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From lium...@apache.org
Subject [46/50] [abbrv] hadoop git commit: HADOOP-14099 Split S3 testing documentation out into its own file. Contributed by Steve Loughran.
Date Wed, 22 Feb 2017 23:34:32 GMT
HADOOP-14099 Split S3 testing documentation out into its own file. Contributed by Steve Loughran.


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/commit/4f4250fb
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/tree/4f4250fb
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/diff/4f4250fb

Branch: refs/heads/HADOOP-13345
Commit: 4f4250fbccec6fd67a8bb7930f7f9e778a2faa6f
Parents: f1c9caf
Author: Steve Loughran <stevel@apache.org>
Authored: Wed Feb 22 11:43:48 2017 +0000
Committer: Steve Loughran <stevel@apache.org>
Committed: Wed Feb 22 11:43:48 2017 +0000

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 .../src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md | 568 +------------
 .../site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/testing.md   | 814 +++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 844 insertions(+), 538 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/4f4250fb/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md b/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md
index 7815bcf..3e99656 100644
--- a/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md
+++ b/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/index.md
@@ -37,7 +37,12 @@ data between hadoop and other applications via the S3 object store.
 replacement for `s3n:`, this filesystem binding supports larger files and promises
 higher performance.
 
-The specifics of using these filesystems are documented below.
+The specifics of using these filesystems are documented in this section.
+
+
+See also:
+* [Testing](testing.html)
+* [Troubleshooting S3a](troubleshooting_s3a.html)
 
 ### Warning #1: Object Stores are not filesystems
 
@@ -1656,30 +1661,30 @@ $ bin/hadoop fs -ls s3a://frankfurt/
 WARN s3a.S3AFileSystem: Client: Amazon S3 error 400: 400 Bad Request; Bad Request (retryable)
 
 com.amazonaws.services.s3.model.AmazonS3Exception: Bad Request (Service: Amazon S3; Status Code: 400; Error Code: 400 Bad Request; Request ID: 923C5D9E75E44C06), S3 Extended Request ID: HDwje6k+ANEeDsM6aJ8+D5gUmNAMguOk2BvZ8PH3g9z0gpH+IuwT7N19oQOnIr5CIx7Vqb/uThE=
-	at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.handleErrorResponse(AmazonHttpClient.java:1182)
-	at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.executeOneRequest(AmazonHttpClient.java:770)
-	at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.executeHelper(AmazonHttpClient.java:489)
-	at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.execute(AmazonHttpClient.java:310)
-	at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.invoke(AmazonS3Client.java:3785)
-	at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.headBucket(AmazonS3Client.java:1107)
-	at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.doesBucketExist(AmazonS3Client.java:1070)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3a.S3AFileSystem.verifyBucketExists(S3AFileSystem.java:307)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3a.S3AFileSystem.initialize(S3AFileSystem.java:284)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.createFileSystem(FileSystem.java:2793)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.access$200(FileSystem.java:101)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem$Cache.getInternal(FileSystem.java:2830)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem$Cache.get(FileSystem.java:2812)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.get(FileSystem.java:389)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.getFileSystem(Path.java:356)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.PathData.expandAsGlob(PathData.java:325)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.expandArgument(Command.java:235)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.expandArguments(Command.java:218)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.FsCommand.processRawArguments(FsCommand.java:103)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.run(Command.java:165)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsShell.run(FsShell.java:315)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:76)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:90)
-	at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsShell.main(FsShell.java:373)
+    at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.handleErrorResponse(AmazonHttpClient.java:1182)
+    at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.executeOneRequest(AmazonHttpClient.java:770)
+    at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.executeHelper(AmazonHttpClient.java:489)
+    at com.amazonaws.http.AmazonHttpClient.execute(AmazonHttpClient.java:310)
+    at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.invoke(AmazonS3Client.java:3785)
+    at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.headBucket(AmazonS3Client.java:1107)
+    at com.amazonaws.services.s3.AmazonS3Client.doesBucketExist(AmazonS3Client.java:1070)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3a.S3AFileSystem.verifyBucketExists(S3AFileSystem.java:307)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3a.S3AFileSystem.initialize(S3AFileSystem.java:284)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.createFileSystem(FileSystem.java:2793)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.access$200(FileSystem.java:101)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem$Cache.getInternal(FileSystem.java:2830)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem$Cache.get(FileSystem.java:2812)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.get(FileSystem.java:389)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.getFileSystem(Path.java:356)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.PathData.expandAsGlob(PathData.java:325)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.expandArgument(Command.java:235)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.expandArguments(Command.java:218)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.FsCommand.processRawArguments(FsCommand.java:103)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.shell.Command.run(Command.java:165)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsShell.run(FsShell.java:315)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:76)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:90)
+    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FsShell.main(FsShell.java:373)
 ls: doesBucketExist on frankfurt-new: com.amazonaws.services.s3.model.AmazonS3Exception:
   Bad Request (Service: Amazon S3; Status Code: 400; Error Code: 400 Bad Request;
 ```
@@ -1996,516 +2001,3 @@ the DNS TTL of a JVM is "infinity".
 
 To work with AWS better, set the DNS time-to-live of an application which
 works with S3 to something lower. See [AWS documentation](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSSdkDocsJava/latest/DeveloperGuide/java-dg-jvm-ttl.html).
-
-
-## Testing the S3 filesystem clients
-
-This module includes both unit tests, which can run in isolation without
-connecting to the S3 service, and integration tests, which require a working
-connection to S3 to interact with a bucket.  Unit test suites follow the naming
-convention `Test*.java`.  Integration tests follow the naming convention
-`ITest*.java`.
-
-Due to eventual consistency, integration tests may fail without reason.
-Transient failures, which no longer occur upon rerunning the test, should thus
-be ignored.
-
-To integration test the S3* filesystem clients, you need to provide two files
-which pass in authentication details to the test runner.
-
-1. `auth-keys.xml`
-1. `core-site.xml`
-
-These are both Hadoop XML configuration files, which must be placed into
-`hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/test/resources`.
-
-### `core-site.xml`
-
-This file pre-exists and sources the configurations created
-under `auth-keys.xml`.
-
-For most purposes you will not need to edit this file unless you
-need to apply a specific, non-default property change during the tests.
-
-### `auth-keys.xml`
-
-The presence of this file triggers the testing of the S3 classes.
-
-Without this file, *none of the integration tests in this module will be
-executed*.
-
-The XML file must contain all the ID/key information needed to connect
-each of the filesystem clients to the object stores, and a URL for
-each filesystem for its testing.
-
-1. `test.fs.s3n.name` : the URL of the bucket for S3n tests
-1. `test.fs.s3a.name` : the URL of the bucket for S3a tests
-
-The contents of each bucket will be destroyed during the test process:
-do not use the bucket for any purpose other than testing. Furthermore, for
-s3a, all in-progress multi-part uploads to the bucket will be aborted at the
-start of a test (by forcing `fs.s3a.multipart.purge=true`) to clean up the
-temporary state of previously failed tests.
-
-Example:
-
-    <configuration>
-      
-      <property>
-        <name>test.fs.s3n.name</name>
-        <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
-      </property>
-    
-      <property>
-        <name>test.fs.s3a.name</name>
-        <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
-      </property>
-
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.s3n.awsAccessKeyId</name>
-        <value>DONOTPCOMMITTHISKEYTOSCM</value>
-      </property>
-
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.s3n.awsSecretAccessKey</name>
-        <value>DONOTEVERSHARETHISSECRETKEY!</value>
-      </property>
-
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.s3a.access.key</name>
-        <description>AWS access key ID. Omit for IAM role-based authentication.</description>
-        <value>DONOTCOMMITTHISKEYTOSCM</value>
-      </property>
-  
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.s3a.secret.key</name>
-        <description>AWS secret key. Omit for IAM role-based authentication.</description>
-        <value>DONOTEVERSHARETHISSECRETKEY!</value>
-      </property>
-
-      <property>
-        <name>test.sts.endpoint</name>
-        <description>Specific endpoint to use for STS requests.</description>
-        <value>sts.amazonaws.com</value>
-      </property>
-
-    </configuration>
-
-### File `contract-test-options.xml`
-
-The file `hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`
-must be created and configured for the test filesystems.
-
-If a specific file `fs.contract.test.fs.*` test path is not defined for
-any of the filesystems, those tests will be skipped.
-
-The standard S3 authentication details must also be provided. This can be
-through copy-and-paste of the `auth-keys.xml` credentials, or it can be
-through direct XInclude inclusion.
-
-### s3n://
-
-
-In the file `src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`, the filesystem
-name must be defined in the property `fs.contract.test.fs.s3n`.
-The standard configuration options to define the S3N authentication details
-must also be provided.
-
-Example:
-
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3n</name>
-        <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
-      </property>
-
-### s3a://
-
-
-In the file `src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`, the filesystem
-name must be defined in the property `fs.contract.test.fs.s3a`.
-The standard configuration options to define the S3N authentication details
-must also be provided.
-
-Example:
-
-    <property>
-      <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3a</name>
-      <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
-    </property>
-
-### Complete example of `contract-test-options.xml`
-
-
-
-    <?xml version="1.0"?>
-    <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
-    <!--
-      ~ Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
-      ~  or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
-      ~  distributed with this work for additional information
-      ~  regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
-      ~  to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
-      ~  "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
-      ~  with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
-      ~
-      ~       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
-      ~
-      ~  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
-      ~  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
-      ~  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
-      ~  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-      ~  limitations under the License.
-      -->
-    
-    <configuration>
-    
-      <include xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
-        href="/home/testuser/.ssh/auth-keys.xml"/>
-    
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3a</name>
-        <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
-      </property>
-
-      <property>
-        <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3n</name>
-        <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
-      </property>
-
-    </configuration>
-
-This example pulls in the `~/.ssh/auth-keys.xml` file for the credentials.
-This provides one single place to keep the keys up to date —and means
-that the file `contract-test-options.xml` does not contain any
-secret credentials itself. As the auth keys XML file is kept out of the
-source code tree, it is not going to get accidentally committed.
-
-### Configuring S3a Encryption
-
-For S3a encryption tests to run correctly, the
-`fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-key` must be configured in the s3a contract xml
-file with a AWS KMS encryption key arn as this value is different for each AWS
-KMS.
-
-Example:
-
-    <property>
-      <name>fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-key</name>
-      <value>arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:360379543683:key/071a86ff-8881-4ba0-9230-95af6d01ca01</value>
-    </property>
-
-You can also force all the tests to run with a specific SSE encryption method
-by configuring the property `fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-algorithm` in the s3a
-contract file.
-
-### Running the Tests
-
-After completing the configuration, execute the test run through Maven.
-
-    mvn clean verify
-
-It's also possible to execute multiple test suites in parallel by passing the
-`parallel-tests` property on the command line.  The tests spend most of their
-time blocked on network I/O with the S3 service, so running in parallel tends to
-complete full test runs faster.
-
-    mvn -Dparallel-tests clean verify
-
-Some tests must run with exclusive access to the S3 bucket, so even with the
-`parallel-tests` property, several test suites will run in serial in a separate
-Maven execution step after the parallel tests.
-
-By default, `parallel-tests` runs 4 test suites concurrently.  This can be tuned
-by passing the `testsThreadCount` property.
-
-    mvn -Dparallel-tests -DtestsThreadCount=8 clean verify
-
-To run just unit tests, which do not require S3 connectivity or AWS credentials,
-use any of the above invocations, but switch the goal to `test` instead of
-`verify`.
-
-    mvn clean test
-
-    mvn -Dparallel-tests clean test
-
-    mvn -Dparallel-tests -DtestsThreadCount=8 clean test
-
-To run only a specific named subset of tests, pass the `test` property for unit
-tests or the `it.test` property for integration tests.
-
-    mvn clean test -Dtest=TestS3AInputPolicies
-
-    mvn clean verify -Dit.test=ITestS3AFileContextStatistics -Dtest=none
-
-    mvn clean verify -Dtest=TestS3A* -Dit.test=ITestS3A*
-
-Note that when running a specific subset of tests, the patterns passed in `test`
-and `it.test` override the configuration of which tests need to run in isolation
-in a separate serial phase (mentioned above).  This can cause unpredictable
-results, so the recommendation is to avoid passing `parallel-tests` in
-combination with `test` or `it.test`.  If you know that you are specifying only
-tests that can run safely in parallel, then it will work.  For wide patterns,
-like `ITestS3A*` shown above, it may cause unpredictable test failures.
-
-### Testing against different regions
-
-S3A can connect to different regions —the tests support this. Simply
-define the target region in `contract-test-options.xml` or any `auth-keys.xml`
-file referenced.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.endpoint</name>
-  <value>s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com</value>
-</property>
-```
-This is used for all tests expect for scale tests using a Public CSV.gz file
-(see below)
-
-### S3A session tests
-
-The test `TestS3ATemporaryCredentials` requests a set of temporary
-credentials from the STS service, then uses them to authenticate with S3.
-
-If an S3 implementation does not support STS, then the functional test
-cases must be disabled:
-
-        <property>
-          <name>test.fs.s3a.sts.enabled</name>
-          <value>false</value>
-        </property>
-
-These tests reqest a temporary set of credentials from the STS service endpoint.
-An alternate endpoint may be defined in `test.fs.s3a.sts.endpoint`.
-
-        <property>
-          <name>test.fs.s3a.sts.endpoint</name>
-          <value>https://sts.example.org/</value>
-        </property>
-
-The default is ""; meaning "use the amazon default value".
-
-### CSV Data source Tests
-
-The `TestS3AInputStreamPerformance` tests require read access to a multi-MB
-text file. The default file for these tests is one published by amazon,
-[s3a://landsat-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/scene_list.gz](http://landsat-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/scene_list.gz).
-This is a gzipped CSV index of other files which amazon serves for open use.
-
-The path to this object is set in the option `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile`,
-
-    <property>
-      <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile</name>
-      <value>s3a://landsat-pds/scene_list.gz</value>
-    </property>
-
-1. If the option is not overridden, the default value is used. This
-is hosted in Amazon's US-east datacenter.
-1. If `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` is empty, tests which require it will be skipped.
-1. If the data cannot be read for any reason then the test will fail.
-1. If the property is set to a different path, then that data must be readable
-and "sufficiently" large.
-
-(the reason the space or newline is needed is to add "an empty entry"; an empty
-`<value/>` would be considered undefined and pick up the default)
-
-Of using a test file in an S3 region requiring a different endpoint value
-set in `fs.s3a.endpoint`, a bucket-specific endpoint must be defined.
-For the default test dataset, hosted in the `landsat-pds` bucket, this is:
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.bucket.landsat-pds.endpoint</name>
-  <value>s3.amazonaws.com</value>
-  <description>The endpoint for s3a://landsat-pds URLs</description>
-</property>
-```
-
-To test on alternate infrastructures supporting
-the same APIs, the option `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` must either be
-set to " ", or an object of at least 10MB is uploaded to the object store, and
-the `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` option set to its path.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile</name>
-  <value> </value>
-</property>
-```
-
-### Viewing Integration Test Reports
-
-
-Integration test results and logs are stored in `target/failsafe-reports/`.
-An HTML report can be generated during site generation, or with the `surefire-report`
-plugin:
-
-```
-mvn surefire-report:failsafe-report-only
-```
-### Scale Tests
-
-There are a set of tests designed to measure the scalability and performance
-at scale of the S3A tests, *Scale Tests*. Tests include: creating
-and traversing directory trees, uploading large files, renaming them,
-deleting them, seeking through the files, performing random IO, and others.
-This makes them a foundational part of the benchmarking.
-
-By their very nature they are slow. And, as their execution time is often
-limited by bandwidth between the computer running the tests and the S3 endpoint,
-parallel execution does not speed these tests up.
-
-#### Enabling the Scale Tests
-
-The tests are enabled if the `scale` property is set in the maven build
-this can be done regardless of whether or not the parallel test profile
-is used
-
-```bash
-mvn verify -Dscale
-
-mvn verify -Dparallel-tests -Dscale -DtestsThreadCount=8
-```
-
-The most bandwidth intensive tests (those which upload data) always run
-sequentially; those which are slow due to HTTPS setup costs or server-side
-actionsare included in the set of parallelized tests.
-
-
-#### Maven build tuning options
-
-
-Some of the tests can be tuned from the maven build or from the
-configuration file used to run the tests.
-
-```bash
-mvn verify -Dscale -Dfs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize=128M
-```
-
-The algorithm is
-
-1. The value is queried from the configuration file, using a default value if
-it is not set.
-1. The value is queried from the JVM System Properties, where it is passed
-down by maven.
-1. If the system property is null, empty, or it has the value `unset`, then
-the configuration value is used. The `unset` option is used to
-[work round a quirk in maven property propagation](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7773134/null-versus-empty-arguments-in-maven).
-
-Only a few properties can be set this way; more will be added.
-
-| Property | Meaninging |
-|-----------|-------------|
-| `fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout`| Timeout in seconds for scale tests |
-| `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize`| Size for huge file uploads |
-| `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.huge.partitionsize`| Size for partitions in huge file uploads |
-
-The file and partition sizes are numeric values with a k/m/g/t/p suffix depending
-on the desired size. For example: 128M, 128m, 2G, 2G, 4T or even 1P.
-
-#### Scale test configuration options
-
-Some scale tests perform multiple operations (such as creating many directories).
-
-The exact number of operations to perform is configurable in the option
-`scale.test.operation.count`
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>scale.test.operation.count</name>
-  <value>10</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-Larger values generate more load, and are recommended when testing locally,
-or in batch runs.
-
-Smaller values results in faster test runs, especially when the object
-store is a long way away.
-
-Operations which work on directories have a separate option: this controls
-the width and depth of tests creating recursive directories. Larger
-values create exponentially more directories, with consequent performance
-impact.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>scale.test.directory.count</name>
-  <value>2</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-DistCp tests targeting S3A support a configurable file size.  The default is
-10 MB, but the configuration value is expressed in KB so that it can be tuned
-smaller to achieve faster test runs.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>scale.test.distcp.file.size.kb</name>
-  <value>10240</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-S3A specific scale test properties are
-
-##### `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize`: size in MB for "Huge file tests".
-
-The Huge File tests validate S3A's ability to handle large files —the property
-`fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize` declares the file size to use.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize</name>
-  <value>200M</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-Amazon S3 handles files larger than 5GB differently than smaller ones.
-Setting the huge filesize to a number greater than that) validates support
-for huge files.
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize</name>
-  <value>6G</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-Tests at this scale are slow: they are best executed from hosts running in
-the cloud infrastructure where the S3 endpoint is based.
-Otherwise, set a large timeout in `fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout`
-
-```xml
-<property>
-  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout</name>
-  <value>432000</value>
-</property>
-```
-
-
-The tests are executed in an order to only clean up created files after
-the end of all the tests. If the tests are interrupted, the test data will remain.
-
-
-
-### Testing against non AWS S3 endpoints.
-
-The S3A filesystem is designed to work with storage endpoints which implement
-the S3 protocols to the extent that the amazon S3 SDK is capable of talking
-to it. We encourage testing against other filesystems and submissions of patches
-which address issues. In particular, we encourage testing of Hadoop release
-candidates, as these third-party endpoints get even less testing than the
-S3 endpoint itself.
-
-
-**Disabling the encryption tests**
-
-If the endpoint doesn't support server-side-encryption, these will fail
-
-      <property>
-        <name>test.fs.s3a.encryption.enabled</name>
-        <value>false</value>
-      </property>
-
-Encryption is only used for those specific test suites with `Encryption` in
-their classname.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/4f4250fb/hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/site/markdown/tools/hadoop-aws/testing.md
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@@ -0,0 +1,814 @@
+<!---
+  Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
+  you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License. See accompanying LICENSE file.
+-->
+
+# Testing the S3 filesystem clients
+
+<!-- MACRO{toc|fromDepth=0|toDepth=5} -->
+
+This module includes both unit tests, which can run in isolation without
+connecting to the S3 service, and integration tests, which require a working
+connection to S3 to interact with a bucket.  Unit test suites follow the naming
+convention `Test*.java`.  Integration tests follow the naming convention
+`ITest*.java`.
+
+Due to eventual consistency, integration tests may fail without reason.
+Transient failures, which no longer occur upon rerunning the test, should thus
+be ignored.
+
+## Policy for submitting patches which affect the `hadoop-aws` module.
+
+The Apache Jenkins infrastucture does not run any S3 integration tests,
+due to the need to keep credentials secure.
+
+### The submitter of any patch is required to run all the integration tests and declare which S3 region/implementation they used.
+
+This is important: **patches which do not include this declaration will be ignored**
+
+This policy has proven to be the only mechanism to guarantee full regression
+testing of code changes. Why the declaration of region? Two reasons
+
+1. It helps us identify regressions which only surface against specific endpoints
+or third-party implementations of the S3 protocol.
+1. It forces the submitters to be more honest about their testing. It's easy
+to lie, "yes, I tested this". To say "yes, I tested this against S3 US-west"
+is a more specific lie and harder to make. And, if you get caught out: you
+lose all credibility with the project.
+
+You don't need to test from a VM within the AWS infrastructure; with the
+`-Dparallel=tests` option the non-scale tests complete in under ten minutes.
+Because the tests clean up after themselves, they are also designed to be low
+cost. It's neither hard nor expensive to run the tests; if you can't,
+there's no guarantee your patch works. The reviewers have enough to do, and
+don't have the time to do these tests, especially as every failure will simply
+make for a slow iterative development.
+
+Please: run the tests. And if you don't, we are sorry for declining your
+patch, but we have to.
+
+
+### What if there's an intermittent failure of a test?
+
+Some of the tests do fail intermittently, especially in parallel runs.
+If this happens, try to run the test on its own to see if the test succeeds.
+
+If it still fails, include this fact in your declaration. We know some tests
+are intermittently unreliable.
+
+### What if the tests are timing out or failing over my network connection?
+
+The tests and the S3A client are designed to be configurable for different
+timeouts. If you are seeing problems and this configuration isn't working,
+that's a sign of the configuration mechanism isn't complete. If it's happening
+in the production code, that could be a sign of a problem which may surface
+over long-haul connections. Please help us identify and fix these problems
+&mdash; especially as you are the one best placed to verify the fixes work.
+
+## Setting up the tests
+
+To integration test the S3* filesystem clients, you need to provide two files
+which pass in authentication details to the test runner.
+
+1. `auth-keys.xml`
+1. `contract-test-options.xml`
+
+These are both Hadoop XML configuration files, which must be placed into
+`hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/test/resources`.
+
+### File `core-site.xml`
+
+This file pre-exists and sources the configurations created
+under `auth-keys.xml`.
+
+For most purposes you will not need to edit this file unless you
+need to apply a specific, non-default property change during the tests.
+
+### File `auth-keys.xml`
+
+The presence of this file triggers the testing of the S3 classes.
+
+Without this file, *none of the integration tests in this module will be
+executed*.
+
+The XML file must contain all the ID/key information needed to connect
+each of the filesystem clients to the object stores, and a URL for
+each filesystem for its testing.
+
+1. `test.fs.s3n.name` : the URL of the bucket for S3n tests
+1. `test.fs.s3a.name` : the URL of the bucket for S3a tests
+
+The contents of each bucket will be destroyed during the test process:
+do not use the bucket for any purpose other than testing. Furthermore, for
+s3a, all in-progress multi-part uploads to the bucket will be aborted at the
+start of a test (by forcing `fs.s3a.multipart.purge=true`) to clean up the
+temporary state of previously failed tests.
+
+Example:
+
+```xml
+<configuration>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>test.fs.s3n.name</name>
+    <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>test.fs.s3a.name</name>
+    <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.s3n.awsAccessKeyId</name>
+    <value>DONOTPCOMMITTHISKEYTOSCM</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.s3n.awsSecretAccessKey</name>
+    <value>DONOTEVERSHARETHISSECRETKEY!</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.s3a.access.key</name>
+    <description>AWS access key ID. Omit for IAM role-based authentication.</description>
+    <value>DONOTCOMMITTHISKEYTOSCM</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.s3a.secret.key</name>
+    <description>AWS secret key. Omit for IAM role-based authentication.</description>
+    <value>DONOTEVERSHARETHISSECRETKEY!</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>test.sts.endpoint</name>
+    <description>Specific endpoint to use for STS requests.</description>
+    <value>sts.amazonaws.com</value>
+  </property>
+
+</configuration>
+```
+
+### File `contract-test-options.xml`
+
+The file `hadoop-tools/hadoop-aws/src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`
+must be created and configured for the test filesystems.
+
+If a specific file `fs.contract.test.fs.*` test path is not defined for
+any of the filesystems, those tests will be skipped.
+
+The standard S3 authentication details must also be provided. This can be
+through copy-and-paste of the `auth-keys.xml` credentials, or it can be
+through direct XInclude inclusion.
+
+Here is an an example `contract-test-options.xml` which places all test options
+into the `auth-keys.xml` file, so offering a single place to keep credentials
+and define test endpoint bindings.
+
+```xml
+<configuration>
+  <include xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
+    href="auth-keys.xml"/>
+</configuration>
+```
+
+### s3n://
+
+
+In the file `src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`, the filesystem
+name must be defined in the property `fs.contract.test.fs.s3n`.
+The standard configuration options to define the S3N authentication details
+must also be provided.
+
+Example:
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3n</name>
+  <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+### s3a://
+
+
+In the file `src/test/resources/contract-test-options.xml`, the filesystem
+name must be defined in the property `fs.contract.test.fs.s3a`.
+The standard configuration options to define the S3N authentication details
+must also be provided.
+
+Example:
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3a</name>
+  <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+### Complete example of `contract-test-options.xml`
+
+
+```xml
+<?xml version="1.0"?>
+<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
+<!---
+  Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
+  you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License. See accompanying LICENSE file.
+-->
+
+<configuration>
+
+  <include xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
+  href="auth-keys.xml"/>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3a</name>
+    <value>s3a://test-aws-s3a/</value>
+  </property>
+
+  <property>
+    <name>fs.contract.test.fs.s3n</name>
+    <value>s3n://test-aws-s3n/</value>
+  </property>
+
+</configuration>
+```
+
+This example pulls in the `auth-keys.xml` file for the credentials.
+This provides one single place to keep the keys up to date —and means
+that the file `contract-test-options.xml` does not contain any
+secret credentials itself. As the auth keys XML file is kept out of the
+source code tree, it is not going to get accidentally committed.
+
+### Configuring S3a Encryption
+
+For S3a encryption tests to run correctly, the
+`fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-key` must be configured in the s3a contract xml
+file with a AWS KMS encryption key arn as this value is different for each AWS
+KMS.
+
+Example:
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-key</name>
+  <value>arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:360379543683:key/071a86ff-8881-4ba0-9230-95af6d01ca01</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+You can also force all the tests to run with a specific SSE encryption method
+by configuring the property `fs.s3a.server-side-encryption-algorithm` in the s3a
+contract file.
+
+## Running the Tests
+
+After completing the configuration, execute the test run through Maven.
+
+```bash
+mvn clean verify
+```
+
+It's also possible to execute multiple test suites in parallel by passing the
+`parallel-tests` property on the command line.  The tests spend most of their
+time blocked on network I/O with the S3 service, so running in parallel tends to
+complete full test runs faster.
+
+```bash
+mvn -Dparallel-tests clean verify
+```
+
+Some tests must run with exclusive access to the S3 bucket, so even with the
+`parallel-tests` property, several test suites will run in serial in a separate
+Maven execution step after the parallel tests.
+
+By default, `parallel-tests` runs 4 test suites concurrently.  This can be tuned
+by passing the `testsThreadCount` property.
+
+```bash
+mvn -Dparallel-tests -DtestsThreadCount=8 clean verify
+```
+
+To run just unit tests, which do not require S3 connectivity or AWS credentials,
+use any of the above invocations, but switch the goal to `test` instead of
+`verify`.
+
+```bash
+mvn clean test
+
+mvn -Dparallel-tests clean test
+
+mvn -Dparallel-tests -DtestsThreadCount=8 clean test
+```
+
+To run only a specific named subset of tests, pass the `test` property for unit
+tests or the `it.test` property for integration tests.
+
+```bash
+mvn clean test -Dtest=TestS3AInputPolicies
+
+mvn clean verify -Dit.test=ITestS3AFileContextStatistics -Dtest=none
+
+mvn clean verify -Dtest=TestS3A* -Dit.test=ITestS3A*
+```
+
+Note that when running a specific subset of tests, the patterns passed in `test`
+and `it.test` override the configuration of which tests need to run in isolation
+in a separate serial phase (mentioned above).  This can cause unpredictable
+results, so the recommendation is to avoid passing `parallel-tests` in
+combination with `test` or `it.test`.  If you know that you are specifying only
+tests that can run safely in parallel, then it will work.  For wide patterns,
+like `ITestS3A*` shown above, it may cause unpredictable test failures.
+
+### Testing against different regions
+
+S3A can connect to different regions —the tests support this. Simply
+define the target region in `contract-test-options.xml` or any `auth-keys.xml`
+file referenced.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.endpoint</name>
+  <value>s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com</value>
+</property>
+```
+This is used for all tests expect for scale tests using a Public CSV.gz file
+(see below)
+
+### CSV Data source Tests
+
+The `TestS3AInputStreamPerformance` tests require read access to a multi-MB
+text file. The default file for these tests is one published by amazon,
+[s3a://landsat-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/scene_list.gz](http://landsat-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/scene_list.gz).
+This is a gzipped CSV index of other files which amazon serves for open use.
+
+The path to this object is set in the option `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile`,
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile</name>
+  <value>s3a://landsat-pds/scene_list.gz</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+1. If the option is not overridden, the default value is used. This
+is hosted in Amazon's US-east datacenter.
+1. If `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` is empty, tests which require it will be skipped.
+1. If the data cannot be read for any reason then the test will fail.
+1. If the property is set to a different path, then that data must be readable
+and "sufficiently" large.
+
+(the reason the space or newline is needed is to add "an empty entry"; an empty
+`<value/>` would be considered undefined and pick up the default)
+
+Of using a test file in an S3 region requiring a different endpoint value
+set in `fs.s3a.endpoint`, a bucket-specific endpoint must be defined.
+For the default test dataset, hosted in the `landsat-pds` bucket, this is:
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.bucket.landsat-pds.endpoint</name>
+  <value>s3.amazonaws.com</value>
+  <description>The endpoint for s3a://landsat-pds URLs</description>
+</property>
+```
+
+### Viewing Integration Test Reports
+
+
+Integration test results and logs are stored in `target/failsafe-reports/`.
+An HTML report can be generated during site generation, or with the `surefire-report`
+plugin:
+
+```bash
+mvn surefire-report:failsafe-report-only
+```
+### Scale Tests
+
+There are a set of tests designed to measure the scalability and performance
+at scale of the S3A tests, *Scale Tests*. Tests include: creating
+and traversing directory trees, uploading large files, renaming them,
+deleting them, seeking through the files, performing random IO, and others.
+This makes them a foundational part of the benchmarking.
+
+By their very nature they are slow. And, as their execution time is often
+limited by bandwidth between the computer running the tests and the S3 endpoint,
+parallel execution does not speed these tests up.
+
+#### Enabling the Scale Tests
+
+The tests are enabled if the `scale` property is set in the maven build
+this can be done regardless of whether or not the parallel test profile
+is used
+
+```bash
+mvn verify -Dscale
+
+mvn verify -Dparallel-tests -Dscale -DtestsThreadCount=8
+```
+
+The most bandwidth intensive tests (those which upload data) always run
+sequentially; those which are slow due to HTTPS setup costs or server-side
+actionsare included in the set of parallelized tests.
+
+
+#### Maven build tuning options
+
+
+Some of the tests can be tuned from the maven build or from the
+configuration file used to run the tests.
+
+```bash
+mvn verify -Dparallel-tests -Dscale -DtestsThreadCount=8 -Dfs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize=128M
+```
+
+The algorithm is
+
+1. The value is queried from the configuration file, using a default value if
+it is not set.
+1. The value is queried from the JVM System Properties, where it is passed
+down by maven.
+1. If the system property is null, an empty string, or it has the value `unset`,
+then the configuration value is used. The `unset` option is used to
+[work round a quirk in maven property propagation](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7773134/null-versus-empty-arguments-in-maven).
+
+Only a few properties can be set this way; more will be added.
+
+| Property | Meaninging |
+|-----------|-------------|
+| `fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout`| Timeout in seconds for scale tests |
+| `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize`| Size for huge file uploads |
+| `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.huge.partitionsize`| Size for partitions in huge file uploads |
+
+The file and partition sizes are numeric values with a k/m/g/t/p suffix depending
+on the desired size. For example: 128M, 128m, 2G, 2G, 4T or even 1P.
+
+#### Scale test configuration options
+
+Some scale tests perform multiple operations (such as creating many directories).
+
+The exact number of operations to perform is configurable in the option
+`scale.test.operation.count`
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>scale.test.operation.count</name>
+  <value>10</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+Larger values generate more load, and are recommended when testing locally,
+or in batch runs.
+
+Smaller values results in faster test runs, especially when the object
+store is a long way away.
+
+Operations which work on directories have a separate option: this controls
+the width and depth of tests creating recursive directories. Larger
+values create exponentially more directories, with consequent performance
+impact.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>scale.test.directory.count</name>
+  <value>2</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+DistCp tests targeting S3A support a configurable file size.  The default is
+10 MB, but the configuration value is expressed in KB so that it can be tuned
+smaller to achieve faster test runs.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>scale.test.distcp.file.size.kb</name>
+  <value>10240</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+S3A specific scale test properties are
+
+##### `fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize`: size in MB for "Huge file tests".
+
+The Huge File tests validate S3A's ability to handle large files —the property
+`fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize` declares the file size to use.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize</name>
+  <value>200M</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+Amazon S3 handles files larger than 5GB differently than smaller ones.
+Setting the huge filesize to a number greater than that) validates support
+for huge files.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.huge.filesize</name>
+  <value>6G</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+Tests at this scale are slow: they are best executed from hosts running in
+the cloud infrastructure where the S3 endpoint is based.
+Otherwise, set a large timeout in `fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout`
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.timeout</name>
+  <value>432000</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+
+The tests are executed in an order to only clean up created files after
+the end of all the tests. If the tests are interrupted, the test data will remain.
+
+
+
+## Testing against non AWS S3 endpoints.
+
+The S3A filesystem is designed to work with storage endpoints which implement
+the S3 protocols to the extent that the amazon S3 SDK is capable of talking
+to it. We encourage testing against other filesystems and submissions of patches
+which address issues. In particular, we encourage testing of Hadoop release
+candidates, as these third-party endpoints get even less testing than the
+S3 endpoint itself.
+
+
+### Disabling the encryption tests
+
+If the endpoint doesn't support server-side-encryption, these will fail. They
+can be turned off.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>test.fs.s3a.encryption.enabled</name>
+  <value>false</value>
+</property>
+```
+
+Encryption is only used for those specific test suites with `Encryption` in
+their classname.
+
+### Configuring the CSV file read tests**
+
+To test on alternate infrastructures supporting
+the same APIs, the option `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` must either be
+set to " ", or an object of at least 10MB is uploaded to the object store, and
+the `fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile` option set to its path.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3a.scale.test.csvfile</name>
+  <value> </value>
+</property>
+```
+
+(yes, the space is necessary. The Hadoop `Configuration` class treats an empty
+value as "do not override the default").
+
+
+### Testing Session Credentials
+
+The test `TestS3ATemporaryCredentials` requests a set of temporary
+credentials from the STS service, then uses them to authenticate with S3.
+
+If an S3 implementation does not support STS, then the functional test
+cases must be disabled:
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>test.fs.s3a.sts.enabled</name>
+  <value>false</value>
+</property>
+```
+These tests reqest a temporary set of credentials from the STS service endpoint.
+An alternate endpoint may be defined in `test.fs.s3a.sts.endpoint`.
+
+```xml
+<property>
+  <name>test.fs.s3a.sts.endpoint</name>
+  <value>https://sts.example.org/</value>
+</property>
+```
+The default is ""; meaning "use the amazon default value".
+
+
+## Debugging Test failures
+
+Logging at debug level is the standard way to provide more diagnostics output;
+after setting this rerun the tests
+
+```properties
+log4j.logger.org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3a=DEBUG
+```
+
+There are also some logging options for debug logging of the AWS client
+```properties
+log4j.logger.com.amazonaws=DEBUG
+log4j.logger.com.amazonaws.http.conn.ssl=INFO
+log4j.logger.com.amazonaws.internal=INFO
+```
+
+There is also the option of enabling logging on a bucket; this could perhaps
+be used to diagnose problems from that end. This isn't something actively
+used, but remains an option. If you are forced to debug this way, consider
+setting the `fs.s3a.user.agent.prefix` to a unique prefix for a specific
+test run, which will enable the specific log entries to be more easily
+located.
+
+## Adding new tests
+
+New tests are always welcome. Bear in mind that we need to keep costs
+and test time down, which is done by
+* Not duplicating tests.
+* Being efficient in your use of Hadoop API calls.
+* Isolating large/slow tests into the "scale" test group.
+* Designing all tests to execute in parallel (where possible).
+* Adding new probes and predicates into existing tests, albeit carefully.
+
+*No duplication*: if an operation is tested elsewhere, don't repeat it. This
+applies as much for metadata operations as it does for bulk IO. If a new
+test case is added which completely obsoletes an existing test, it is OK
+to cut the previous one —after showing that coverage is not worsened.
+
+*Efficient*: prefer the `getFileStatus()` and examining the results, rather than
+call to `exists()`, `isFile()`, etc.
+
+*Isolating Scale tests*. Any S3A test doing large amounts of IO MUST extend the
+class `S3AScaleTestBase`, so only running if `scale` is defined on a build,
+supporting test timeouts configurable by the user. Scale tests should also
+support configurability as to the actual size of objects/number of operations,
+so that behavior at different scale can be verified.
+
+*Designed for parallel execution*. A key need here is for each test suite to work
+on isolated parts of the filesystem. Subclasses of `AbstractS3ATestBase`
+SHOULD use the `path()` method, with a base path of the test suite name, to
+build isolated paths. Tests MUST NOT assume that they have exclusive access
+to a bucket.
+
+*Extending existing tests where appropriate*. This recommendation goes
+against normal testing best practise of "test one thing per method".
+Because it is so slow to create directory trees or upload large files, we do
+not have that luxury. All the tests against real S3 endpoints are integration
+tests where sharing test setup and teardown saves time and money.
+
+A standard way to do this is to extend existing tests with some extra predicates,
+rather than write new tests. When doing this, make sure that the new predicates
+fail with meaningful diagnostics, so any new problems can be easily debugged
+from test logs.
+
+
+### Requirements of new Tests
+
+
+This is what we expect from new tests; they're an extension of the normal
+Hadoop requirements, based on the need to work with remote servers whose
+use requires the presence of secret credentials, where tests may be slow,
+and where finding out why something failed from nothing but the test output
+is critical.
+
+#### Subclasses Existing Shared Base Blasses
+
+Extend `AbstractS3ATestBase` or `AbstractSTestS3AHugeFiles` unless justifiable.
+These set things up for testing against the object stores, provide good threadnames,
+help generate isolated paths, and for `AbstractSTestS3AHugeFiles` subclasses,
+only run if `-Dscale` is set.
+
+Key features of `AbstractS3ATestBase`
+
+* `getFileSystem()` returns the S3A Filesystem bonded to the contract test Filesystem
+defined in `fs.s3a.contract.test`
+* will automatically skip all tests if that URL is unset.
+* Extends  `AbstractFSContractTestBase` and `Assert` for all their methods.
+
+Having shared base classes may help reduce future maintenance too. Please
+use them/
+
+#### Secure
+
+Don't ever log credentials. The credential tests go out of their way to
+not provide meaningful logs or assertion messages precisely to avoid this.
+
+#### Efficient of Time and Money
+
+This means efficient in test setup/teardown, and, ideally, making use of
+existing public datasets to save setup time and tester cost.
+
+Strategies of particular note are:
+
+1. `ITestS3ADirectoryPerformance`: a single test case sets up the directory
+tree then performs different list operations, measuring the time taken.
+1. `AbstractSTestS3AHugeFiles`: marks the test suite as
+`@FixMethodOrder(MethodSorters.NAME_ASCENDING)` then orders the test cases such
+that each test case expects the previous test to have completed (here: uploaded a file,
+renamed a file, ...). This provides for independent tests in the reports, yet still
+permits an ordered sequence of operations. Do note the use of `Assume.assume()`
+to detect when the preconditions for a single test case are not met, hence,
+the tests become skipped, rather than fail with a trace which is really a false alarm.
+
+The ordered test case mechanism of `AbstractSTestS3AHugeFiles` is probably
+the most elegant way of chaining test setup/teardown.
+
+Regarding reusing existing data, we tend to use the landsat archive of
+AWS US-East for our testing of input stream operations. This doesn't work
+against other regions, or with third party S3 implementations. Thus the
+URL can be overridden for testing elsewhere.
+
+
+#### Works With Other S3 Endpoints
+
+Don't assume AWS S3 US-East only, do allow for working with external S3 implementations.
+Those may be behind the latest S3 API features, not support encryption, session
+APIs, etc.
+
+
+### Works Over Long-haul Links
+
+As well as making file size and operation counts scaleable, this includes
+making test timeouts adequate. The Scale tests make this configurable; it's
+hard coded to ten minutes in `AbstractS3ATestBase()`; subclasses can
+change this by overriding `getTestTimeoutMillis()`.
+
+Equally importantly: support proxies, as some testers need them.
+
+
+### Provides Diagnostics and timing information
+
+1. Give threads useful names.
+1. Create logs, log things. Know that the `S3AFileSystem` and its input
+and output streams *all* provide useful statistics in their {{toString()}}
+calls; logging them is useful on its own.
+1. you can use `AbstractS3ATestBase.describe(format-stringm, args)` here.; it
+adds some newlines so as to be easier to spot.
+1. Use `ContractTestUtils.NanoTimer` to measure the duration of operations,
+and log the output.
+
+#### Fails Meaningfully
+
+The `ContractTestUtils` class contains a whole set of assertions for making
+statements about the expected state of a filesystem, e.g.
+`assertPathExists(FS, path)`, `assertPathDoesNotExists(FS, path)`, and others.
+These do their best to provide meaningful diagnostics on failures (e.g. directory
+listings, file status, ...), so help make failures easier to understand.
+
+At the very least, do not use `assertTrue()` or `assertFalse()` without
+including error messages.
+
+
+### Cleans Up Afterwards
+
+Keeps costs down.
+
+1. Do not only cleanup if a test case completes successfully; test suite
+teardown must do it.
+1. That teardown code must check for the filesystem and other fields being
+null before the cleanup. Why? If test setup fails, the teardown methods still
+get called.
+
+### Works Reliably
+
+We really appreciate this &mdash; you will too.
+
+
+## Tips
+
+### How to keep your credentials really safe
+
+Although the `auth-keys.xml` file is marged as ignored in git and subversion,
+it is still in your source tree, and there's always that risk that it may
+creep out.
+
+You can avoid this by keeping your keys outside the source tree and
+using an absolute XInclude reference to it.
+
+```xml
+<configuration>
+
+  <include xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
+    href="file:///users/ubuntu/.auth-keys.xml" />
+
+</configuration>
+```


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