}
-
-		if (fileWithContent.exists()) {
-			fileWithContent.delete();
-		}
-		if (readOnly.exists()) {
-			readOnly.delete();
-		}
-		if (secret.exists()) {
-			secret.delete();
-		}
-	}
+    class MockAppendable implements Appendable {
+        public Appendable append(CharSequence arg0) throws IOException {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        public Appendable append(char arg0) throws IOException {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        public Appendable append(CharSequence arg0, int arg1, int arg2)
+                throws IOException {
+            return null;
+        }
+    }
+
+    class MockSecurityManager extends SecurityManager {
+        public void checkPermission(Permission p) {
+            if (p.getActions().equals("write") && p instanceof FilePermission) {
+                throw new SecurityException("Always throw security exception");
+            }
+        }
+
+        public void checkPermission(Permission p, Object ctx) {
+            checkPermission(p);
+        }
+    }
+
+    class MockFormattable implements Formattable {
+        public void formatTo(Formatter formatter, int flags, int width,
+                int precision) throws IllegalFormatException {
+            if ((flags & FormattableFlags.UPPERCASE) != 0) {
+                formatter.format("CUSTOMIZED FORMAT FUNCTION" + " WIDTH: "
+                        + width + " PRECISION: " + precision);
+            } else {
+                formatter.format("customized format function" + " width: "
+                        + width + " precision: " + precision);
+            }
+        }
+
+        public String toString() {
+            return "formattable object";
+        }
+
+        public int hashCode() {
+            return 0xf;
+        }
+    }
+
+    class MockDestination implements Appendable, Flushable {
+
+        private StringBuilder data = new StringBuilder();
+
+        private boolean enabled = false;
+
+        public Appendable append(char c) throws IOException {
+            if (enabled) {
+                data.append(c);
+                enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
+            } else {
+                throw new IOException();
+            }
+            return this;
+        }
+
+        public Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException {
+            if (enabled) {
+                data.append(csq);
+                enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
+            } else {
+                throw new IOException();
+            }
+            return this;
+        }
+
+        public Appendable append(CharSequence csq, int start, int end)
+                throws IOException {
+            if (enabled) {
+                data.append(csq, start, end);
+                enabled = true; // enable it after the first append
+            } else {
+                throw new IOException();
+            }
+            return this;
+        }
+
+        public void flush() throws IOException {
+            throw new IOException("Always throw IOException");
+        }
+
+        public String toString() {
+            return data.toString();
+        }
+    }
+
+    private File notExist;
+
+    private File fileWithContent;
+
+    private File readOnly;
+
+    private File secret;
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter()
+     */
+    public void test_Constructor() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter();
+        assertNotNull(f);
+        assertTrue(f.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        assertNotNull(f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Appendable)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_Appendable() {
+        MockAppendable ma = new MockAppendable();
+        Formatter f1 = new Formatter(ma);
+        assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
+        assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        assertNotNull(f1.toString());
+
+        Formatter f2 = new Formatter((Appendable) null);
+        /*
+         * If a(the input param) is null then a StringBuilder will be created
+         * and the output can be attained by invoking the out() method. But RI
+         * raises an error of FormatterClosedException when invoking out() or
+         * toString().
+         */
+        Appendable sb = f2.out();
+        assertTrue(sb instanceof StringBuilder);
+        assertNotNull(f2.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Locale)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_util_Locale() {
+        Formatter f1 = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
+        assertTrue(f1.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
+        assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.FRANCE);
+        assertNotNull(f1.toString());
+
+        Formatter f2 = new Formatter((Locale) null);
+        assertNull(f2.locale());
+        assertTrue(f2.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
+        assertNotNull(f2.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(Appendable, Locale)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_AppendableLjava_util_Locale() {
+        MockAppendable ma = new MockAppendable();
+        Formatter f1 = new Formatter(ma, Locale.CANADA);
+        assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
+        assertEquals(f1.locale(), Locale.CANADA);
+
+        Formatter f2 = new Formatter(ma, null);
+        assertNull(f2.locale());
+        assertEquals(ma, f1.out());
+
+        Formatter f3 = new Formatter(null, Locale.GERMAN);
+        assertEquals(f3.locale(), Locale.GERMAN);
+        assertTrue(f3.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_String() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((String) null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath());
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        f.close();
+
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath());
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath());
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret.getPath());
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String, String)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_StringLjava_lang_String()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((String) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), "ISO 1111-1");
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(), "UTF-16BE");
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(String, String, Locale)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_lang_StringLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((String) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
+                    Locale.KOREA);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), null, Locale.KOREA);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
+                null);
+        assertNotNull(f);
+        f.close();
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
+                Locale.KOREA);
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.KOREA);
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist.getPath(), "ISO 1111-1", Locale.CHINA);
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE",
+                Locale.CANADA_FRENCH);
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset()
+                    .name(), Locale.ITALY);
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(),
+                    Charset.defaultCharset().name(), Locale.SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE);
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_File() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((File) null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist);
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        f.close();
+
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent);
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly);
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret);
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File, String)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_FileLjava_lang_String()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((File) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.getDefault());
+        f.close();
+
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent, "UTF-16BE");
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret, Charset.defaultCharset().name());
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist, null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            if (notExist.exists()) {
+                // Fail on RI on Windows, because output stream is created and
+                // not closed when exception thrown
+                assertTrue(notExist.delete());
+            }
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist, "ISO 1111-1");
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            if (notExist.exists()) {
+                // Fail on RI on Windows, because output stream is created and
+                // not closed when exception thrown
+                assertTrue(notExist.delete());
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(File, String, Locale)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_FileLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((File) null, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
+                    Locale.KOREA);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist, null, Locale.KOREA);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name(), null);
+        assertNotNull(f);
+        f.close();
+
+        f = new Formatter(notExist, Charset.defaultCharset().name(),
+                Locale.KOREA);
+        assertEquals(f.locale(), Locale.KOREA);
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(notExist, "ISO 1111-1", Locale.CHINA);
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+        f = new Formatter(fileWithContent.getPath(), "UTF-16BE",
+                Locale.CANADA_FRENCH);
+        assertEquals(0, fileWithContent.length());
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(readOnly.getPath(), Charset.defaultCharset()
+                    .name(), Locale.ITALY);
+            fail("should throw FileNotFoundException");
+        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        SecurityManager oldsm = System.getSecurityManager();
+        System.setSecurityManager(new MockSecurityManager());
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(secret.getPath(),
+                    Charset.defaultCharset().name(), Locale.SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE);
+            fail("should throw SecurityException");
+        } catch (SecurityException se) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            System.setSecurityManager(oldsm);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(PrintStream)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_PrintStream() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((PrintStream) null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        PrintStream ps = new PrintStream(notExist, "UTF-16BE");
+        f = new Formatter(ps);
+        assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
+        f.close();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(OutputStream)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStream() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        OutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
+        f = new Formatter(os);
+        assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
+        f.close();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#Formatter(OutputStream, String)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStreamLjava_lang_String()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null, Charset.defaultCharset()
+                    .name());
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        OutputStream os = null;
+        try {
+            os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
+            f = new Formatter(os, null);
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            os.close();
+        }
+
+        try {
+            os = new PipedOutputStream();
+            f = new Formatter(os, "TMP-1111");
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            os.close();
+        }
+
+        os = new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent);
+        f = new Formatter(os, "UTF-16BE");
+        assertEquals(Locale.getDefault(), f.locale());
+        f.close();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Test method for 'java.util.Formatter.Formatter(OutputStream, String,
+     * Locale)
+     */
+    public void test_ConstructorLjava_io_OutputStreamLjava_lang_StringLjava_util_Locale()
+            throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter((OutputStream) null, Charset.defaultCharset()
+                    .name(), Locale.getDefault());
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        OutputStream os = null;
+        try {
+            os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
+            f = new Formatter(os, null, Locale.getDefault());
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e2) {
+            // expected
+        } finally {
+            os.close();
+        }
+
+        os = new FileOutputStream(notExist);
+        f = new Formatter(os, Charset.defaultCharset().name(), null);
+        f.close();
+
+        try {
+            os = new PipedOutputStream();
+            f = new Formatter(os, "TMP-1111", Locale.getDefault());
+            fail("should throw UnsupportedEncodingException");
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        os = new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent);
+        f = new Formatter(os, "UTF-16BE", Locale.ENGLISH);
+        assertEquals(Locale.ENGLISH, f.locale());
+        f.close();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#locale()
+     */
+    public void test_locale() {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        f = new Formatter((Locale) null);
+        assertNull(f.locale());
+
+        f.close();
+        try {
+            f.locale();
+            fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
+        } catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#out()
+     */
+    public void test_out() {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        f = new Formatter();
+        assertNotNull(f.out());
+        assertTrue(f.out() instanceof StringBuilder);
+        f.close();
+        try {
+            f.out();
+            fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
+        } catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#flush()
+     */
+    public void test_flush() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        f = new Formatter(notExist);
+        assertTrue(f instanceof Flushable);
+        f.close();
+        try {
+            f.flush();
+            fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
+        } catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter();
+        // For destination that does not implement Flushable
+        // No exception should be thrown
+        f.flush();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#close()
+     */
+    public void test_close() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(notExist);
+        assertTrue(f instanceof Closeable);
+        f.close();
+        // close next time will not throw exception
+        f.close();
+        assertNull(f.ioException());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#toString()
+     */
+    public void test_toString() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter();
+        assertNotNull(f.toString());
+        assertEquals(f.out().toString(), f.toString());
+        f.close();
+        try {
+            f.toString();
+            fail("should throw FormatterClosedException");
+        } catch (FormatterClosedException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#ioException()
+     */
+    public void test_ioException() throws IOException {
+        Formatter f = null;
+        f = new Formatter(new MockDestination());
+        assertNull(f.ioException());
+        f.flush();
+        assertNotNull(f.ioException());
+        f.close();
+
+        MockDestination md = new MockDestination();
+        f = new Formatter(md);
+        f.format("%s%s", "1", "2");
+        // format stop working after IOException
+        assertNotNull(f.ioException());
+        assertEquals("", f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for null parameter
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_null() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter();
+        try {
+            f.format((String) null, "parameter");
+            fail("should throw NullPointerException");
+        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter();
+        f.format("hello", (Object[]) null);
+        assertEquals("hello", f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for argument index
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_ArgIndex() {
+        Formatter formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        formatter.format("%1$s%2$s%3$s%4$s%5$s%6$s%7$s%8$s%9$s%11$s%10$s", "1",
+                "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "11");
+        assertEquals("1234567891110", formatter.toString());
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.JAPAN);
+        formatter.format("%0$s", "hello");
+        assertEquals("hello", formatter.toString());
+
+        try {
+            formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            formatter.format("%-1$s", "1", "2");
+            fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+        } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            formatter.format("%$s", "hello", "2");
+            fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+        } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
+        formatter.format("%1$s%2$s%3$s%4$s%5$s%6$s%7$s%8$s%<s%s%s%<s", "1",
+                "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "11");
+        assertEquals("123456788122", formatter.toString());
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
+        formatter.format(
+                "xx%1$s22%2$s%s%<s%5$s%<s&%7$h%2$s%8$s%<s%s%s%<ssuffix", "1",
+                "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", 7, "8", "9", "10", "11");
+        assertEquals("xx12221155&7288233suffix", formatter.toString());
+
+        try {
+            formatter.format("%<s", "hello");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            formatter.format("%123$s", "hello");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            // 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
+            formatter.format("%2147483648$s", "hello");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            // 2147483647 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE
+            formatter.format("%2147483647$s", "hello");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            formatter.format("%s%s", "hello");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatArgumentException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatArgumentException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        formatter.format("$100", 100);
+        assertEquals("$100", formatter.toString());
+
+        formatter = new Formatter(Locale.UK);
+        formatter.format("%01$s", "string");
+        assertEquals("string", formatter.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for width
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Width() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%1$8s", "1");
+        assertEquals("       1", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%1$-1%", "string");
+        assertEquals("%", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
+        // 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
+        f.format("%2147483648s", "string");
+        assertEquals("string", f.toString());
+
+        // the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE will allocate about 4G bytes of
+        // memory.
+        // It may cause OutOfMemoryError, so this value is not tested
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for precision
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Precision() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%.5s", "123456");
+        assertEquals("12345", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        // 2147483648 is the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1
+        f.format("%.2147483648s", "...");
+        assertEquals("...", f.toString());
+
+        // the value of Integer.MAX_VALUE will allocate about 4G bytes of
+        // memory.
+        // It may cause OutOfMemoryError, so this value is not tested
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%10.0b", Boolean.TRUE);
+        assertEquals("          ", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%10.01s", "hello");
+        assertEquals("         h", f.toString());
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            f.format("%.s", "hello", "2");
+            fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+        } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            f.format("%.-5s", "123456");
+            fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+        } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            f.format("%1.s", "hello", "2");
+            fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+        } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%5.1s", "hello");
+        assertEquals("    h", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.FRANCE);
+        f.format("%.0s", "hello", "2");
+        assertEquals("", f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for line sperator
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_LineSperator() {
+        Formatter f = null;
+
+        String oldSeparator = System.getProperty("line.separator");
+        System.setProperty("line.separator", "!\n");
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%1$n", 1);
+        assertEquals("!\n", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREAN);
+        f.format("head%1$n%2$n", 1, new Date());
+        assertEquals("head!\n!\n", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%n%s", "hello");
+        assertEquals("!\nhello", f.toString());
+
+        System.setProperty("line.separator", oldSeparator);
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        final String[] illFlags = { "%-n", "%+n", "%#n", "% n", "%0n", "%,n",
+                "%(n" };
+        for (int i = 0; i < illFlags.length; i++) {
+            try {
+                f.format(illFlags[i]);
+                fail("should throw IllegalFormatFlagsException: " + illFlags[i]);
+            } catch (IllegalFormatFlagsException e) {
+                // expected
+            }
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%4n");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatWidthException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatWidthException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%-4n");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatWidthException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatWidthException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%.9n");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%5.9n");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for percent
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Percent() {
+        Formatter f = null;
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.ENGLISH);
+        f.format("%1$%", 100);
+        assertEquals("%", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+        f.format("%1$%%%", "hello", new Object());
+        assertEquals("%%", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+        f.format("%%%s", "hello");
+        assertEquals("%hello", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%.9%");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%5.9%");
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        final String[] illFlags = { "%+%", "%#%", "% %", "%0%", "%,%", "%(%" };
+        for (int i = 0; i < illFlags.length; i++) {
+            try {
+                f.format(illFlags[i]);
+                fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException: "
+                        + illFlags[i]);
+                /*
+                 * error on RI, throw IllegalFormatFlagsException specification
+                 * says FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException should be thrown
+                 */
+            } catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
+                // expected
+            }
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREAN);
+        f.format("%4%", 1);
+        /*
+         * fail on RI the output string should be right justified by appending
+         * spaces till the whole string is 4 chars width.
+         */
+        assertEquals("   %", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%-4%", 100);
+        /*
+         * fail on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException the output string
+         * should be left justified by appending spaces till the whole string is
+         * 4 chars width.
+         */
+        assertEquals("%   ", f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for flag
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_Flag() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        try {
+            f.format("%1$-#-8s", "something");
+            fail("should throw DuplicateFormatFlagsException");
+        } catch (DuplicateFormatFlagsException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        final char[] chars = { '-', '#', '+', ' ', '0', ',', '(', '%', '<' };
+        Arrays.sort(chars);
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        for (char i = 0; i <= 256; i++) {
+            // test 8 bit character
+            if (Arrays.binarySearch(chars, i) >= 0 || Character.isDigit(i)
+                    || Character.isLetter(i)) {
+                // Do not test 0-9, a-z, A-Z and characters in the chars array.
+                // They are characters used as flags, width or conversions
+                continue;
+            }
+            try {
+                f.format("%" + i + "s", 1);
+                fail("should throw UnknownFormatConversionException");
+            } catch (UnknownFormatConversionException e) {
+                // expected
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for general
+     *        conversion
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_GeneralConversion() {
+        final String[] flagMismatch = { "%#b", "%+b", "% b", "%0b", "%,b",
+                "%(b", "%#B", "%+B", "% B", "%0B", "%,B", "%(B", "%#h", "%+h",
+                "% h", "%0h", "%,h", "%(h", "%#H", "%+H", "% H", "%0H", "%,H",
+                "%(H", "%+s", "% s", "%0s", "%,s", "%(s", "%+S", "% S", "%0S",
+                "%,S", "%(S" };
+
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < flagMismatch.length; i++) {
+            try {
+                f.format(flagMismatch[i], "something");
+                fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
+            } catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
+                // expected
+            }
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f.format("%-.8s", "something");
+            fail("should throw MissingFormatWidthException");
+        } catch (MissingFormatWidthException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        final Object[] args = { Boolean.FALSE, Boolean.TRUE,
+                new Character('c'), new Byte((byte) 0x01),
+                new Short((short) 0x0001), new Integer(1), new Float(1.1f),
+                new Double(1.1d), "", "string content", new MockFormattable(),
+                (Object) null };
+
+        final String[] bResult = { " fa", "false", "fa", " tr", "true", "tr",
+                " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
+                " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
+                " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr", " tr", "true", "tr",
+                " fa", "false", "fa" };
+        for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPANESE);
+            f.format("prefix%3.2b", args[i]);
+            assertEquals("prefix" + bResult[resultCount], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPANESE);
+            f.format("prefix%3.2B", args[i]);
+            assertEquals("prefix" + bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f
+                    .toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
+            f.format("%-4.6b", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(bResult[resultCount], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
+            f.format("%-4.6B", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
+            f.format("%.2bsuffix", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(bResult[resultCount] + "suffix", f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.ITALY);
+            f.format("%.2Bsuffix", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(bResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase() + "suffix", f
+                    .toString());
+        }
+
+        final String[] sResult = { "fal", "fals  ", "false", "tru", "true  ",
+                "true", " c", "c     ", "c", " 1", "1     ", "1", " 1",
+                "1     ", "1", " 1", "1     ", "1", "1.1", "1.1   ", "1.1",
+                "1.1", "1.1   ", "1.1", "  ", "      ", "", "str", "stri  ",
+                "strin", "customized format function width: 2 precision: 3",
+                "customized format function width: 6 precision: 4",
+                "customized format function width: -1 precision: 5", "nul",
+                "null  ", "null" };
+        for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+            f.format("%2.3s", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+            f.format("%2.3S", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
+            f.format("%-6.4s", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.KOREA);
+            f.format("%-6.4S", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
+            f.format("%.5s", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
+            f.format("%.5S", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(sResult[resultCount++].toUpperCase(), f.toString());
+        }
+
+        // skip args[length-1]: null, do it seperately
+        for (int i = 0; i < args.length - 1; i++) {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+            f.format("%h", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(Integer.toHexString(args[i].hashCode()), f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.CHINA);
+            f.format("%H", args[i]);
+            assertEquals(Integer.toHexString(args[i].hashCode()).toUpperCase(),
+                    f.toString());
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * In Turkish locale, the upper case of '\u0069' is '\u0130'. The
+         * following test indicate that '\u0069' is coverted to upper case
+         * without using the turkish locale.
+         */
+        f = new Formatter(new Locale("tr"));
+        f.format("%S", "\u0069");
+        assertEquals("\u0049", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMAN);
+        for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
+            if (!(args[i] instanceof Formattable)) {
+                try {
+                    f.format("%#s", args[i]);
+                    /*
+                     * fail on RI If the '#' flag is present and the argument is
+                     * not a Formattable , then a
+                     * FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException should be thrown.
+                     */
+                    fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
+                } catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
+                    // expected
+                }
+            } else {
+                f.format("%#s%<-#8s", args[i]);
+                assertEquals(
+                        "customized format function width: -1 precision: -1customized format function width: 8 precision: -1",
+                        f.toString());
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @tests java.util.Formatter#format(String, Object...) for Character
+     *        conversion
+     */
+    public void test_formatLjava_lang_String$Ljava_lang_Object_CharacterConversion() {
+        Formatter f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        final Object[] illArgs = { Boolean.TRUE, new Float(1.1f),
+                new Double(1.1d), "string content", new Float(1.1f), new Date() };
+        for (int i = 0; i < illArgs.length; i++) {
+            try {
+                f.format("%c", illArgs[i]);
+                fail("should throw IllegalFormatConversionException");
+            } catch (IllegalFormatConversionException e) {
+                // expected
+            }
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f.format("%c", Integer.MAX_VALUE);
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatCodePointException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatCodePointException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        try {
+            f.format("%#c", 'c');
+            fail("should throw FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException");
+        } catch (FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        final Object[] legalArgs = { 'c', '\u0123', (byte) 0x11,
+                (short) 0x1111, 0x11 };
+        final Object[] result = { "c", "c ", "\u0123", "\u0123 ", "\u0011",
+                "\u0011 ", "\u1111", "\u1111 ", "\u0011", "\u0011 " };
+
+        for (int i = 0, resultCount = 0; i < legalArgs.length; i++) {
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+            f.format("pre%c", legalArgs[i]);
+            assertEquals("pre" + result[resultCount++], f.toString());
+
+            f = new Formatter(Locale.GERMANY);
+            f.format("%-2c.txt", legalArgs[i]);
+            assertEquals(result[resultCount++] + ".txt", f.toString());
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%c", 0x10000);
+        assertEquals(0x10000, f.toString().codePointAt(0));
+
+        try {
+            f.format("%2.2c", 'c');
+            fail("should throw IllegalFormatPrecisionException");
+        } catch (IllegalFormatPrecisionException e) {
+            // expected
+        }
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.US);
+        f.format("%C", 'w');
+        // error on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException
+        // RI do not support converter 'C'
+        assertEquals("W", f.toString());
+
+        f = new Formatter(Locale.JAPAN);
+        f.format("%Ced", 0x1111);
+        // error on RI, throw UnknownFormatConversionException
+        // RI do not support converter 'C'
+        assertEquals("\u1111ed", f.toString());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Setup resource files for testing
+     */
+    protected void setUp() throws IOException {
+        notExist = File.createTempFile("notexist", null);
+        notExist.delete();
+
+        fileWithContent = File.createTempFile("filewithcontent", null);
+        BufferedOutputStream bw = new BufferedOutputStream(
+                new FileOutputStream(fileWithContent));
+        bw.write(1);// write something into the file
+        bw.close();
+
+        readOnly = File.createTempFile("readonly", null);
+        readOnly.setReadOnly();
+
+        secret = File.createTempFile("secret", null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Delete the resource files if they exist
+     */
+    protected void tearDown() {
+        if (notExist.exists()) {
+            notExist.delete();
+        }
+
+        if (fileWithContent.exists()) {
+            fileWithContent.delete();
+        }
+        if (readOnly.exists()) {
+            readOnly.delete();
+        }
+        if (secret.exists()) {
+            secret.delete();
+        }
+    }
 }



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