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From haiboc...@apache.org
Subject [25/50] [abbrv] hadoop git commit: HDFS-7878. API - expose a unique file identifier.
Date Thu, 02 Nov 2017 17:30:16 GMT
HDFS-7878. API - expose a unique file identifier.


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/commit/d015e0bb
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/tree/d015e0bb
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/diff/d015e0bb

Branch: refs/heads/YARN-1011
Commit: d015e0bbd5416943cb4875274e67b7077c00e54b
Parents: 8122543
Author: Chris Douglas <cdouglas@apache.org>
Authored: Tue Oct 31 09:44:01 2017 -0700
Committer: Chris Douglas <cdouglas@apache.org>
Committed: Tue Oct 31 09:44:01 2017 -0700

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 .../java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java   |  46 ++++
 .../org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java  |  12 +
 .../org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java     |  14 ++
 .../main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java | 180 ++++++++++++++
 .../java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/PathHandle.java   |  50 ++++
 .../org/apache/hadoop/fs/RawPathHandle.java     | 119 +++++++++
 .../src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md  | 115 +++++++++
 .../fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java   | 247 ++++++++++++++++++-
 .../hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java     |  10 +
 .../hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java   |  32 +++
 .../org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java   |  21 ++
 .../hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java      |  54 ++++
 .../hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java     |   4 +
 .../hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsPathHandle.java    |  98 ++++++++
 .../hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java  |  17 +-
 .../src/main/proto/hdfs.proto                   |   7 +
 .../hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java       |  10 +-
 .../org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java     |  16 ++
 .../hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java       |  78 ++++--
 .../src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml        |  12 +-
 20 files changed, 1102 insertions(+), 40 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java
index d43e41d..64021ad 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.java
@@ -50,6 +50,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
 import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configured;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.GlobalStorageStatistics.StorageStatisticsProvider;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.ChecksumOpt;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.HandleOpt;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.Rename;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.AclEntry;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.AclStatus;
@@ -951,6 +952,51 @@ public abstract class FileSystem extends Configured implements Closeable {
   }
 
   /**
+   * Open an FSDataInputStream matching the PathHandle instance. The
+   * implementation may encode metadata in PathHandle to address the
+   * resource directly and verify that the resource referenced
+   * satisfies constraints specified at its construciton.
+   * @param fd PathHandle object returned by the FS authority.
+   * @param bufferSize the size of the buffer to use
+   * @throws IOException IO failure
+   * @throws UnsupportedOperationException If not overridden by subclass
+   */
+  public FSDataInputStream open(PathHandle fd, int bufferSize)
+      throws IOException {
+    throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a durable, serializable handle to the referent of the given
+   * entity.
+   * @param stat Referent in the target FileSystem
+   * @param opt If absent, assume {@link HandleOpt#path()}.
+   * @throws IllegalArgumentException If the FileStatus does not belong to
+   *         this FileSystem
+   * @throws UnsupportedOperationException If
+   *         {@link #createPathHandle(FileStatus, HandleOpt[])}
+   *         not overridden by subclass.
+   * @throws UnsupportedOperationException If this FileSystem cannot enforce
+   *         the specified constraints.
+   */
+  public final PathHandle getPathHandle(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... opt) {
+    if (null == opt || 0 == opt.length) {
+      return createPathHandle(stat, HandleOpt.path());
+    }
+    return createPathHandle(stat, opt);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Hook to implement support for {@link PathHandle} operations.
+   * @param stat Referent in the target FileSystem
+   * @param opt Constraints that determine the validity of the
+   *            {@link PathHandle} reference.
+   */
+  protected PathHandle createPathHandle(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... opt) {
+    throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+  }
+
+  /**
    * Create an FSDataOutputStream at the indicated Path.
    * Files are overwritten by default.
    * @param f the file to create

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java
index 954a041..f9bbfb1 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FilterFileSystem.java
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.AclStatus;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.FsAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.FsPermission;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.ChecksumOpt;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.HandleOpt;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.Rename;
 import org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException;
 import org.apache.hadoop.util.Progressable;
@@ -164,6 +165,17 @@ public class FilterFileSystem extends FileSystem {
   }
 
   @Override
+  public FSDataInputStream open(PathHandle fd, int bufferSize)
+      throws IOException {
+    return fs.open(fd, bufferSize);
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  protected PathHandle createPathHandle(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... opts) {
+    return fs.getPathHandle(stat, opts);
+  }
+
+  @Override
   public FSDataOutputStream append(Path f, int bufferSize,
       Progressable progress) throws IOException {
     return fs.append(f, bufferSize, progress);

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java
index 4c2fd1b..f6ffcb4 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/HarFileSystem.java
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@ package org.apache.hadoop.fs;
 
 import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.FsPermission;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.HandleOpt;
 import org.apache.hadoop.io.IOUtils;
 import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
 import org.apache.hadoop.util.LineReader;
@@ -699,6 +700,19 @@ public class HarFileSystem extends FileSystem {
         hstatus.getStartIndex(), hstatus.getLength(), bufferSize);
   }
 
+  @Override
+  protected PathHandle createPathHandle(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... opts) {
+    // har consistency managed through metadata cache
+    // could extend HarMetaData to track more explicitly
+    throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public FSDataInputStream open(PathHandle fd, int bufferSize)
+      throws IOException {
+    throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+  }
+
   /**
    * Used for delegation token related functionality. Must delegate to
    * underlying file system.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java
index 0ac53b2..550e6b9 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/Options.java
@@ -17,6 +17,10 @@
  */
 package org.apache.hadoop.fs;
 
+import java.util.Optional;
+import java.util.function.Function;
+import java.util.function.BiFunction;
+
 import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceAudience;
 import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceStability;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.permission.FsPermission;
@@ -325,4 +329,180 @@ public final class Options {
       return processChecksumOpt(defaultOpt, userOpt, -1);
     }
   }
+
+  /**
+   * Options for creating {@link PathHandle} references.
+   */
+  public static class HandleOpt {
+    protected HandleOpt() {
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Utility function for mapping
+     * {@link FileSystem#getPathHandle(FileStatus, HandleOpt[])} to a
+     * fixed set of handle options.
+     * @param fs Target filesystem
+     * @param opt Options to bind in partially evaluated function
+     * @return Function reference with options fixed
+     */
+    public static Function<FileStatus, PathHandle> resolve(
+        FileSystem fs, HandleOpt... opt) {
+      return resolve(fs::getPathHandle, opt);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Utility function for partial evaluation of {@link FileStatus}
+     * instances to a fixed set of handle options.
+     * @param fsr Function reference
+     * @param opt Options to associate with {@link FileStatus} instances to
+     *            produce {@link PathHandle} instances.
+     * @return Function reference with options fixed
+     */
+    public static Function<FileStatus, PathHandle> resolve(
+        BiFunction<FileStatus, HandleOpt[], PathHandle> fsr,
+        HandleOpt... opt) {
+      return (stat) -> fsr.apply(stat, opt);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle is valid iff the referent is neither moved nor changed.
+     * Equivalent to changed(false), moved(false).
+     * @return Options requiring that the content and location of the entity
+     * be unchanged between calls.
+     */
+    public static HandleOpt[] exact() {
+      return new HandleOpt[] {changed(false), moved(false) };
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle is valid iff the content of the referent is the same.
+     * Equivalent to changed(false), moved(true).
+     * @return Options requiring that the content of the entity is unchanged,
+     * but it may be at a different location.
+     */
+    public static HandleOpt[] content() {
+      return new HandleOpt[] {changed(false), moved(true)  };
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle is valid iff the referent is unmoved in the namespace.
+     * Equivalent to changed(true), moved(false).
+     * @return Options requiring that the referent exist in the same location,
+     * but its content may have changed.
+     */
+    public static HandleOpt[] path() {
+      return new HandleOpt[] {changed(true),  moved(false) };
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle is valid iff the referent exists in the namespace.
+     * Equivalent to changed(true), moved(true).
+     * @return Options requiring that the implementation resolve a reference
+     * to this entity regardless of changes to content or location.
+     */
+    public static HandleOpt[] reference() {
+      return new HandleOpt[] {changed(true),  moved(true)  };
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param allow If true, resolve references to this entity even if it has
+     *             been modified.
+     * @return Handle option encoding parameter.
+     */
+    public static Data changed(boolean allow) {
+      return new Data(allow);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param allow If true, resolve references to this entity anywhere in
+     *              the namespace.
+     * @return Handle option encoding parameter.
+     */
+    public static Location moved(boolean allow) {
+      return new Location(allow);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Utility method to extract a HandleOpt from the set provided.
+     * @param c Target class
+     * @param opt List of options
+     * @param <T> Type constraint for exact match
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException If more than one matching type is found.
+     * @return An option assignable from the specified type or null if either
+     * opt is null or a suitable match is not found.
+     */
+    public static <T extends HandleOpt> Optional<T> getOpt(
+        Class<T> c, HandleOpt... opt) {
+      if (null == opt) {
+        return Optional.empty();
+      }
+      T ret = null;
+      for (HandleOpt o : opt) {
+        if (c.isAssignableFrom(o.getClass())) {
+          if (ret != null) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Duplicate option "
+                + c.getSimpleName());
+          }
+
+          @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+          T tmp = (T) o;
+          ret = tmp;
+        }
+      }
+      return Optional.ofNullable(ret);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Option storing standard constraints on data.
+     */
+    public static class Data extends HandleOpt {
+      private final boolean allowChanged;
+      Data(boolean allowChanged) {
+        this.allowChanged = allowChanged;
+      }
+
+      /**
+       * Tracks whether any changes to file content are permitted.
+       * @return True if content changes are allowed, false otherwise.
+       */
+      public boolean allowChange() {
+        return allowChanged;
+      }
+      @Override
+      public String toString() {
+        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+        sb.append("data(allowChange=")
+          .append(allowChanged).append(")");
+        return sb.toString();
+      }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Option storing standard constraints on location.
+     */
+    public static class Location extends HandleOpt {
+      private final boolean allowChanged;
+      Location(boolean allowChanged) {
+        this.allowChanged = allowChanged;
+      }
+
+      /**
+       * Tracks whether any changes to file location are permitted.
+       * @return True if relocation in the namespace is allowed, false
+       * otherwise.
+       */
+      public boolean allowChange() {
+        return allowChanged;
+      }
+      @Override
+      public String toString() {
+        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+        sb.append("loc(allowChange=")
+            .append(allowChanged).append(")");
+        return sb.toString();
+      }
+    }
+
+  }
+
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/PathHandle.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/PathHandle.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/PathHandle.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..60aa6a5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/PathHandle.java
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.fs;
+
+import java.io.Serializable;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceAudience;
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceStability;
+
+/**
+ * Opaque, serializable reference to an entity in the FileSystem. May contain
+ * metadata sufficient to resolve or verify subsequent accesses indepedent of
+ * other modifications to the FileSystem.
+ */
+@InterfaceAudience.Public
+@InterfaceStability.Evolving
+public interface PathHandle extends Serializable {
+
+  /**
+   * @return Serialized from in bytes.
+   */
+  default byte[] toByteArray() {
+    ByteBuffer bb = bytes();
+    byte[] ret = new byte[bb.remaining()];
+    bb.get(ret);
+    return ret;
+  }
+
+  ByteBuffer bytes();
+
+  @Override
+  boolean equals(Object other);
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/RawPathHandle.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/RawPathHandle.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/RawPathHandle.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dc735f4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/RawPathHandle.java
@@ -0,0 +1,119 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.fs;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceAudience;
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceStability;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.InvalidObjectException;
+import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectStreamException;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+
+/**
+ * Generic format of FileStatus objects. When the origin is unknown, the
+ * attributes of the handle are undefined.
+ */
+@InterfaceAudience.Private
+@InterfaceStability.Unstable
+public final class RawPathHandle implements PathHandle {
+
+  private static final long serialVersionUID = 0x12ba4689510L;
+
+  public static final int MAX_SIZE = 1 << 20;
+
+  private transient ByteBuffer fd;
+
+  /**
+   * Store a reference to the given bytes as the serialized form.
+   * @param fd serialized bytes
+   */
+  public RawPathHandle(ByteBuffer fd) {
+    this.fd = null == fd
+        ? ByteBuffer.allocate(0)
+        : fd.asReadOnlyBuffer();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Initialize using a copy of bytes from the serialized handle.
+   * @param handle PathHandle to preserve in serialized form.
+   */
+  public RawPathHandle(PathHandle handle) {
+    ByteBuffer hb = null == handle
+        ? ByteBuffer.allocate(0)
+        : handle.bytes();
+    fd = ByteBuffer.allocate(hb.remaining());
+    fd.put(hb);
+    fd.flip();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public ByteBuffer bytes() {
+    return fd.asReadOnlyBuffer();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public boolean equals(Object other) {
+    if (!(other instanceof PathHandle)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+    PathHandle o = (PathHandle) other;
+    return bytes().equals(o.bytes());
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public int hashCode() {
+    return bytes().hashCode();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public String toString() {
+    return bytes().toString();
+  }
+
+  private void writeObject(ObjectOutputStream out) throws IOException {
+    out.defaultWriteObject();
+    out.writeInt(fd.remaining());
+    if (fd.hasArray()) {
+      out.write(fd.array(), fd.position(), fd.remaining());
+    } else {
+      byte[] x = new byte[fd.remaining()];
+      fd.slice().get(x);
+      out.write(x);
+    }
+  }
+
+  private void readObject(ObjectInputStream in)
+      throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
+    in.defaultReadObject();
+    int len = in.readInt();
+    if (len < 0 || len > MAX_SIZE) {
+      throw new IOException("Illegal buffer length " + len);
+    }
+    byte[] x = new byte[len];
+    in.readFully(x);
+    fd = ByteBuffer.wrap(x);
+  }
+
+  private void readObjectNoData() throws ObjectStreamException {
+    throw new InvalidObjectException("Stream data required");
+  }
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md
index e67cbe3..d251804 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/site/markdown/filesystem/filesystem.md
@@ -702,6 +702,121 @@ symbolic links
 exists in the metadata, but no copies of any its blocks can be located;
 -`FileNotFoundException` would seem more accurate and useful.
 
+### `PathHandle getPathHandle(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... options)`
+
+Implementaions without a compliant call MUST throw `UnsupportedOperationException`
+
+#### Preconditions
+
+    let stat = getFileStatus(Path p)
+    let FS' where:
+      (FS.Directories', FS.Files', FS.Symlinks')
+      p' in paths(FS') where:
+        exists(FS, stat.path) implies exists(FS', p')
+
+The referent of a `FileStatus` instance, at the time it was resolved, is the
+same referent as the result of `getPathHandle(FileStatus)`. The `PathHandle`
+may be used in subsequent operations to ensure invariants hold between
+calls.
+
+The `options` parameter specifies whether a subsequent call e.g.,
+`open(PathHandle)` will succeed if the referent data or location changed. By
+default, any modification results in an error. The caller MAY specify
+relaxations that allow operations to succeed even if the referent exists at
+a different path and/or its data are changed.
+
+An implementation MUST throw `UnsupportedOperationException` if it cannot
+support the semantics specified by the caller. The default set of options
+are as follows.
+
+|            | Unmoved  | Moved     |
+|-----------:|:--------:|:---------:|
+| Unchanged  | EXACT    | CONTENT   |
+| Changed    | PATH     | REFERENCE |
+
+Changes to ownership, extended attributes, and other metadata are not
+required to match the `PathHandle`. Implementations can extend the set of
+`HandleOpt` parameters with custom constraints.
+
+##### Examples
+
+A client specifies that the `PathHandle` should track the entity across
+renames using `REFERENCE`. The implementation MUST throw an
+`UnsupportedOperationException` when creating the `PathHandle` unless
+failure to resolve the reference implies the entity no longer exists.
+
+A client specifies that the `PathHandle` should resolve only if the entity
+is unchanged using `PATH`. The implementation MUST throw an
+`UnsupportedOperationException` when creating the `PathHandle` unless it can
+distinguish between an identical entity located subsequently at the same
+path.
+
+#### Postconditions
+
+    result = PathHandle(p')
+
+#### Implementation notes
+
+The referent of a `PathHandle` is the namespace when the `FileStatus`
+instance was created, _not_ its state when the `PathHandle` is created. An
+implementation MAY reject attempts to create or resolve `PathHandle`
+instances that are valid, but expensive to service.
+
+Object stores that implement rename by copying objects MUST NOT claim to
+support `CONTENT` and `REFERENCE` unless the lineage of the object is
+resolved.
+
+It MUST be possible to serialize a `PathHandle` instance and reinstantiate
+it in one or more processes, on another machine, and arbitrarily far into
+the future without changing its semantics. The implementation MUST refuse to
+resolve instances if it can no longer guarantee its invariants.
+
+#### HDFS implementation notes
+
+HDFS does not support `PathHandle` references to directories or symlinks.
+Support for `CONTENT` and `REFERENCE` looks up files by INode. INodes are
+not unique across NameNodes, so federated clusters SHOULD include enough
+metadata in the `PathHandle` to detect references from other namespaces.
+
+### `FSDataInputStream open(PathHandle handle, int bufferSize)`
+
+Implementaions without a compliant call MUST throw `UnsupportedOperationException`
+
+#### Preconditions
+
+    let fd = getPathHandle(FileStatus stat)
+    if stat.isdir : raise IOException
+    let FS' where:
+      (FS.Directories', FS.Files', FS.Symlinks')
+      p' in FS.Files' where:
+        FS.Files'[p'] = fd
+    if not exists(FS', p') : raise FileNotFoundException
+
+The implementation MUST resolve the referent of the `PathHandle` following
+the constraints specified at its creation by `getPathHandle(FileStatus)`.
+
+Metadata necessary for the `FileSystem` to satisfy this contract MAY be
+encoded in the `PathHandle`.
+
+#### Postconditions
+
+    result = FSDataInputStream(0, FS.Files'[p'])
+
+The stream returned is subject to the constraints of a stream returned by
+`open(Path)`. Constraints checked on open MAY hold to hold for the stream, but
+this is not guaranteed.
+
+For example, a `PathHandle` created with `CONTENT` constraints MAY return a
+stream that ignores updates to the file after it is opened, if it was
+unmodified when `open(PathHandle)` was resolved.
+
+#### Implementation notes
+
+An implementation MAY check invariants either at the server or before
+returning the stream to the client. For example, an implementation may open
+the file, then verify the invariants in the `PathHandle` using
+`getFileStatus(Path)` to implement `CONTENT`. This could yield false
+positives and it requires additional RPC traffic.
 
 ### `boolean delete(Path p, boolean recursive)`
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java
index ccf188f..9b6bbd4 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/AbstractContractOpenTest.java
@@ -15,29 +15,38 @@
  *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  *  limitations under the License.
  */
-
 package org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract;
 
+import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+
 import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.CommonConfigurationKeysPublic;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSDataInputStream;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileStatus;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.HandleOpt;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.PathHandle;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.RawPathHandle;
 import org.apache.hadoop.io.IOUtils;
-import org.junit.Test;
-
-import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
-import java.io.IOException;
 
+import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.appendFile;
 import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.createFile;
 import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.dataset;
-import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.rm;
+import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.skip;
 import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.touch;
+import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.verifyRead;
+import static org.apache.hadoop.fs.contract.ContractTestUtils.verifyFileContents;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
 
 /**
  * Test Seek operations
  */
-public abstract class AbstractContractOpenTest extends AbstractFSContractTestBase {
+public abstract class AbstractContractOpenTest
+    extends AbstractFSContractTestBase {
 
   private FSDataInputStream instream;
 
@@ -163,5 +172,229 @@ public abstract class AbstractContractOpenTest extends AbstractFSContractTestBas
     instream.close();
   }
 
+  /**
+   * Skip a test case if the FS doesn't support file references.
+   * The feature is assumed to be unsupported unless stated otherwise.
+   */
+  protected void assumeSupportsFileReference() throws IOException {
+    if (getContract().isSupported(SUPPORTS_FILE_REFERENCE, false)) {
+      return;
+    }
+    skip("Skipping as unsupported feature: " + SUPPORTS_FILE_REFERENCE);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Skip a test case if the FS doesn't support content validation.
+   * The feature is assumed to be unsupported unless stated otherwise.
+   */
+  protected void assumeSupportsContentCheck() throws IOException {
+    if (getContract().isSupported(SUPPORTS_CONTENT_CHECK, false)) {
+      return;
+    }
+    skip("Skipping as unsupported feature: " + SUPPORTS_CONTENT_CHECK);
+  }
+
+  private PathHandle getHandleOrSkip(FileStatus stat, HandleOpt... opts) {
+    try {
+      return getFileSystem().getPathHandle(stat, opts);
+    } catch (UnsupportedOperationException e) {
+      skip("FileSystem does not support " + Arrays.toString(opts));
+    }
+    // unreachable
+    return null;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Verify {@link HandleOpt#exact()} handle semantics.
+   * @throws Throwable on error
+   */
+  @Test
+  public void testOpenFileByExact() throws Throwable {
+    describe("verify open(getPathHandle(FileStatus, exact())) operations" +
+        "detect changes");
+    assumeSupportsContentCheck();
+    assumeSupportsFileReference();
+    Path path1 = path("testopenfilebyexact1");
+    Path path2 = path("testopenfilebyexact2");
+    byte[] file1 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 43, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+    FileStatus stat = getFileSystem().getFileStatus(path1);
+    assertNotNull(stat);
+    assertEquals(path1, stat.getPath());
+    ContractTestUtils.rename(getFileSystem(), path1, path2);
+    // create identical file at same location, orig still exists at path2
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+
+    PathHandle fd = getHandleOrSkip(stat, HandleOpt.exact());
+
+    // verify path1, path2 contents identical
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path1, file1);
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path2, file1);
+    try {
+      // the PathHandle will not resolve, even though
+      // the original entity exists, it has not been modified, and an
+      // identical file exists at the old path. The handle would also
+      // fail to resolve if path1 had been modified
+      instream = getFileSystem().open(fd, 1 << 15);
+      fail("Expected an exception");
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      // expected
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Verify {@link HandleOpt#content()} handle semantics.
+   * @throws Throwable on error
+   */
+  @Test
+  public void testOpenFileByContent() throws Throwable {
+    describe("verify open(getPathHandle(FileStatus, content())) operations" +
+        "follow relocation");
+    assumeSupportsContentCheck();
+    assumeSupportsFileReference();
+    Path path1 = path("testopenfilebycontent1");
+    Path path2 = path("testopenfilebycontent2");
+    byte[] file1 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 43, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+    FileStatus stat = getFileSystem().getFileStatus(path1);
+    assertNotNull(stat);
+    assertEquals(path1, stat.getPath());
+    // rename the file after obtaining FileStatus
+    ContractTestUtils.rename(getFileSystem(), path1, path2);
+
+    // obtain handle to entity from #getFileStatus call
+    PathHandle fd = getHandleOrSkip(stat, HandleOpt.content());
+
+    try (FSDataInputStream in = getFileSystem().open(fd, 1 << 15)) {
+      // verify read of consistent content at new location
+      verifyRead(in, file1, 0, TEST_FILE_LEN);
+    }
+
+    // modify the file at its new location by appending data
+    byte[] file1a = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 44, 255);
+    appendFile(getFileSystem(), path2, file1a);
+    byte[] file1x = Arrays.copyOf(file1, file1.length + file1a.length);
+    System.arraycopy(file1a, 0, file1x, file1.length, file1a.length);
+    // verify fd entity contains contents of file1 + appended bytes
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path2, file1x);
+
+    try {
+      // handle should not resolve when content changed
+      instream = getFileSystem().open(fd, 1 << 15);
+      fail("Failed to detect change to content");
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      // expected
+    }
+  }
+
+
+  /**
+   * Verify {@link HandleOpt#path()} handle semantics.
+   * @throws Throwable on error
+   */
+  @Test
+  public void testOpenFileByPath() throws Throwable {
+    describe("verify open(getPathHandle(FileStatus, path())) operations" +
+        "detect changes");
+    assumeSupportsContentCheck();
+    Path path1 = path("testopenfilebypath1");
+    Path path2 = path("testopenfilebypath2");
+
+    byte[] file1 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 43, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+    FileStatus stat = getFileSystem().getFileStatus(path1);
+    assertNotNull(stat);
+    assertEquals(path1, stat.getPath());
+    ContractTestUtils.rename(getFileSystem(), path1, path2);
+    // create identical file at same location, orig still exists at path2
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+
+    PathHandle fd = getHandleOrSkip(stat, HandleOpt.path());
+
+    // verify path1, path2 contents identical
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path1, file1);
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path2, file1);
+    try {
+      // verify attempt to resolve the handle fails
+      instream = getFileSystem().open(fd, 1 << 15);
+      fail("Expected an exception");
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      // expected
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Verify {@link HandleOpt#reference()} handle semantics.
+   * @throws Throwable on error
+   */
+  @Test
+  public void testOpenFileByReference() throws Throwable {
+    describe("verify open(getPathHandle(FileStatus, reference())) operations" +
+        " are independent of rename");
+    assumeSupportsFileReference();
+    Path path1 = path("testopenfilebyref1");
+    Path path2 = path("testopenfilebyref2");
+
+    byte[] file1 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 43, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+    FileStatus stat = getFileSystem().getFileStatus(path1);
+    assertNotNull(stat);
+    assertEquals(path1, stat.getPath());
+    ContractTestUtils.rename(getFileSystem(), path1, path2);
+
+    byte[] file2 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 44, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file2);
+    byte[] file1a = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 42, 255);
+    appendFile(getFileSystem(), path2, file1a);
+    byte[] file1x = Arrays.copyOf(file1, file1.length + file1a.length);
+    System.arraycopy(file1a, 0, file1x, file1.length, file1a.length);
+
+    PathHandle fd = getHandleOrSkip(stat, HandleOpt.reference());
+
+    // verify path2 contains contents of file1 + appended bytes
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path2, file1x);
+    // verify path1 contents contents of file2
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path1, file2);
+
+    // verify fd contains contents of file1 + appended bytes
+    instream = getFileSystem().open(fd, 1 << 15);
+    verifyRead(instream, file1x, 0, TEST_FILE_LEN);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Verify {@link PathHandle} may be serialized and restored.
+   * @throws Throwable on error
+   */
+  @Test
+  public void testOpenFileBySerializedReference() throws Throwable {
+    describe("verify PathHandle supports generic serialization");
+    assumeSupportsFileReference();
+    Path path1 = path("testopenfilebyref1");
+    Path path2 = path("testopenfilebyref2");
+
+    byte[] file1 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 43, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file1);
+    FileStatus stat = getFileSystem().getFileStatus(path1);
+    assertNotNull(stat);
+    assertEquals(path1, stat.getPath());
+    ContractTestUtils.rename(getFileSystem(), path1, path2);
+
+    byte[] file2 = dataset(TEST_FILE_LEN, 44, 255);
+    createFile(getFileSystem(), path1, false, file2);
+
+    PathHandle fd = getHandleOrSkip(stat, HandleOpt.reference());
+
+    // serialize PathHandle
+    ByteBuffer sb = fd.bytes();
+    PathHandle fdb = new RawPathHandle(sb);
+
+    instream = getFileSystem().open(fdb, 1 << 15);
+    // verify stat contains contents of file1
+    verifyRead(instream, file1, 0, TEST_FILE_LEN);
+    // verify path2 contains contents of file1
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path2, file1);
+    // verify path1 contents contents of file2
+    verifyFileContents(getFileSystem(), path1, file2);
+  }
 
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java
index b778f0d..cca3d4c 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractOptions.java
@@ -192,6 +192,16 @@ public interface ContractOptions {
   String SUPPORTS_POSITIONED_READABLE = "supports-positioned-readable";
 
   /**
+   * Indicates that FS exposes durable references to files.
+   */
+  String SUPPORTS_FILE_REFERENCE = "supports-file-reference";
+
+  /**
+   * Indicates that FS supports content checks on open.
+   */
+  String SUPPORTS_CONTENT_CHECK = "supports-content-check";
+
+  /**
    * Maximum path length
    * {@value}
    */

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java
index 4dd9c3f..e0cc7d6 100644
--- a/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java
+++ b/hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/fs/contract/ContractTestUtils.java
@@ -403,6 +403,21 @@ public class ContractTestUtils extends Assert {
   }
 
   /**
+   * Rename operation. Safety check for attempts to rename the root directory.
+   * Verifies that src no longer exists after rename.
+   * @param fileSystem filesystem to work with
+   * @param src source path
+   * @param dst destination path
+   * @throws IOException If rename fails or src is the root directory.
+   */
+  public static void rename(FileSystem fileSystem, Path src, Path dst)
+      throws IOException {
+    rejectRootOperation(src, false);
+    assertTrue(fileSystem.rename(src, dst));
+    assertPathDoesNotExist(fileSystem, "renamed", src);
+  }
+
+  /**
    * Block any operation on the root path. This is a safety check
    * @param path path in the filesystem
    * @param allowRootOperation can the root directory be manipulated?
@@ -623,6 +638,23 @@ public class ContractTestUtils extends Assert {
   }
 
   /**
+   * Append to an existing file.
+   * @param fs filesystem
+   * @param path path to file
+   * @param data data to append. Can be null
+   * @throws IOException On any error
+   */
+  public static void appendFile(FileSystem fs,
+                                Path path,
+                                byte[] data) throws IOException {
+    try (FSDataOutputStream stream = fs.appendFile(path).build()) {
+      if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
+        stream.write(data);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
    * Touch a file.
    * @param fs filesystem
    * @param path path

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java
index 24235a1..2a8bf0d 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DFSUtilClient.java
@@ -862,4 +862,25 @@ public class DFSUtilClient {
     }
     return threadPoolExecutor;
   }
+
+  private static final int INODE_PATH_MAX_LENGTH = 3 * Path.SEPARATOR.length()
+      + HdfsConstants.DOT_RESERVED_STRING.length()
+      + HdfsConstants.DOT_INODES_STRING.length()
+      + (int)Math.ceil(Math.log10(Long.MAX_VALUE)) + 1;
+
+  /**
+   * Create the internal unique file path from HDFS file ID (inode ID). Unlike
+   * a regular file path, this one is guaranteed to refer to the same file at
+   * all times, across overwrites, etc.
+   * @param fileId File ID.
+   * @return The internal ID-based path.
+   */
+  public static Path makePathFromFileId(long fileId) {
+    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(INODE_PATH_MAX_LENGTH);
+    sb.append(Path.SEPARATOR).append(HdfsConstants.DOT_RESERVED_STRING)
+      .append(Path.SEPARATOR).append(HdfsConstants.DOT_INODES_STRING)
+      .append(Path.SEPARATOR).append(fileId);
+    return new Path(sb.toString());
+  }
+
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java
index a8a5cfa..2a6bd21 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/DistributedFileSystem.java
@@ -44,9 +44,11 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsServerDefaults;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsStatus;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.GlobalStorageStatistics;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.GlobalStorageStatistics.StorageStatisticsProvider;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.PathHandle;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.LocatedFileStatus;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.ChecksumOpt;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Options.HandleOpt;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.PathFilter;
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.QuotaUsage;
@@ -81,6 +83,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.ReencryptAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.RollingUpgradeAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.SafeModeAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsFileStatus;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsPathHandle;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsLocatedFileStatus;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.OpenFileEntry;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ZoneReencryptionStatus;
@@ -105,6 +108,7 @@ import java.util.Collection;
 import java.util.EnumSet;
 import java.util.List;
 import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.stream.Collectors;
 
 /****************************************************************
  * Implementation of the abstract FileSystem for the DFS system.
@@ -319,6 +323,56 @@ public class DistributedFileSystem extends FileSystem {
     }.resolve(this, absF);
   }
 
+  /**
+   * Opens an FSDataInputStream with the indicated file ID extracted from
+   * the {@link PathHandle}.
+   * @param fd Reference to entity in this FileSystem.
+   * @param bufferSize the size of the buffer to be used.
+   */
+  @Override
+  public FSDataInputStream open(PathHandle fd, int bufferSize)
+      throws IOException {
+    if (!(fd instanceof HdfsPathHandle)) {
+      fd = new HdfsPathHandle(fd.bytes());
+    }
+    HdfsPathHandle id = (HdfsPathHandle) fd;
+    return open(DFSUtilClient.makePathFromFileId(id.getInodeId()), bufferSize);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a handle to an HDFS file.
+   * @param st HdfsFileStatus instance from NameNode
+   * @param opts Standard handle arguments
+   * @throws IllegalArgumentException If the FileStatus instance refers to a
+   * directory, symlink, or another namesystem.
+   * @throws UnsupportedOperationException If opts are not specified or both
+   * data and location are not allowed to change.
+   * @return A handle to the file.
+   */
+  @Override
+  protected PathHandle createPathHandle(FileStatus st, HandleOpt... opts) {
+    if (!(st instanceof HdfsFileStatus)) {
+      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid FileStatus "
+          + st.getClass().getSimpleName());
+    }
+    if (st.isDirectory() || st.isSymlink()) {
+      throw new IllegalArgumentException("PathHandle only available for files");
+    }
+    if (!getUri().getAuthority().equals(st.getPath().toUri().getAuthority())) {
+      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Wrong FileSystem: " + st.getPath());
+    }
+    HandleOpt.Data data = HandleOpt.getOpt(HandleOpt.Data.class, opts)
+        .orElse(HandleOpt.changed(false));
+    HandleOpt.Location loc = HandleOpt.getOpt(HandleOpt.Location.class, opts)
+        .orElse(HandleOpt.moved(false));
+    if (!data.allowChange() || !loc.allowChange()) {
+      throw new UnsupportedOperationException("Unsupported opts "
+          + Arrays.stream(opts)
+                  .map(HandleOpt::toString).collect(Collectors.joining(",")));
+    }
+    return new HdfsPathHandle((HdfsFileStatus)st);
+  }
+
   @Override
   public FSDataOutputStream append(Path f, final int bufferSize,
       final Progressable progress) throws IOException {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java
index 8c44293..8245d1b 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsConstants.java
@@ -58,6 +58,10 @@ public final class HdfsConstants {
           = Path.SEPARATOR + DOT_SNAPSHOT_DIR;
   public static final String SEPARATOR_DOT_SNAPSHOT_DIR_SEPARATOR
       = Path.SEPARATOR + DOT_SNAPSHOT_DIR + Path.SEPARATOR;
+  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_STRING = ".reserved";
+  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_PATH_PREFIX = Path.SEPARATOR
+      + DOT_RESERVED_STRING;
+  public final static String DOT_INODES_STRING = ".inodes";
 
   /**
    * Generation stamp of blocks that pre-date the introduction

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsPathHandle.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsPathHandle.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsPathHandle.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2d8dcca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocol/HdfsPathHandle.java
@@ -0,0 +1,98 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceAudience;
+import org.apache.hadoop.classification.InterfaceStability;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.PathHandle;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.HdfsPathHandleProto;
+
+import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
+
+/**
+ * Opaque handle to an entity in HDFS.
+ */
+@InterfaceAudience.Private
+@InterfaceStability.Unstable
+public final class HdfsPathHandle implements PathHandle {
+
+  private static final long serialVersionUID = 0xc5308795428L;
+
+  private final long inodeId;
+
+  public HdfsPathHandle(HdfsFileStatus hstat) {
+    this(hstat.getFileId());
+  }
+
+  public HdfsPathHandle(long inodeId) {
+    this.inodeId = inodeId;
+  }
+
+  public HdfsPathHandle(ByteBuffer bytes) throws IOException {
+    if (null == bytes) {
+      throw new IOException("Missing PathHandle");
+    }
+    HdfsPathHandleProto p =
+        HdfsPathHandleProto.parseFrom(ByteString.copyFrom(bytes));
+    inodeId = p.getInodeId();
+  }
+
+  public long getInodeId() {
+    return inodeId;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public ByteBuffer bytes() {
+    return HdfsPathHandleProto.newBuilder()
+      .setInodeId(getInodeId())
+      .build()
+      .toByteString()
+      .asReadOnlyByteBuffer();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public boolean equals(Object other) {
+    if (null == other) {
+      return false;
+    }
+    if (!HdfsPathHandle.class.equals(other.getClass())) {
+      // require exact match
+      return false;
+    }
+    HdfsPathHandle o = (HdfsPathHandle)other;
+    return getInodeId() == o.getInodeId();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public int hashCode() {
+    return Long.hashCode(inodeId);
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public String toString() {
+    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+    sb.append("{ ");
+    sb.append("inodeId : ").append(Long.toString(getInodeId()));
+    sb.append(" }");
+    return sb.toString();
+  }
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java
index 21b1e1a..cecdfad 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/protocolPB/PBHelperClient.java
@@ -82,13 +82,14 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ErasureCodingPolicy;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ErasureCodingPolicyState;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ExtendedBlock;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.FsPermissionExtension;
-import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.DatanodeReportType;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.ReencryptAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.RollingUpgradeAction;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants.SafeModeAction;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsConstants;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsFileStatus;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsLocatedFileStatus;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.HdfsPathHandle;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.LocatedBlock;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.LocatedBlocks;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.LocatedStripedBlock;
@@ -159,6 +160,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.ErasureCodingPolicyProto
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.FsServerDefaultsProto;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.HdfsFileStatusProto;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.HdfsFileStatusProto.FileType;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.HdfsPathHandleProto;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.LocatedBlockProto;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.LocatedBlockProto.Builder;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.proto.HdfsProtos.LocatedBlocksProto;
@@ -1561,6 +1563,19 @@ public class PBHelperClient {
     return FsPermissionProto.newBuilder().setPerm(p.toShort()).build();
   }
 
+  public static HdfsPathHandle convert(HdfsPathHandleProto fd) {
+    if (null == fd) {
+      return null;
+    }
+    return new HdfsPathHandle(fd.getInodeId());
+  }
+
+  public static HdfsPathHandleProto convert(HdfsPathHandle fd) {
+    return HdfsPathHandleProto.newBuilder()
+        .setInodeId(fd.getInodeId())
+        .build();
+  }
+
   public static HdfsFileStatus convert(HdfsFileStatusProto fs) {
     if (fs == null) {
       return null;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/proto/hdfs.proto
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/proto/hdfs.proto b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/proto/hdfs.proto
index c38a9be..953bf19 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/proto/hdfs.proto
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs-client/src/main/proto/hdfs.proto
@@ -397,6 +397,13 @@ message AddErasureCodingPolicyResponseProto {
 }
 
 /**
+ * Placeholder type for consistent HDFS operations.
+ */
+message HdfsPathHandleProto {
+  optional uint64 inodeId = 1;
+}
+
+/**
  * Status of a file, directory or symlink
  * Optionally includes a file's block locations if requested by client on the rpc call.
  */

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java
index 4f181e6..d119457 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSDirectory.java
@@ -122,14 +122,16 @@ public class FSDirectory implements Closeable {
 
   @VisibleForTesting
   static boolean CHECK_RESERVED_FILE_NAMES = true;
-  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_STRING = ".reserved";
-  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_PATH_PREFIX = Path.SEPARATOR
-      + DOT_RESERVED_STRING;
+  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_STRING =
+      HdfsConstants.DOT_RESERVED_STRING;
+  public final static String DOT_RESERVED_PATH_PREFIX =
+      HdfsConstants.DOT_RESERVED_PATH_PREFIX;
   public final static byte[] DOT_RESERVED = 
       DFSUtil.string2Bytes(DOT_RESERVED_STRING);
   private final static String RAW_STRING = "raw";
   private final static byte[] RAW = DFSUtil.string2Bytes(RAW_STRING);
-  public final static String DOT_INODES_STRING = ".inodes";
+  public final static String DOT_INODES_STRING =
+      HdfsConstants.DOT_INODES_STRING;
   public final static byte[] DOT_INODES = 
       DFSUtil.string2Bytes(DOT_INODES_STRING);
   private final static byte[] DOT_DOT =

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java
index f811d3d..39f76a5 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestDFSUtil.java
@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@ import java.util.Collection;
 import java.util.Iterator;
 import java.util.List;
 import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.Random;
 
 import org.apache.hadoop.HadoopIllegalArgumentException;
 import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
@@ -1049,4 +1050,19 @@ public class TestDFSUtil {
         DFSUtilClient.isHDFSEncryptionEnabled(conf));
 
   }
+
+  @Test
+  public void testFileIdPath() throws Throwable {
+    // /.reserved/.inodes/
+    String prefix = Path.SEPARATOR + HdfsConstants.DOT_RESERVED_STRING +
+                    Path.SEPARATOR + HdfsConstants.DOT_INODES_STRING +
+                    Path.SEPARATOR;
+    Random r = new Random();
+    for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i) {
+      long inode = r.nextLong() & Long.MAX_VALUE;
+      assertEquals(new Path(prefix + inode),
+          DFSUtilClient.makePathFromFileId(inode));
+    }
+  }
+
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java
index e5d0566..42c9acf 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/TestFileStatusSerialization.java
@@ -17,6 +17,10 @@
  */
 package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs;
 
+import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
+import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
 import java.net.URI;
 
 import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSProtos.FileStatusProto;
@@ -33,7 +37,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.io.DataOutputBuffer;
 import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
 
 import org.junit.Test;
-import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
 
 /**
  * Verify compatible FileStatus/HdfsFileStatus serialization.
@@ -53,6 +57,27 @@ public class TestFileStatusSerialization {
     assertEquals(expected.getBlockSize(), actual.getBlockSize());
   }
 
+  private static final URI  BASEURI  = new Path("hdfs://foobar").toUri();
+  private static final Path BASEPATH = new Path("/dingos");
+  private static final String FILE   = "zot";
+  private static final Path FULLPATH = new Path("hdfs://foobar/dingos/zot");
+  private static HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder baseStatus() {
+    FsPermission perm = FsPermission.getFileDefault();
+    HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder hspb = HdfsFileStatusProto.newBuilder()
+        .setFileType(FileType.IS_FILE)
+        .setPath(ByteString.copyFromUtf8("zot"))
+        .setLength(4344)
+        .setPermission(PBHelperClient.convert(perm))
+        .setOwner("hadoop")
+        .setGroup("unqbbc")
+        .setModificationTime(12345678L)
+        .setAccessTime(87654321L)
+        .setBlockReplication(10)
+        .setBlocksize(1L << 33)
+        .setFlags(0);
+    return hspb;
+  }
+
   /**
    * Test API backwards-compatibility with 2.x applications w.r.t. FsPermission.
    */
@@ -65,21 +90,12 @@ public class TestFileStatusSerialization {
     // test verifies.
     for (int i = 0; i < flagmask; ++i) {
       FsPermission perm = FsPermission.createImmutable((short) 0013);
-      HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder hspb = HdfsFileStatusProto.newBuilder()
-          .setFileType(FileType.IS_FILE)
-          .setPath(ByteString.copyFromUtf8("hdfs://foobar/dingos/zot"))
-          .setLength(4344)
+      HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder hspb = baseStatus()
           .setPermission(PBHelperClient.convert(perm))
-          .setOwner("hadoop")
-          .setGroup("unqbbc")
-          .setModificationTime(12345678L)
-          .setAccessTime(87654321L)
-          .setBlockReplication(10)
-          .setBlocksize(1L << 33)
           .setFlags(i);
       HdfsFileStatus stat = PBHelperClient.convert(hspb.build());
-      stat.makeQualified(new URI("hdfs://foobar"), new Path("/dingos"));
-      assertEquals(new Path("hdfs://foobar/dingos/zot"), stat.getPath());
+      stat.makeQualified(BASEURI, BASEPATH);
+      assertEquals(FULLPATH, stat.getPath());
 
       // verify deprecated FsPermissionExtension methods
       FsPermission sp = stat.getPermission();
@@ -103,23 +119,29 @@ public class TestFileStatusSerialization {
       assertEquals(sp.getErasureCodedBit(), fstat.isErasureCoded());
     }
   }
-  // param for LocatedFileStatus, HttpFileStatus
+
+  @Test
+  public void testJavaSerialization() throws Exception {
+    HdfsFileStatusProto hsp = baseStatus().build();
+    HdfsFileStatus hs = PBHelperClient.convert(hsp);
+    hs.makeQualified(BASEURI, BASEPATH);
+    ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(1024);
+    try (ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(baos)) {
+      oos.writeObject(hs);
+    }
+    ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream(baos.toByteArray());
+    try (ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(bais)) {
+      FileStatus deser = (FileStatus) ois.readObject();
+      assertEquals(hs, deser);
+      checkFields(hs, deser);
+    }
+  }
 
   @Test
   public void testCrossSerializationProto() throws Exception {
-    FsPermission perm = FsPermission.getFileDefault();
     for (FileType t : FileType.values()) {
-      HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder hspb = HdfsFileStatusProto.newBuilder()
-          .setFileType(t)
-          .setPath(ByteString.copyFromUtf8("hdfs://foobar/dingos"))
-          .setLength(4344)
-          .setPermission(PBHelperClient.convert(perm))
-          .setOwner("hadoop")
-          .setGroup("unqbbc")
-          .setModificationTime(12345678L)
-          .setAccessTime(87654321L)
-          .setBlockReplication(10)
-          .setBlocksize(1L << 33);
+      HdfsFileStatusProto.Builder hspb = baseStatus()
+          .setFileType(t);
       if (FileType.IS_SYMLINK.equals(t)) {
         hspb.setSymlink(ByteString.copyFromUtf8("hdfs://yaks/dingos"));
       }
@@ -146,7 +168,9 @@ public class TestFileStatusSerialization {
       byte[] dst = fsp.toByteArray();
       HdfsFileStatusProto hsp2 = HdfsFileStatusProto.parseFrom(dst);
       assertEquals(hsp, hsp2);
-      checkFields(PBHelperClient.convert(hsp), PBHelperClient.convert(hsp2));
+      FileStatus hstat  = PBHelperClient.convert(hsp);
+      FileStatus hstat2 = PBHelperClient.convert(hsp2);
+      checkFields(hstat, hstat2);
     }
   }
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/d015e0bb/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml
index 8555bd9..d38d3d8 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/test/resources/contract/hdfs.xml
@@ -101,4 +101,14 @@
     <value>true</value>
   </property>
 
-</configuration>
\ No newline at end of file
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.contract.supports-file-reference</name>
+    <value>true</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.contract.supports-content-check</name>
+    <value>false</value>
+  </property>
+
+</configuration>


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