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From szets...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1205626 - in /hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt: Federation.apt.vm WebHDFS.apt.vm
Date Wed, 23 Nov 2011 22:02:20 GMT
Author: szetszwo
Date: Wed Nov 23 22:02:19 2011
New Revision: 1205626

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=1205626&view=rev
Log:
HDFS-2587. Add apt doc for WebHDFS REST API.

Added:
    hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/WebHDFS.apt.vm
Modified:
    hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/Federation.apt.vm

Modified: hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/Federation.apt.vm
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/Federation.apt.vm?rev=1205626&r1=1205625&r2=1205626&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/Federation.apt.vm (original)
+++ hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/Federation.apt.vm Wed Nov 23 22:02:19 2011
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 ~~ limitations under the License. See accompanying LICENSE file.
 
   ---
-  Hadoop Map Reduce Next Generation-${project.version} - Cluster Setup
+  Hadoop Distributed File System-${project.version} - Federation
   ---
   ---
   ${maven.build.timestamp}
@@ -57,12 +57,12 @@ HDFS Federation
     * Storage - is provided by datanodes by storing blocks on the local file 
       system and allows read/write access.
 
-  The current HDFS architecture allows only a single namespace for the 
+  The prior HDFS architecture allows only a single namespace for the 
   entire cluster. A single Namenode manages this namespace. HDFS 
-  Federation addresses limitation of current architecture by adding 
+  Federation addresses limitation of the prior architecture by adding 
   support multiple Namenodes/namespaces to HDFS file system.
     
-* {HDFS Federation}
+* {Multiple Namenodes/Namespaces}
 
   In order to scale the name service horizontally, federation uses multiple 
   independent Namenodes/namespaces. The Namenodes are federated, that is, the 
@@ -103,9 +103,9 @@ HDFS Federation
     of small files benefit from scaling the namespace by adding more 
     Namenodes to the cluster
 
-  * Performance - File system operation throughput is currently limited 
-    by a single Namenode. Adding more Namenodes to the cluster scales the 
-    file system read/write operations throughput.
+  * Performance - File system operation throughput is limited by a single
+    Namenode in the prior architecture. Adding more Namenodes to the cluster
+    scales the file system read/write operations throughput.
 
   * Isolation - A single Namenode offers no isolation in multi user 
     environment. An experimental application can overload the Namenode 
@@ -265,7 +265,7 @@ HDFS Federation
 > $HADOOP_PREFIX_HOME/bin/start-dfs.sh
 ----
 
-  To start the cluster run the following command:
+  To stop the cluster run the following command:
 
 ----
 > $HADOOP_PREFIX_HOME/bin/stop-dfs.sh
@@ -300,7 +300,7 @@ HDFS Federation
 ** Decommissioning
 
   Decommissioning is similar to prior releases. The nodes that need to be 
-  decommissioning are added to the exclude file at all the Namenode. Each 
+  decomissioned are added to the exclude file at all the Namenode. Each 
   Namenode decommissions its Block Pool. When all the Namenodes finish 
   decommissioning a datanode, the datanode is considered to be decommissioned.
 

Added: hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/WebHDFS.apt.vm
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/WebHDFS.apt.vm?rev=1205626&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/WebHDFS.apt.vm (added)
+++ hadoop/common/trunk/hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-yarn/hadoop-yarn-site/src/site/apt/WebHDFS.apt.vm Wed Nov 23 22:02:19 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,1626 @@
+~~ Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
+~~ you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+~~ You may obtain a copy of the License at
+~~
+~~   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+~~
+~~ Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+~~ distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+~~ WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+~~ See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+~~ limitations under the License. See accompanying LICENSE file.
+
+  ---
+  Hadoop Distributed File System-${project.version} - WebHDFS REST API
+  ---
+  ---
+  ${maven.build.timestamp}
+
+WebHDFS REST API
+
+  \[ {{{./index.html}Go Back}} \]
+
+%{toc|section=1|fromDepth=0}
+
+* {Document Conventions}
+
+*----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| <<<Monospaced>>>     | Used for commands, HTTP request and responses and code blocks.                |
+*----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| <<<\<Monospaced\>>>> | User entered values.                                                          |
+*----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| <<<[Monospaced]>>>   | Optional values.  When the value is not specified, the default value is used. |
+*----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| <Italics>            | Important phrases and words.                                                  |
+*----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+
+* {Introduction}
+
+  The HTTP REST API supports the complete
+  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}} interface for HDFS.
+  The operations and the corresponding FileSystem methods are shown in the next section.
+  The Section {{HTTP Query Parameter Dictionary}} specifies the parameter details
+  such as the defaults and the valid values.
+
+** {Operations}
+
+  * HTTP GET
+
+    * {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.open)
+
+    * {{{Status of a File/Directory}<<<GETFILESTATUS>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getFileStatus)
+
+    * {{<<<LISTSTATUS>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.listStatus)
+
+    * {{{Get Content Summary of a Directory}<<<GETCONTENTSUMMARY>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getContentSummary)
+
+    * {{{Get File Checksum}<<<GETFILECHECKSUM>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getFileChecksum)
+
+    * {{{Get Home Directory}<<<GETHOMEDIRECTORY>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getHomeDirectory)
+
+    * {{{Get Delegation Token}<<<GETDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getDelegationToken)
+
+  * HTTP PUT
+
+    * {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.create)
+
+    * {{{Make a Directory}<<<MKDIRS>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.mkdirs)
+
+    * {{{Rename a File/Directory}<<<RENAME>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.rename)
+
+    * {{{Set Replication Factor}<<<SETREPLICATION>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setReplication)
+
+    * {{{Set Owner}<<<SETOWNER>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setOwner)
+
+    * {{{Set Permission}<<<SETPERMISSION>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setPermission)
+
+    * {{{Set Access or Modification Time}<<<SETTIMES>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setTimes)
+
+    * {{{Renew Delegation Token}<<<RENEWDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.renewDelegationToken)
+
+    * {{{Cancel Delegation Token}<<<CANCELDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.cancelDelegationToken)
+
+  * HTTP POST
+
+    * {{{Append to a File}<<<APPEND>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.append)
+
+  * HTTP DELETE
+
+    * {{{Delete a File/Directory}<<<DELETE>>>}}
+        (see  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.delete)
+
+** {FileSystem URIs vs HTTP URLs}
+
+  The FileSystem scheme of WebHDFS is "<<<webhdfs://>>>".
+  A WebHDFS FileSystem URI has the following format.
+
++---------------------------------
+  webhdfs://<HOST>:<HTTP_PORT>/<PATH>
++---------------------------------
+
+  The above WebHDFS URI corresponds to the below HDFS URI.
+
++---------------------------------
+  hdfs://<HOST>:<RPC_PORT>/<PATH>
++---------------------------------
+
+  In the REST API, the prefix "<<</webhdfs/v1>>>" is inserted in the path and a query is appended at the end.
+  Therefore, the corresponding HTTP URL has the following format.
+
++---------------------------------
+  http://<HOST>:<HTTP_PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=...
++---------------------------------
+
+* {Authentication}
+
+  When security is <off>, the authenticated user is the username specified in the <<<user.name>>> query parameter.
+  If the <<<user.name>>> parameter is not set,
+  the server may either set the authenticated user to a default web user, if there is any, or return an error response.
+
+
+  When security is <on>, authentication is performed by either Hadoop delegation token or Kerberos SPNEGO.
+  If a token is set in the <<<delegation>>> query parameter, the authenticated user is the user encoded in the token.
+  If the <<<delegation>>> parameter is not set, the user is authenticated by Kerberos SPNEGO.
+
+
+  Below are examples using the <<<curl>>> command tool.
+
+  [[1]] Authentication when security is off:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?[user.name=<USER>&]op=..."
++---------------------------------
+ 
+  [[1]] Authentication using Kerberos SPNEGO when security is on:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i --negotiate -u : "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=..."
++---------------------------------
+ 
+  [[1]] Authentication using Hadoop delegation token when security is on:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?delegation=<TOKEN>&op=..."
++---------------------------------
+
+* {Proxy Users}
+
+  When the proxy user feature is enabled, a proxy user <P> may submit a request on behalf of another user <U>.
+  The username of <U> must be specified in the <<<doas>>> query parameter unless a delegation token is presented in authentication.
+  In such case, the information of both users <P> and <U> must be encoded in the delegation token.
+
+  [[1]] A proxy request when security is off:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?[user.name=<USER>&]doas=<USER>&op=..."
++---------------------------------
+
+  [[1]] A proxy request using Kerberos SPNEGO when security is on:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i --negotiate -u : "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?doas=<USER>&op=..."
++---------------------------------
+
+  [[1]] A proxy request using Hadoop delegation token when security is on:
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?delegation=<TOKEN>&op=..."
++---------------------------------
+
+
+* {File and Directory Operations}
+
+** {Create and Write to a File}
+
+  * Step 1: Submit a HTTP PUT request without automatically following redirects and without sending the file data.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=CREATE
+                    [&overwrite=<true|false>][&blocksize=<LONG>][&replication=<SHORT>]
+                    [&permission=<OCTAL>][&buffersize=<INT>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The request is redirected to a datanode where the file data is to be written:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 307 TEMPORARY_REDIRECT
+Location: http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=CREATE...
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  * Step 2: Submit another HTTP PUT request using the URL in the <<<Location>>> header with the file data to be written.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT -T <LOCAL_FILE> "http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=CREATE..."
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a <<<201 Created>>> response with zero content length
+  and the WebHDFS URI of the file in the <<<Location>>> header:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 201 Created
+Location: webhdfs://<HOST>:<PORT>/<PATH>
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  <<Note>> that the reason of having two-step create/append is
+  for preventing clients to send out data before the redirect.
+  This issue is addressed by the "<<<Expect: 100-continue>>>" header in HTTP/1.1;
+  see {{{http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec8.html#sec8.2.3}RFC 2616, Section 8.2.3}}.
+  Unfortunately, there are software library bugs (e.g. Jetty 6 HTTP server and Java 6 HTTP client),
+  which do not correctly implement "<<<Expect: 100-continue>>>".
+  The two-step create/append is a temporary workaround for the software library bugs.
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Overwrite}<<<overwrite>>>}},
+  {{{Block Size}<<<blocksize>>>}},
+  {{{Replication}<<<replication>>>}},
+  {{{Permission}<<<permission>>>}},
+  {{{Buffer Size}<<<buffersize>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.create
+
+
+** {Append to a File}
+
+  * Step 1: Submit a HTTP POST request without automatically following redirects and without sending the file data.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X POST "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=APPEND[&buffersize=<INT>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The request is redirected to a datanode where the file data is to be appended:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 307 TEMPORARY_REDIRECT
+Location: http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=APPEND...
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  * Step 2: Submit another HTTP POST request using the URL in the <<<Location>>> header with the file data to be appended.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X POST -T <LOCAL_FILE> "http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=APPEND..."
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with zero content length:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See the note in the previous section for the description of why this operation requires two steps.
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Buffer Size}<<<buffersize>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.append
+
+
+** {Open and Read a File}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request with automatically following redirects.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -L "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=OPEN
+                    [&offset=<LONG>][&length=<LONG>][&buffersize=<INT>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The request is redirected to a datanode where the file data can be read:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 307 TEMPORARY_REDIRECT
+Location: http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=OPEN...
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client follows the redirect to the datanode and receives the file data:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/octet-stream
+Content-Length: 22
+
+Hello, webhdfs user!
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Offset}<<<offset>>>}},
+  {{{Length}<<<length>>>}},
+  {{{Buffer Size}<<<buffersize>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.open
+
+
+** {Make a Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/<PATH>?op=MKDIRS[&permission=<OCTAL>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Boolean JSON Schema}<<<boolean>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"boolean": true}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Permission}<<<permission>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.mkdirs
+
+
+** {Rename a File/Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=RENAME&destination=<PATH>"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Boolean JSON Schema}<<<boolean>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"boolean": true}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Destination}<<<destination>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.rename
+
+
+** {Delete a File/Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP DELETE request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X DELETE "http://<host>:<port>/webhdfs/v1/<path>?op=DELETE
+                              [&recursive=<true|false>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Boolean JSON Schema}<<<boolean>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"boolean": true}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Recursive}<<<recursive>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.delete
+
+
+** {Status of a File/Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i  "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=GETFILESTATUS"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{FileStatus JSON Schema}<<<FileStatus>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "FileStatus":
+  {
+    "accessTime"      : 0,
+    "blockSize"       : 0,
+    "group"           : "supergroup",
+    "length"          : 0,             //in bytes, zero for directories
+    "modificationTime": 1320173277227,
+    "owner"           : "webuser",
+    "pathSuffix"      : "",
+    "permission"      : "777",
+    "replication"     : 0,
+    "type"            : "DIRECTORY"    //enum {FILE, DIRECTORY, SYMLINK}
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getFileStatus
+
+
+** {List a Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i  "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=LISTSTATUS"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{FileStatuses JSON Schema}<<<FileStatuses>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Content-Length: 427
+
+{
+  "FileStatuses":
+  {
+    "FileStatus":
+    [
+      {
+        "accessTime"      : 1320171722771,
+        "blockSize"       : 33554432,
+        "group"           : "supergroup",
+        "length"          : 24930,
+        "modificationTime": 1320171722771,
+        "owner"           : "webuser",
+        "pathSuffix"      : "a.patch",
+        "permission"      : "644",
+        "replication"     : 1,
+        "type"            : "FILE"
+      },
+      {
+        "accessTime"      : 0,
+        "blockSize"       : 0,
+        "group"           : "supergroup",
+        "length"          : 0,
+        "modificationTime": 1320895981256,
+        "owner"           : "szetszwo",
+        "pathSuffix"      : "bar",
+        "permission"      : "711",
+        "replication"     : 0,
+        "type"            : "DIRECTORY"
+      },
+      ...
+    ]
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.listStatus
+
+
+* {Other File System Operations}
+
+** {Get Content Summary of a Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=GETCONTENTSUMMARY"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{ContentSummary JSON Schema}<<<ContentSummary>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "ContentSummary":
+  {
+    "directoryCount": 2,
+    "fileCount"     : 1,
+    "length"        : 24930,
+    "quota"         : -1,
+    "spaceConsumed" : 24930,
+    "spaceQuota"    : -1
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getContentSummary
+
+
+** {Get File Checksum}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=GETFILECHECKSUM"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The request is redirected to a datanode:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 307 TEMPORARY_REDIRECT
+Location: http://<DATANODE>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=GETFILECHECKSUM...
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client follows the redirect to the datanode and receives a {{{FileChecksum JSON Schema}<<<FileChecksum>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "FileChecksum":
+  {
+    "algorithm": "MD5-of-1MD5-of-512CRC32",
+    "bytes"    : "eadb10de24aa315748930df6e185c0d ...",
+    "length"   : 28
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getFileChecksum
+
+
+** {Get Home Directory}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/?op=GETHOMEDIRECTORY"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Path JSON Schema}<<<Path>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"Path": "/user/szetszwo"}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getHomeDirectory
+
+
+** {Set Permission}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=SETPERMISSION
+                              [&permission=<OCTAL>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with zero content length:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Permission}<<<permission>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setPermission
+
+
+** {Set Owner}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=SETOWNER
+                              [&owner=<USER>][&group=<GROUP>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with zero content length:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Owner}<<<owner>>>}},
+  {{{Group}<<<group>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setOwner
+
+
+** {Set Replication Factor}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=SETREPLICATION
+                              [&replication=<SHORT>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Boolean JSON Schema}<<<boolean>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"boolean": true}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Replication}<<<replication>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setReplication
+
+
+** {Set Access or Modification Time}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/<PATH>?op=SETTIMES
+                              [&modificationtime=<TIME>][&accesstime=<TIME>]"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with zero content length:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Modification Time}<<<modificationtime>>>}},
+  {{{Access Time}<<<accesstime>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.setTimes
+
+
+* {Delegation Token Operations}
+
+** {Get Delegation Token}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP GET request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/?op=GETDELEGATIONTOKEN&renewer=<USER>"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Token JSON Schema}<<<Token>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "Token":
+  {
+    "urlString": "JQAIaG9y..."
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Renewer}<<<renewer>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.getDelegationToken
+
+
+** {Renew Delegation Token}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/?op=RENEWDELEGATIONTOKEN&token=<TOKEN>"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with a {{{Long JSON Schema}<<<long>>> JSON object}}:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{"long": 1320962673997}           //the new expiration time
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Token}<<<token>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.renewDelegationToken
+
+
+** {Cancel Delegation Token}
+
+  * Submit a HTTP PUT request.
+
++---------------------------------
+curl -i -X PUT "http://<HOST>:<PORT>/webhdfs/v1/?op=CANCELDELEGATIONTOKEN&token=<TOKEN>"
++---------------------------------
+
+  The client receives a response with zero content length:
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+Content-Length: 0
++---------------------------------
+
+  []
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Token}<<<token>>>}},
+   {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html}FileSystem}}.cancelDelegationToken
+
+
+* {Error Responses}
+
+  When an operation fails, the server may throw an exception.
+  The JSON schema of error responses is defined in {{<<<RemoteException>>> JSON schema}}.
+  The table below shows the mapping from exceptions to HTTP response codes.
+
+** {HTTP Response Codes}
+
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+|| Exceptions                         || HTTP Response Codes            |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<IllegalArgumentException     >>> | <<<400 Bad Request          >>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<UnsupportedOperationException>>> | <<<400 Bad Request          >>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<SecurityException            >>> | <<<401 Unauthorized         >>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<IOException                  >>> | <<<403 Forbidden            >>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<FileNotFoundException        >>> | <<<404 Not Found            >>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+| <<<RumtimeException             >>> | <<<500 Internal Server Error>>> |
+*-------------------------------------+---------------------------------+
+
+  Below are examples of exception responses.
+
+*** {Illegal Argument Exception}
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "RemoteException":
+  {
+    "exception"    : "IllegalArgumentException",
+    "javaClassName": "java.lang.IllegalArgumentException",
+    "message"      : "Invalid value for webhdfs parameter \"permission\": ..."
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+
+*** {Security Exception}
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "RemoteException":
+  {
+    "exception"    : "SecurityException",
+    "javaClassName": "java.lang.SecurityException",
+    "message"      : "Failed to obtain user group information: ..."
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+
+*** {Access Control Exception}
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "RemoteException":
+  {
+    "exception"    : "AccessControlException",
+    "javaClassName": "org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException",
+    "message"      : "Permission denied: ..."
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+
+*** {File Not Found Exception}
+
++---------------------------------
+HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
+Content-Type: application/json
+Transfer-Encoding: chunked
+
+{
+  "RemoteException":
+  {
+    "exception"    : "FileNotFoundException",
+    "javaClassName": "java.io.FileNotFoundException",
+    "message"      : "File does not exist: /foo/a.patch"
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+
+* {JSON Schemas}
+
+  All operations, except for {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}},
+  either return a zero-length response or a JSON response. 
+  For {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}}, the response is an octet-stream.
+  The JSON schemas are shown below.
+  See {{{http://tools.ietf.org/id/draft-zyp-json-schema-03.html}draft-zyp-json-schema-03}}
+  for the syntax definitions of the JSON schemas.
+
+
+** {Boolean JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "boolean",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "boolean":
+    {
+      "description": "A boolean value",
+      "type"       : "boolean",
+      "required"   : true
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Make a Directory}<<<MKDIRS>>>}},
+  {{{Rename a File/Directory}<<<RENAME>>>}},
+  {{{Delete a File/Directory}<<<DELETE>>>}},
+  {{{Set Replication Factor}<<<SETREPLICATION>>>}}
+
+
+** {ContentSummary JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "ContentSummary",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "ContentSummary":
+    {
+      "type"      : "object",
+      "properties":
+      {
+        "directoryCount":
+        {
+          "description": "The number of directories.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "fileCount":
+        {
+          "description": "The number of files.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "length":
+        {
+          "description": "The number of bytes used by the content.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "quota":
+        {
+          "description": "The namespace quota of this directory.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "spaceConsumed":
+        {
+          "description": "The disk space consumed by the content.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "spaceQuota":
+        {
+          "description": "The disk space quota.",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Get Content Summary of a Directory}<<<GETCONTENTSUMMARY>>>}}
+
+
+** {FileChecksum JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "FileChecksum",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "FileChecksum":
+    {
+      "type"      : "object",
+      "properties":
+      {
+        "algorithm":
+        {
+          "description": "The name of the checksum algorithm.",
+          "type"       : "string",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "bytes":
+        {
+          "description": "The byte sequence of the checksum in hexadecimal.",
+          "type"       : "string",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "length":
+        {
+          "description": "The length of the bytes (not the length of the string).",
+          "type"       : "integer",
+          "required"   : true
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Get File Checksum}<<<GETFILECHECKSUM>>>}}
+
+
+** {FileStatus JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "FileStatus",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "FileStatus": fileStatusProperties      //See FileStatus Properties
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{FileStatus Properties}<<<FileStatus>>> Properties}},
+  {{{Status of a File/Directory}<<<GETFILESTATUS>>>}},
+  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileStatus}FileStatus}}
+
+
+*** {FileStatus Properties}
+
+  JavaScript syntax is used to define <<<fileStatusProperties>>>
+  so that it can be referred in both <<<FileStatus>>> and <<<FileStatuses>>> JSON schemas.
+
++---------------------------------
+var fileStatusProperties =
+{
+  "type"      : "object",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "accessTime":
+    {
+      "description": "The access time.",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "blockSize":
+    {
+      "description": "The block size of a file.",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "group":
+    {
+      "description": "The group owner.",
+      "type"       : "string",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "length":
+    {
+      "description": "The number of bytes in a file.",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "modificationTime":
+    {
+      "description": "The modification time.",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "owner":
+    {
+      "description": "The user who is the owner.",
+      "type"       : "string",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "pathSuffix":
+    {
+      "description": "The path suffix.",
+      "type"       : "string",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "permission":
+    {
+      "description": "The permission represented as a octal string.",
+      "type"       : "string",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+    "replication":
+    {
+      "description": "The number of replication of a file.",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    },
+   "symlink":                                         //an optional property
+    {
+      "description": "The link target of a symlink.",
+      "type"       : "string"
+    },
+   "type":
+    {
+      "description": "The type of the path object.",
+      "enum"       : ["FILE", "DIRECTORY", "SYMLINK"],
+      "required"   : true
+    }
+  }
+};
++---------------------------------
+
+
+** {FileStatuses JSON Schema}
+
+  A <<<FileStatuses>>> JSON object represents an array of <<<FileStatus>>> JSON objects.
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "FileStatuses",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "FileStatuses":
+    {
+      "type"      : "object",
+      "properties":
+      {
+        "FileStatus":
+        {
+          "description": "An array of FileStatus",
+          "type"       : "array",
+          "items"      : fileStatusProperties      //See FileStatus Properties
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{FileStatus Properties}<<<FileStatus>>> Properties}},
+  {{{List a Directory}<<<LISTSTATUS>>>}},
+  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileStatus}FileStatus}}
+
+
+** {Long JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "long",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "long":
+    {
+      "description": "A long integer value",
+      "type"       : "integer",
+      "required"   : true
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Renew Delegation Token}<<<RENEWDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}},
+
+
+** {Path JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "Path",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "Path":
+    {
+      "description": "The string representation a Path.",
+      "type"       : "string",
+      "required"   : true
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Get Home Directory}<<<GETHOMEDIRECTORY>>>}},
+  {{{../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Path}Path}}
+
+
+** {RemoteException JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "RemoteException",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "RemoteException":
+    {
+      "type"      : "object",
+      "properties":
+      {
+        "exception":
+        {
+          "description": "Name of the exception",
+          "type"       : "string",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "message":
+        {
+          "description": "Exception message",
+          "type"       : "string",
+          "required"   : true
+        },
+        "javaClassName":                                     //an optional property
+        {
+          "description": "Java class name of the exception",
+          "type"       : "string",
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{Error Responses}}
+
+
+** {Token JSON Schema}
+
++---------------------------------
+{
+  "name"      : "Token",
+  "properties":
+  {
+    "Token":
+    {
+      "type"      : "object",
+      "properties":
+      {
+        "urlString":
+        {
+          "description": "A delegation token encoded as a URL safe string.",
+          "type"       : "string",
+          "required"   : true
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
++---------------------------------
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Get Delegation Token}<<<GETDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}},
+  the note in {{Delegation}}.
+
+
+* {HTTP Query Parameter Dictionary}
+
+** {Access Time}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<accesstime>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The access time of a file/directory. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | long |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | -1 (means keeping it unchanged) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | -1 or a timestamp |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Set Access or Modification Time}<<<SETTIMES>>>}}
+
+
+** {Block Size}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<blocksize>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The block size of a file. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | long |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | Specified in the configuration. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | \> 0 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}}
+
+
+** {Buffer Size}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<buffersize>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The size of the buffer used in transferring data. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | int |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | Specified in the configuration. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | \> 0 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}},
+  {{{Append to a File}<<<APPEND>>>}},
+  {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}}
+
+
+** {Delegation}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<delegation>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The delegation token used for authentication. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | An encoded token. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | See the note below. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  <<Note>> that delegation tokens are encoded as a URL safe string;
+  see <<<encodeToUrlString()>>>
+  and <<<decodeFromUrlString(String)>>>
+  in <<<org.apache.hadoop.security.token.Token>>> for the details of the encoding.
+
+
+  See also:
+  {{Authentication}}
+
+
+** {Destination}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<destination>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The destination path used in {{{Rename a File/Directory}<<<RENAME>>>}}. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | Path |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> (an invalid path) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | An absolute FileSystem path without scheme and authority. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any path. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Rename a File/Directory}<<<RENAME>>>}}
+
+
+** {Do As}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<doas>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | Allowing a proxy user to do as another user. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | null |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid username. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{Proxy Users}}
+
+
+** {Group}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<group>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The name of a group. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> (means keeping it unchanged) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid group name. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Set Owner}<<<SETOWNER>>>}}
+
+
+** {Length}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<length>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The number of bytes to be processed. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | long |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | null (means the entire file) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | \>= 0 or null |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}}
+
+
+** {Modification Time}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<modificationtime>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The modification time of a file/directory. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | long |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | -1 (means keeping it unchanged) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | -1 or a timestamp |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Set Access or Modification Time}<<<SETTIMES>>>}}
+
+
+** {Offset}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<offset>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The starting byte position. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | long |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | 0 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | \>= 0 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Open and Read a File}<<<OPEN>>>}}
+
+
+** {Op}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<op>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The name of the operation to be executed. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | enum |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | null (an invalid value) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid operation name. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{Operations}}
+
+
+** {Overwrite}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<overwrite>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | If a file already exists, should it be overwritten? |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | boolean |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | true | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | true | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}}
+
+
+** {Owner}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<owner>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The username who is the owner of a file/directory. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> (means keeping it unchanged) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid username. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Set Owner}<<<SETOWNER>>>}}
+
+
+** {Permission}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<permission>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The permission of a file/directory. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | Octal |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | 755 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | 0 - 1777 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any radix-8 integer (leading zeros may be omitted.) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}},
+  {{{Make a Directory}<<<MKDIRS>>>}},
+  {{{Set Permission}<<<SETPERMISSION>>>}}
+
+
+** {Recursive}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<recursive>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | Should the operation act on the content in the subdirectories? |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | boolean |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | true | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | true | false |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Rename a File/Directory}<<<RENAME>>>}}
+
+
+** {Renewer}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<renewer>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The username of the renewer of a delegation token. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> (means the current user) |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid username. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Get Delegation Token}<<<GETDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}}
+
+
+** {Replication}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<replication>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The number of replications of a file. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | short |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | Specified in the configuration. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | \> 0 |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any integer. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Create and Write to a File}<<<CREATE>>>}},
+  {{{Set Replication Factor}<<<SETREPLICATION>>>}}
+
+
+** {Token}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<token>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The delegation token used for the operation. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | \<empty\> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | An encoded token. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | See the note in {{Delegation}}. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{{Renew Delegation Token}<<<RENEWDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}},
+  {{{Cancel Delegation Token}<<<CANCELDELEGATIONTOKEN>>>}}
+
+
+** {Username}
+
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Name          | <<<user.name>>> |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Description   | The authenticated user; see {{Authentication}}. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Type          | String |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Default Value | null |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Valid Values  | Any valid username. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+|| Syntax        | Any string. |
+*----------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+  See also:
+  {{Authentication}}
+



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