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From John Lilley <john.lil...@redpoint.net>
Subject RE: How to best decide mapper output/reducer input for a huge string?
Date Mon, 23 Sep 2013 18:18:57 GMT
You might try creating a "stub" MR job in which the mappers produce no output; that would isolate
the time spent reading from HBase without the trouble of instrumenting your code.

From: Pavan Sudheendra [mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com]
Sent: Monday, September 23, 2013 3:31 AM
To: user@hadoop.apache.org
Subject: Re: How to best decide mapper output/reducer input for a huge string?

@John, to be really frank i don't know what the limiting factor is.. It might be all of them
or a subset of them.. Cannot tell..

On Mon, Sep 23, 2013 at 2:58 PM, Pavan Sudheendra <pavan0591@gmail.com<mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com>>
@Rahul, Yes you are right. 21 mappers are spawned where all the 21 mappers are functional
at the same time.. Although, @Pradeep, i should do the compression like you say.. I'll give
it a shot.. As far as i can see, i think i'll need to implement Writable and write out the
key of the mapper using the specific data types instead of writing it out as a string which
might slow the operation down..

On Mon, Sep 23, 2013 at 9:29 AM, Pradeep Gollakota <pradeepg26@gmail.com<mailto:pradeepg26@gmail.com>>

It's hard to tell whether there's anything wrong with your design or not since you haven't
given us specific enough details. The best thing you can do is instrument your code and see
what is taking a long time. Rahul mentioned a problem that I myself have seen before, with
only one region (or a couple) having any data. So even if you have 21 regions, only mapper
might be doing the heavy lifting.

A combiner is hugely helpful in terms of reducing the data output of mappers. Writing a combiner
is a best practice and you should almost always have one. Compression can be turned on by
setting the following properties in your job config.
    <name> mapreduce.map.output.compress </name>
    <value> true</value>
You can also try other compression codes such as Lzo, Snappy, Bzip2, etc. depending on your
use cases. Gzip is really slow but gets the best compression ratios. Snappy/Lzo are a lot
faster but don't have as good of a compression ratio. If your computations are CPU bound,
then you'd probably want to use Snappy/Lzo. If your computations are I/O bound, and your CPUs
are idle, you can use Gzip. You'll have to experiment and find the best settings for you.
There are a lot of other tweaks that you can try to get the best performance out of your cluster.

One of the best things you can do is to install Ganglia (or some other similar tool) on your
cluster and monitor usage of resources while your job is running. This will tell you if your
job is I/O bound or CPU bound.

Take a look at this paper by Intel about optimizing your Hadoop cluster and see if that fits
your deployment. http://software.intel.com/sites/default/files/m/f/4/3/2/f/31124-Optimizing_Hadoop_2010_final.pdf

If your cluster is already optimized and your job is not I/O bound, then there might be a
problem with your algorithm and might warrant a redesign.

Hope this helps!
- Pradeep

On Sun, Sep 22, 2013 at 8:14 PM, Rahul Bhattacharjee <rahul.rec.dgp@gmail.com<mailto:rahul.rec.dgp@gmail.com>>
One mapper is spawned per hbase table region. You can use the admin ui of hbase to find the
number of regions per table. It might happen that all the data is sitting in a single region
, so a single mapper is spawned and you are not getting enough parallel work getting done.
If that is the case then you can recreate the tables with predefined splits to create more

On Sun, Sep 22, 2013 at 4:38 AM, John Lilley <john.lilley@redpoint.net<mailto:john.lilley@redpoint.net>>
How large are the rows in HBase?  22 million rows is not very much but you mentioned "huge
strings".  Can you tell which part of the processing is the limiting factor (read from HBase,
mapper output, reducers)?

From: Pavan Sudheendra [mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com<mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com>]
Sent: Saturday, September 21, 2013 2:17 AM
To: user@hadoop.apache.org<mailto:user@hadoop.apache.org>
Subject: Re: How to best decide mapper output/reducer input for a huge string?

No, I don't have a combiner in place. Is it necessary? How do I make my map output compressed?
Yes, the Tables in HBase are compressed.
Although, there's no real bottleneck, the time it takes to process the entire table is huge.
I have to constantly check if i can optimize it somehow..
Oh okay.. I'll implement a Custom Writable.. Apart from that, do you see any thing wrong with
my design? Does it require any kind of re-work? Thank you so much for helping..

On Sat, Sep 21, 2013 at 1:06 PM, Pradeep Gollakota <pradeepg26@gmail.com<mailto:pradeepg26@gmail.com>>
One thing that comes to mind is that your keys are Strings which are highly inefficient. You
might get a lot better performance if you write a custom writable for your Key object using
the appropriate data types. For example, use a long (LongWritable) for timestamps. This should
make (de)serialization a lot faster. If HouseHoldId is an integer, your speed of comparisons
for sorting will also go up.

Ensure that your map output's are being compressed. Are your tables in HBase compressed? Do
you have a combiner?

Have you been able to profile your code to see where the bottlenecks are?

On Sat, Sep 21, 2013 at 12:04 AM, Pavan Sudheendra <pavan0591@gmail.com<mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com>>
Hi Pradeep,
Yes.. Basically i'm only writing the key part as the map output.. The V of <K,V> is
not of much use to me.. But i'm hoping to change that if it leads to faster execution.. I'm
kind of a newbie so looking to make the map/reduce job run a lot faster..
Also, yes. It gets sorted by the HouseHoldID which is what i needed.. But seems if i write
a map output for each and every row of a 19 m row HBase table, its taking nearly a day to
complete.. (21 mappers and 21 reducers)

I have looked at both Pig/Hive to do the job but i'm supposed to do this via a MR job.. So,
cannot use either of that.. Do you recommend me to try something if i have the data in that

On Sat, Sep 21, 2013 at 12:26 PM, Pradeep Gollakota <pradeepg26@gmail.com<mailto:pradeepg26@gmail.com>>
I'm sorry but I don't understand your question. Is the output of the mapper you're describing
the key portion? If it is the key, then your data should already be sorted by HouseHoldId
since it occurs first in your key.

The SortComparator will tell Hadoop how to sort your data. So you use this if you have a need
for a non lexical sort order. The GroupingComparator will tell Hadoop how to group your data
for the reducer. All KV-pairs from the same group will be given to the same Reducer.

If your reduce computation needs all the KV-pairs for the same HouseHoldId, then you will
need to write a GroupingComparator.

Also, have you considered using a higher level abstraction on Hadoop such as Pig, Hive, Cascading,
etc.? The sorting/grouping type of tasks are a LOT easier to write in these languages.

Hope this helps!
- Pradeep

On Fri, Sep 20, 2013 at 11:32 PM, Pavan Sudheendra <pavan0591@gmail.com<mailto:pavan0591@gmail.com>>

I need to improve my MR jobs which uses HBase as source as well as sink..

Basically, i'm reading data from 3 HBase Tables in the mapper, writing them out as one huge
string for the reducer to do some computation and dump into a HBase Table..

Table1 ~ 19 million rows.

Table2 ~ 2 million rows.

Table3 ~ 900,000 rows.

The output of the mapper is something like this :

HouseHoldId contentID name duration genre type channelId personId televisionID timestamp

I'm interested in sorting it on the basis of the HouseHoldID value so i'm using this technique.
I'm not interested in the V part of pair so i'm kind of ignoring it. My mapper class is defined
as follows:

public static class AnalyzeMapper extends TableMapper<Text, IntWritable> { }

For my MR job to be completed, it takes 22 hours to complete which is not desirable at all.
I'm supposed to optimize this somehow to run a lot faster somehow..



TableMapReduceUtil.initTableMapperJob (

                                       Table1,           // input HBase table name


                                       AnalyzeMapper.class,    // mapper

                                       Text.class,             // mapper output key

                                       IntWritable.class,      // mapper output value



                                        OutputTable,                // output table

                                        AnalyzeReducerTable.class,  // reducer class



My HBase Table1 has 21 regions so 21 mappers are spawned. We are running a 8 node cloudera

Should i use a custom SortComparator or a Group Comparator?






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