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From "Milind Bhandarkar (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] Updated: (HADOOP-90) DFS is succeptible to data loss in case of name node failure
Date Sun, 29 Oct 2006 22:51:22 GMT
     [ http://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-90?page=all ]

Milind Bhandarkar updated HADOOP-90:
------------------------------------

               Status: Patch Available  (was: Open)
        Fix Version/s: 0.8.0
    Affects Version/s: 0.7.2
                           (was: 0.1.0)

Patch submitted.

> DFS is succeptible to data loss in case of name node failure
> ------------------------------------------------------------
>
>                 Key: HADOOP-90
>                 URL: http://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-90
>             Project: Hadoop
>          Issue Type: Bug
>          Components: dfs
>    Affects Versions: 0.7.2
>            Reporter: Yoram Arnon
>         Assigned To: Konstantin Shvachko
>             Fix For: 0.8.0
>
>         Attachments: backup.patch, multipleEditsDest.patch
>
>
> Currently, DFS name node stores its log and state in local files.
> This has the disadvantage that a hardware failure of the name node causes a total data
loss. 
> Several approaches may be used to address this flaw:
> 1. replicate the name server state files using copy or rsync once in a while, either
manually or using a cron job.
> 2. set up secondary name servers and a protocol whereby the primary updates the secondaries.
In case of failure, a secondary can take over.
> 3. store the state files as distributed, replicated files in the DFS itself. The difficulty
is that it becomes a bootstrap problem, where the name node needs some information, typically
stored in its state files, in order to read those same state files.
> solution 1 is fine for non critical systems, but for systems that need to guarantee no
data loss it's insufficient.
> Solutions 2 and 3 both seem valid; 3 seems more elegant in that it doesn't require an
extra protocol, it leverages the DFS and allows any level of replication for robustness. Below
is a proposition for  solution 3.
> 1.	The name node, when it starts up, needs some basic information. That information is
not large and can easily be stored in a single block of DFS. We hard code the block location,
using block id 0. Block 0 will contain the list of blocks that contain the name node metadata
- not the metadata itself (file names, servers, blocks etc), just the list of blocks that
contain it. With a block identified by 8 bytes, and 32 MB blocks, we can fit 256K block id's
in block 0. 256K blocks of 32MB each can hold 8TB of metadata, which can map a large enough
file system, so a single block of block_ids is sufficient.
> 2.	The name node writes his state basically the same way as now: log file plus occasional
full state. DFS needs to change to commit changes to open files while allowing continued writing
to them, or else the log file wouldn't be valid on name server failure, before the file is
closed. 
> 3.	The name node will use double buffering for its state, using blocks 0 and 1. Starting
with block 0, it writes its state, then a log of changes. When it's time to write a new state
it writes it to node 1. The state includes a generation number, a single byte starting at
0, to enable the name server to identify the valid state. A CRC is written at the end of the
block to mark its validity and completeness. The log file is identified by the same generation
number as the state it relates to. 
> 4.	The log file will be limited to a single block as well. When that block fills up a
new state is written. 32MB of transaction logs should suffice. If not, we could set aside
a set of blocks, and set aside a few locations in the super-block (block 0/1) to store that
set of block ids.
> 5.	The super-block, the log and the metadata blocks may be exposed as read only files
in reserved files in the DFS: /.metadata/* or something.
> 6.	When a name nodes starts, it waits for data nodes to connect to it to report their
blocks. It waits until it gets a report about blocks 0 and 1, from which it can continue to
read its entire state. After that it continues normally.

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