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From szets...@apache.org
Subject hadoop git commit: HDFS-13102. Implement SnapshotSkipList class to store Multi level DirectoryDiffs. Contributed by Shashikant Banerjee
Date Wed, 28 Feb 2018 21:44:03 GMT
Repository: hadoop
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/trunk 31009034b -> 81d9446a9


HDFS-13102. Implement SnapshotSkipList class to store Multi level DirectoryDiffs.  Contributed
by Shashikant Banerjee


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/commit/81d9446a
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/tree/81d9446a
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/diff/81d9446a

Branch: refs/heads/trunk
Commit: 81d9446a92e3968234702b2981468a991c7cf8a0
Parents: 3100903
Author: Tsz-Wo Nicholas Sze <szetszwo@hortonworks.com>
Authored: Wed Feb 28 13:42:58 2018 -0800
Committer: Tsz-Wo Nicholas Sze <szetszwo@hortonworks.com>
Committed: Wed Feb 28 13:42:58 2018 -0800

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 .../hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java |  18 +
 .../namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java  |   8 +
 .../namenode/snapshot/DirectoryDiffList.java    | 474 +++++++++++++++++++
 .../snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java  |   9 +-
 .../snapshot/TestDirectoryDiffList.java         | 162 +++++++
 5 files changed, 668 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/81d9446a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java
b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java
index 82fd3f9..80ef538 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffList.java
@@ -17,8 +17,11 @@
  */
 package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot;
 
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.INodeDirectory;
+
 import java.util.Collections;
 import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.List;
 
 /**
  * This interface defines the methods used to store and manage InodeDiffs.
@@ -82,6 +85,12 @@ public interface DiffList<T extends Comparable<Integer>> extends
Iterable<T> {
       public Iterator<T> iterator() {
         return diffs.iterator();
       }
+
+      @Override
+      public List<T> getMinListForRange(int startIndex, int endIndex,
+          INodeDirectory dir) {
+        return diffs.getMinListForRange(startIndex, endIndex, dir);
+      }
     };
   }
 
@@ -137,4 +146,13 @@ public interface DiffList<T extends Comparable<Integer>>
extends Iterable<T> {
    */
   int binarySearch(int key);
 
+  /**
+   * Returns the list of minimal list of elements need to combine to generate
+   * cumulative sum from startIndex to endIndex.
+   * @param startIndex
+   * @param endIndex
+   * @return list of T
+   */
+  List<T> getMinListForRange(int startIndex, int endIndex, INodeDirectory dir);
+
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/81d9446a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java
b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java
index 03aa5c2..95c23df 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DiffListByArrayList.java
@@ -17,6 +17,8 @@
  */
 package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot;
 
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.INodeDirectory;
+
 import java.util.ArrayList;
 import java.util.Collections;
 import java.util.Iterator;
@@ -77,4 +79,10 @@ public class DiffListByArrayList<T extends Comparable<Integer>>
   public Iterator<T> iterator() {
     return list.iterator();
   }
+
+  @Override
+  public List<T> getMinListForRange(int startIndex, int endIndex,
+      INodeDirectory dir) {
+    return list.subList(startIndex, endIndex);
+  }
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/81d9446a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryDiffList.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryDiffList.java
b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryDiffList.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..90b01e5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryDiffList.java
@@ -0,0 +1,474 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ * <p>
+ * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ * <p>
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.INodeDirectory;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot.
+    DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.DirectoryDiff;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot.
+    DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.ChildrenDiff;
+
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.Random;
+import java.util.Objects;
+import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
+
+/**
+ * SkipList is an implementation of a data structure for storing a sorted list
+ * of Directory Diff elements, using a hierarchy of linked lists that connect
+ * increasingly sparse subsequences(defined by skip interval here) of the diffs.
+ * The elements contained in the tree must be mutually comparable.
+ * <p>
+ * Consider  a case where we have 10 snapshots for a directory starting from s0
+ * to s9 each associated with certain change records in terms of inodes deleted
+ * and created after a particular snapshot and before the next snapshot. The
+ * sequence will look like this:
+ * <p>
+ * s0->s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9.
+ * <p>
+ * Assuming a skip interval of 3, which means a new diff will be added at a
+ * level higher than the current level after we have  ore than 3 snapshots.
+ * Next level promotion happens after 9 snapshots and so on.
+ * <p>
+ * level 2:   s08------------------------------->s9
+ * level 1:   S02------->s35-------->s68-------->s9
+ * level 0:  s0->s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9
+ * <p>
+ * s02 will be created by combining diffs for s0, s1, s2 once s3 gets created.
+ * Similarly, s08 will be created by combining s02, s35 and s68 once s9 gets
+ * created.So, for constructing the children list fot s0, we have  to combine
+ * s08, s9 and reverse apply to the live fs.
+ * <p>
+ * Similarly, for constructing the children list for s2, s2, s35, s68 and s9
+ * need to get combined(or added) and reverse applied to current fs.
+ * <p>
+ * This approach will improve the snapshot deletion and snapshot diff
+ * calculation.
+ * <p>
+ * Once a snapshot gets deleted, the list needs to be balanced.
+ */
+public class DirectoryDiffList implements DiffList<DirectoryDiff> {
+
+  private static class SkipDiff {
+    /**
+     * The references to the subsequent nodes.
+     */
+    private SkipListNode skipTo;
+    /**
+     * combined diff over a skip Interval.
+     */
+    private ChildrenDiff diff;
+
+    SkipDiff(ChildrenDiff diff) {
+      this.diff = diff;
+    }
+
+    public ChildrenDiff getDiff() {
+      return diff;
+    }
+
+    public SkipListNode getSkipTo() {
+      return skipTo;
+    }
+
+    public void setSkipTo(SkipListNode node) {
+      skipTo = node;
+    }
+
+    public void setDiff(ChildrenDiff diff) {
+      this.diff = diff;
+    }
+  }
+  /**
+   * SkipListNode is an implementation of a DirectoryDiff List node,
+   * which stores a Directory Diff and references to subsequent nodes.
+   */
+  private final static class SkipListNode implements Comparable<Integer> {
+
+    /**
+     * The data element stored in this node.
+     */
+    private DirectoryDiff diff;
+
+    /**
+     * List containing combined children diffs over a skip interval.
+     */
+    private List<SkipDiff> skipDiffList;
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a new instance of SkipListNode with the specified data element
+     * and level.
+     *
+     * @param diff The element to be stored in the node.
+     */
+    SkipListNode(DirectoryDiff diff, int level) {
+      this.diff = diff;
+      skipDiffList = new ArrayList<>(level + 1);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the level of this SkipListNode.
+     */
+    public int level() {
+      return skipDiffList.size() - 1;
+    }
+
+    public DirectoryDiff getDiff() {
+      return diff;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compare diffs with snapshot ID.
+     */
+    @Override
+    public int compareTo(Integer that) {
+      return diff.compareTo(that);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean equals(Object o) {
+      if (this == o) {
+        return true;
+      }
+      if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) {
+        return false;
+      }
+      SkipListNode that = (SkipListNode) o;
+      return Objects.equals(diff, that.diff);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int hashCode() {
+      return Objects.hash(diff);
+    }
+
+    public void setSkipDiff(ChildrenDiff cDiff, int level) {
+      if (level < skipDiffList.size()) {
+        skipDiffList.get(level).setDiff(cDiff);
+      } else {
+        skipDiffList.add(new SkipDiff(cDiff));
+      }
+    }
+
+    public void setSkipTo(SkipListNode node, int level) {
+      for (int i = skipDiffList.size(); i <= level; i++) {
+        skipDiffList.add(new SkipDiff(null));
+      }
+      skipDiffList.get(level).setSkipTo(node);
+    }
+
+    public ChildrenDiff getChildrenDiff(int level) {
+      if (level == 0) {
+        return diff.getChildrenDiff();
+      } else {
+        return skipDiffList.get(level).getDiff();
+      }
+    }
+
+    SkipListNode getSkipNode(int level) {
+      if (level >= skipDiffList.size()) {
+        return null;
+      } else {
+        return skipDiffList.get(level).getSkipTo();
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * The reference to the first node of the list.
+   * The list will grow linearly once a new Directory diff gets added.
+   * All the list inteface defined methods provide a linear view of the list.
+   */
+  private List<SkipListNode> skipNodeList;
+
+  /**
+   * The max no of skipLevels.
+   */
+  private final int maxSkipLevels;
+
+  /**
+   * The no of diffs after which the level promotion happens.
+   */
+  private final int skipInterval;
+
+  /**
+   * The head node to the list.
+   */
+  private SkipListNode head;
+
+  /**
+   * Constructs a new, empty instance of SkipList.
+   */
+  public DirectoryDiffList(int capacity, int interval, int skipLevel) {
+    skipNodeList = new ArrayList<>(capacity);
+    head = new SkipListNode(null, 0);
+    this.maxSkipLevels = skipLevel;
+    this.skipInterval = interval;
+  }
+
+  public static DirectoryDiffList createSkipList(int capacity, int interval,
+      int skipLevel) {
+    DirectoryDiffList list =
+        new DirectoryDiffList(capacity, interval, skipLevel);
+    return list;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Adds the specified data element to the beginning of the SkipList,
+   * if the element is not already present.
+   * @param diff the element to be inserted
+   */
+  @Override
+  public void addFirst(DirectoryDiff diff) {
+    final int nodeLevel = randomLevel(skipInterval, maxSkipLevels);
+    final SkipListNode[] nodePath = new SkipListNode[nodeLevel + 1];
+
+    Arrays.fill(nodePath, head);
+    for (int level = head.level() + 1; level <= nodeLevel; level++) {
+      head.skipDiffList.add(new SkipDiff(null));
+    }
+
+    final SkipListNode newNode = new SkipListNode(diff, nodeLevel);
+    for (int level = 0; level <= nodeLevel; level++) {
+      if (level > 0) {
+        // Case : S0 is added at the beginning and it has 3 levels
+        //  suppose the list is like:
+        //  level 1: head ------------------->s5------------->NULL
+        //  level 0:head->    s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9
+        //  in this case:
+        //  level 2: head -> s0 -------------------------------->NULL
+        //  level 1: head -> s0'---------------->s5------------->NULL
+        //  level 0:head->   s0->s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9
+        //  At level 1, we need to combine s0, s1, s2, s3, s4 and s5 and store
+        //  as s0'. At level 2, s0 of next is pointing to null;
+        //  Note: in this case, the diff of element being added is included
+        //  while combining the diffs.
+        final SkipListNode nextNode = head.getSkipNode(level);
+        if (nextNode != null) {
+          ChildrenDiff combined = combineDiff(newNode, nextNode, level);
+          if (combined != null) {
+            newNode.setSkipDiff(combined, level);
+          }
+        }
+      }
+      //insert to the linked list
+      newNode.setSkipTo(nodePath[level].getSkipNode(level), level);
+      nodePath[level].setSkipTo(newNode, level);
+    }
+    skipNodeList.add(0, newNode);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Adds the specified data element to the end of the SkipList,
+   * if the element is not already present.
+   * @param diff the element to be inserted
+   */
+  @Override
+  public boolean addLast(DirectoryDiff diff) {
+    final int nodeLevel = randomLevel(skipInterval, maxSkipLevels);
+    final SkipListNode[] nodePath = new SkipListNode[nodeLevel + 1];
+    SkipListNode cur = head;
+    final int headLevel = head.level();
+    for (int level = headLevel < nodeLevel ? headLevel : nodeLevel;
+         level >= 0; level--) {
+      while (cur.getSkipNode(level) != null) {
+        cur = cur.getSkipNode(level);
+      }
+      nodePath[level] = cur;
+    }
+    for (int level = headLevel + 1; level <= nodeLevel; level++) {
+      head.skipDiffList.add(new SkipDiff(null));
+      nodePath[level] = head;
+    }
+
+    final SkipListNode current = new SkipListNode(diff, nodeLevel);
+    for (int level = 0; level <= nodeLevel; level++) {
+      if (level > 0 && nodePath[level] != head) {
+        //  suppose the list is like:
+        //  level 2: head ->  s1----------------------------->NULL
+        //  level 1: head ->  s1---->s3'------>s5------------->NULL
+        //  level 0:head->    s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9
+
+        // case : s10 is added at the end the let the level for this node = 4
+        //  in this case,
+        //  level 2: head ->  s1''------------------------------------>s10
+        //  level 1: head ->  s1'---->s3'------>s5'-------------------->s10
+        //  level 0:head->    s1->s2->s3->s4->s5->s6->s7->s8->s9---->s10
+        //  At level 1, we combine s5, s6, s7, s8, s9 and store as s5'
+        //  At level 2, we combine s1', s3', s5' and form s1'' and store at s1.
+        // Note : the last element(elemnt being added) diff is not added while
+        // combining the diffs.
+        ChildrenDiff combined = combineDiff(nodePath[level], current, level);
+        if (combined != null) {
+          nodePath[level].setSkipDiff(combined, level);
+        }
+      }
+      nodePath[level].setSkipTo(current, level);
+    }
+    return skipNodeList.add(current);
+  }
+
+  private static ChildrenDiff combineDiff(SkipListNode from, SkipListNode to,
+      int level) {
+    ChildrenDiff combined = null;
+    SkipListNode cur = from;
+    for (int i = level - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+      while (cur != to) {
+        final SkipListNode next = cur.getSkipNode(i);
+        if (next == null) {
+          break;
+        }
+        if (combined == null) {
+          combined = new ChildrenDiff();
+        }
+        combined.combinePosterior(cur.getChildrenDiff(i), null);
+        cur = next;
+      }
+    }
+    return combined;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns the data element at the specified index in this SkipList.
+   *
+   * @param index The index of the element to be returned.
+   * @return The element at the specified index in this SkipList.
+   */
+  @Override
+  public DirectoryDiff get(int index) {
+    return skipNodeList.get(index).getDiff();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
+   *
+   * @param index the index of the element to be removed
+   * @throws UnsupportedOperationException {@inheritDoc}
+   */
+  @Override
+  public DirectoryDiff remove(int index) {
+    throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns true if this SkipList contains no data elements. In other words,
+   * returns true if the size of this SkipList is zero.
+   *
+   * @return True if this SkipList contains no elements.
+   */
+  @Override
+  public boolean isEmpty() {
+    return skipNodeList.isEmpty();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns the number of data elements in this SkipList.
+   *
+   * @return The number of elements in this SkipList.
+   */
+  @Override
+  public int size() {
+    return skipNodeList.size();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Iterator is an iterator over the SkipList. This should
+   * always provide a linear view of the list.
+   */
+  @Override
+  public Iterator<DirectoryDiff> iterator() {
+    final Iterator<SkipListNode> i = skipNodeList.iterator();
+    return new Iterator<DirectoryDiff>() {
+
+      @Override
+      public boolean hasNext() {
+        return i.hasNext();
+      }
+
+      @Override
+      public DirectoryDiff next() {
+        return i.next().getDiff();
+      }
+    };
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public int binarySearch(int key) {
+    return Collections.binarySearch(skipNodeList, key);
+  }
+
+  private SkipListNode getNode(int index) {
+    return skipNodeList.get(index);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Returns the level of the skipList node.
+   *
+   * @param skipInterval The max interval after which the next level promotion
+   *                     should happen.
+   * @param maxLevel     Maximum no of skip levels
+   * @return A value in the range 0 to maxLevel-1.
+   */
+  static int randomLevel(int skipInterval, int maxLevel) {
+    final Random r = ThreadLocalRandom.current();
+    for (int level = 0; level < maxLevel; level++) {
+      // skip to the next level with probability 1/skipInterval
+      if (r.nextInt(skipInterval) > 0) {
+        return level;
+      }
+    }
+    return maxLevel;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * This function returns the minimal set of diffs required to combine in
+   * order to generate all the changes occurred between fromIndex and
+   * toIndex.
+   *
+   * @param fromIndex index from where the summation has to start
+   * @param toIndex   index till where the summation has to end
+   * @return list of Directory Diff
+   */
+  @Override
+  public List<DirectoryDiff> getMinListForRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex,
+      INodeDirectory dir) {
+    final List<DirectoryDiff> subList = new ArrayList<>();
+    final int toSnapshotId = get(toIndex).getSnapshotId();
+    for (SkipListNode current = getNode(fromIndex); current != null;) {
+      SkipListNode next = null;
+      ChildrenDiff childrenDiff = null;
+      for (int level = current.level(); level >= 0; level--) {
+        next = current.getSkipNode(level);
+        if (next != null && next.getDiff().compareTo(toSnapshotId) <= 0) {
+          childrenDiff = current.getChildrenDiff(level);
+          break;
+        }
+      }
+      final DirectoryDiff curDiff = current.getDiff();
+      subList.add(childrenDiff == null ? curDiff :
+          new DirectoryDiff(curDiff.getSnapshotId(), dir, childrenDiff));
+
+      current = next;
+    }
+    return subList;
+  }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/81d9446a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java
b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java
index 8ed9c7a..eecbe11 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.java
@@ -168,12 +168,15 @@ public class DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature implements INode.Feature {
     private boolean isSnapshotRoot = false;
     
     private DirectoryDiff(int snapshotId, INodeDirectory dir) {
-      super(snapshotId, null, null);
+      this(snapshotId, dir, new ChildrenDiff());
+    }
 
+    public DirectoryDiff(int snapshotId, INodeDirectory dir,
+        ChildrenDiff diff) {
+      super(snapshotId, null, null);
       this.childrenSize = dir.getChildrenList(Snapshot.CURRENT_STATE_ID).size();
-      this.diff = new ChildrenDiff();
+      this.diff = diff;
     }
-
     /** Constructor used by FSImage loading */
     DirectoryDiff(int snapshotId, INodeDirectoryAttributes snapshotINode,
         DirectoryDiff posteriorDiff, int childrenSize, List<INode> createdList,

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/81d9446a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/TestDirectoryDiffList.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/TestDirectoryDiffList.java
b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/TestDirectoryDiffList.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fb6e7f4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/snapshot/TestDirectoryDiffList.java
@@ -0,0 +1,162 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSConfigKeys;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSTestUtil;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.MiniDFSCluster;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.FSDirectory;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.FSNamesystem;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.INode;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.INodeDirectory;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.snapshot.DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.DirectoryDiff;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util.ReadOnlyList;
+import org.junit.After;
+import org.junit.Assert;
+import org.junit.Before;
+import org.junit.Test;
+
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+
+/**
+ * This class tests the DirectoryDiffList API's.
+ */
+public class TestDirectoryDiffList{
+  static {
+    SnapshotTestHelper.disableLogs();
+  }
+
+  private static final long SEED = 0;
+  private static final short REPL = 3;
+  private static final short REPL_2 = 1;
+  private static final long BLOCKSIZE = 1024;
+
+  private static final Configuration CONF = new Configuration();
+  private static MiniDFSCluster cluster;
+  private static FSNamesystem fsn;
+  private static FSDirectory fsdir;
+  private static DistributedFileSystem hdfs;
+
+  @Before
+  public void setUp() throws Exception {
+    CONF.setLong(DFSConfigKeys.DFS_BLOCK_SIZE_KEY, BLOCKSIZE);
+    cluster = new MiniDFSCluster.Builder(CONF).numDataNodes(REPL).format(true)
+        .build();
+    cluster.waitActive();
+    fsn = cluster.getNamesystem();
+    fsdir = fsn.getFSDirectory();
+    hdfs = cluster.getFileSystem();
+  }
+
+  @After
+  public void tearDown() throws Exception {
+    if (cluster != null) {
+      cluster.shutdown();
+      cluster = null;
+    }
+  }
+
+  private void compareChildrenList(ReadOnlyList<INode> list1,
+      ReadOnlyList<INode> list2) {
+    Assert.assertEquals(list1.size(), list2.size());
+    for (int index = 0; index < list1.size(); index++) {
+      Assert.assertEquals(list1.get(index), list2.get(index));
+    }
+  }
+
+  private void verifyChildrenListForAllSnapshots(DirectoryDiffList list,
+      INodeDirectory dir) {
+    for (int index = 0;
+         index < list.size(); index++) {
+      ReadOnlyList<INode> list1 = dir.getChildrenList(index);
+      List<DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.DirectoryDiff> subList =
+          list.getMinListForRange(index, list.size() - 1, dir);
+      ReadOnlyList<INode> list2 = getChildrenList(dir, subList);
+      compareChildrenList(list1, list2);
+    }
+  }
+
+  private ReadOnlyList<INode> getChildrenList(INodeDirectory currentINode,
+      List<DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.DirectoryDiff> list) {
+    List<INode> children = null;
+    final DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.ChildrenDiff
+        combined = new DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.ChildrenDiff();
+    for (DirectoryWithSnapshotFeature.DirectoryDiff d : list) {
+      combined.combinePosterior(d.getChildrenDiff(), null);
+    }
+    children = combined.apply2Current(ReadOnlyList.Util.asList(
+        currentINode.getChildrenList(Snapshot.CURRENT_STATE_ID)));
+    return ReadOnlyList.Util.asReadOnlyList(children);
+  }
+
+  @Test
+  public void testDirectoryDiffList() throws Exception {
+    final Path sdir1 = new Path("/dir1");
+    hdfs.mkdirs(sdir1);
+    SnapshotTestHelper.createSnapshot(hdfs, sdir1, "s0");
+    for (int i = 1; i < 31; i++) {
+      final Path file = new Path(sdir1, "file" + i);
+      DFSTestUtil.createFile(hdfs, file, BLOCKSIZE, REPL_2, SEED);
+      SnapshotTestHelper.createSnapshot(hdfs, sdir1, "s" + i);
+    }
+    INodeDirectory sdir1Node = fsdir.getINode(sdir1.toString()).asDirectory();
+    DiffList<DirectoryDiff> diffs =
+        sdir1Node.getDiffs().asList();
+
+    Iterator<DirectoryDiff> itr = diffs.iterator();
+    DirectoryDiffList skipList = DirectoryDiffList.createSkipList(0, 3, 5);
+    while (itr.hasNext()) {
+      skipList.addLast(itr.next());
+    }
+    // verify that the both the children list obtained from hdfs and
+    // DirectoryDiffList are same
+    verifyChildrenListForAllSnapshots(skipList, sdir1Node);
+  }
+
+  @Test
+  public void testDirectoryDiffList2() throws Exception {
+    final Path sdir1 = new Path("/dir1");
+    hdfs.mkdirs(sdir1);
+    for (int i = 1; i < 31; i++) {
+      final Path file = new Path(sdir1, "file" + i);
+      DFSTestUtil.createFile(hdfs, file, BLOCKSIZE, REPL_2, SEED);
+    }
+    SnapshotTestHelper.createSnapshot(hdfs, sdir1, "s0");
+    for (int i = 1; i < 31; i++) {
+      final Path file = new Path(sdir1, "file" + (31 - i));
+      hdfs.delete(file, false);
+      SnapshotTestHelper.createSnapshot(hdfs, sdir1, "s" + i);
+    }
+    INodeDirectory sdir1Node = fsdir.getINode(sdir1.toString()).asDirectory();
+    DiffList<DirectoryDiff> diffs = sdir1Node.getDiffs().asList();
+
+    int index = diffs.size() - 1;
+    DirectoryDiffList skipList = DirectoryDiffList.createSkipList(0, 3, 5);
+    while (index >= 0) {
+      skipList.addFirst(diffs.get(index));
+      index--;
+    }
+    // verify that the both the children list obtained from hdfs and
+    // DirectoryDiffList are same
+    verifyChildrenListForAllSnapshots(skipList, sdir1Node);
+  }
+}
\ No newline at end of file


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