hadoop-common-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From ecl...@apache.org
Subject [14/50] [abbrv] hadoop git commit: HDFS-8974. Convert docs in xdoc format to markdown. Contributed by Masatake Iwasaki.
Date Tue, 15 Sep 2015 19:11:59 GMT
HDFS-8974. Convert docs in xdoc format to markdown. Contributed by Masatake Iwasaki.


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/commit/7b5b2c58
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/tree/7b5b2c58
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/diff/7b5b2c58

Branch: refs/heads/HADOOP-11890
Commit: 7b5b2c5822ac722893ef5db753144f18d5056f5b
Parents: f153710
Author: Akira Ajisaka <aajisaka@apache.org>
Authored: Thu Sep 10 16:45:27 2015 +0900
Committer: Akira Ajisaka <aajisaka@apache.org>
Committed: Thu Sep 10 16:45:27 2015 +0900

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt     |   3 +
 .../src/site/markdown/HdfsRollingUpgrade.md     | 293 +++++++++++++++++
 .../src/site/markdown/HdfsSnapshots.md          | 301 +++++++++++++++++
 .../src/site/xdoc/HdfsRollingUpgrade.xml        | 329 -------------------
 .../hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsSnapshots.xml | 303 -----------------
 5 files changed, 597 insertions(+), 632 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/7b5b2c58/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt
index bbb6066..445c50f 100644
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/CHANGES.txt
@@ -911,6 +911,9 @@ Release 2.8.0 - UNRELEASED
     HDFS-7116. Add a command to get the balancer bandwidth
     (Rakesh R via vinayakumarb)
 
+    HDFS-8974. Convert docs in xdoc format to markdown.
+    (Masatake Iwasaki via aajisaka)
+
   OPTIMIZATIONS
 
     HDFS-8026. Trace FSOutputSummer#writeChecksumChunks rather than

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/7b5b2c58/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsRollingUpgrade.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsRollingUpgrade.md b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsRollingUpgrade.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5415912
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsRollingUpgrade.md
@@ -0,0 +1,293 @@
+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+
+HDFS Rolling Upgrade
+====================
+
+* [Introduction](#Introduction)
+* [Upgrade](#Upgrade)
+    * [Upgrade without Downtime](#Upgrade_without_Downtime)
+        * [Upgrading Non-Federated Clusters](#Upgrading_Non-Federated_Clusters)
+        * [Upgrading Federated Clusters](#Upgrading_Federated_Clusters)
+    * [Upgrade with Downtime](#Upgrade_with_Downtime)
+        * [Upgrading Non-HA Clusters](#Upgrading_Non-HA_Clusters)
+* [Downgrade and Rollback](#Downgrade_and_Rollback)
+* [Downgrade](#Downgrade)
+* [Rollback](#Rollback)
+* [Commands and Startup Options for Rolling Upgrade](#Commands_and_Startup_Options_for_Rolling_Upgrade)
+    * [DFSAdmin Commands](#DFSAdmin_Commands)
+        * [dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade](#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade)
+        * [dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo](#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo)
+        * [dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode](#dfsadmin_-shutdownDatanode)
+    * [NameNode Startup Options](#NameNode_Startup_Options)
+        * [namenode -rollingUpgrade](#namenode_-rollingUpgrade)
+
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+*HDFS rolling upgrade* allows upgrading individual HDFS daemons.
+For examples, the datanodes can be upgraded independent of the namenodes.
+A namenode can be upgraded independent of the other namenodes.
+The namenodes can be upgraded independent of datanods and journal nodes.
+
+
+Upgrade
+-------
+
+In Hadoop v2, HDFS supports highly-available (HA) namenode services and wire compatibility.
+These two capabilities make it feasible to upgrade HDFS without incurring HDFS downtime.
+In order to upgrade a HDFS cluster without downtime, the cluster must be setup with HA.
+
+If there is any new feature which is enabled in new software release, may not work with old software release after upgrade.
+In such cases upgrade should be done by following steps.
+
+1. Disable new feature.
+2. Upgrade the cluster.
+3. Enable the new feature.
+
+Note that rolling upgrade is supported only from Hadoop-2.4.0 onwards.
+
+
+### Upgrade without Downtime
+
+In a HA cluster, there are two or more *NameNodes (NNs)*, many *DataNodes (DNs)*,
+a few *JournalNodes (JNs)* and a few *ZooKeeperNodes (ZKNs)*.
+*JNs* is relatively stable and does not require upgrade when upgrading HDFS in most of the cases.
+In the rolling upgrade procedure described here,
+only *NNs* and *DNs* are considered but *JNs* and *ZKNs* are not.
+Upgrading *JNs* and *ZKNs* may incur cluster downtime.
+
+#### Upgrading Non-Federated Clusters
+
+Suppose there are two namenodes *NN1* and *NN2*,
+where *NN1* and *NN2* are respectively in active and standby states.
+The following are the steps for upgrading a HA cluster:
+
+1. Prepare Rolling Upgrade
+    1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade prepare`](#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade)"
+       to create a fsimage for rollback.
+    1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade query`](#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade)"
+       to check the status of the rollback image.
+       Wait and re-run the command until
+       the "`Proceed with rolling upgrade`" message is shown.
+1. Upgrade Active and Standby *NNs*
+    1. Shutdown and upgrade *NN2*.
+    1. Start *NN2* as standby with the
+       "[`-rollingUpgrade started`](#namenode_-rollingUpgrade)" option.
+    1. Failover from *NN1* to *NN2*
+       so that *NN2* becomes active and *NN1* becomes standby.
+    1. Shutdown and upgrade *NN1*.
+    1. Start *NN1* as standby with the
+       "[`-rollingUpgrade started`](#namenode_-rollingUpgrade)" option.
+1. Upgrade *DNs*
+    1. Choose a small subset of datanodes (e.g. all datanodes under a particular rack).
+        1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT> upgrade`](#dfsadmin_-shutdownDatanode)"
+           to shutdown one of the chosen datanodes.
+        1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT>`](#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo)"
+           to check and wait for the datanode to shutdown.
+        1. Upgrade and restart the datanode.
+        1. Perform the above steps for all the chosen datanodes in the subset in parallel.
+    1. Repeat the above steps until all datanodes in the cluster are upgraded.
+1. Finalize Rolling Upgrade
+    1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade finalize`](#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade)"
+       to finalize the rolling upgrade.
+
+
+#### Upgrading Federated Clusters
+
+In a federated cluster, there are multiple namespaces
+and a pair of active and standby *NNs* for each namespace.
+The procedure for upgrading a federated cluster is similar to upgrading a non-federated cluster
+except that Step 1 and Step 4 are performed on each namespace
+and Step 2 is performed on each pair of active and standby *NNs*, i.e.
+
+1. Prepare Rolling Upgrade for Each Namespace
+1. Upgrade Active and Standby *NN* pairs for Each Namespace
+1. Upgrade *DNs*
+1. Finalize Rolling Upgrade for Each Namespace
+
+
+### Upgrade with Downtime
+
+For non-HA clusters,
+it is impossible to upgrade HDFS without downtime since it requires restarting the namenodes.
+However, datanodes can still be upgraded in a rolling manner.
+
+
+#### Upgrading Non-HA Clusters
+
+In a non-HA cluster, there are a *NameNode (NN)*, a *SecondaryNameNode (SNN)*
+and many *DataNodes (DNs)*.
+The procedure for upgrading a non-HA cluster is similar to upgrading a HA cluster
+except that Step 2 "Upgrade Active and Standby *NNs*" is changed to below:
+
+* Upgrade *NN* and *SNN*
+    1. Shutdown *SNN*
+    1. Shutdown and upgrade *NN*.
+    1. Start *NN* with the
+       "[`-rollingUpgrade started`](#namenode_-rollingUpgrade)" option.
+    1. Upgrade and restart *SNN*
+
+
+Downgrade and Rollback
+----------------------
+
+When the upgraded release is undesirable
+or, in some unlikely case, the upgrade fails (due to bugs in the newer release),
+administrators may choose to downgrade HDFS back to the pre-upgrade release,
+or rollback HDFS to the pre-upgrade release and the pre-upgrade state.
+
+Note that downgrade can be done in a rolling fashion but rollback cannot.
+Rollback requires cluster downtime.
+
+Note also that downgrade and rollback are possible only after a rolling upgrade is started and
+before the upgrade is terminated.
+An upgrade can be terminated by either finalize, downgrade or rollback.
+Therefore, it may not be possible to perform rollback after finalize or downgrade,
+or to perform downgrade after finalize.
+
+
+Downgrade
+---------
+
+*Downgrade* restores the software back to the pre-upgrade release
+and preserves the user data.
+Suppose time *T* is the rolling upgrade start time and the upgrade is terminated by downgrade.
+Then, the files created before or after *T* remain available in HDFS.
+The files deleted before or after *T* remain deleted in HDFS.
+
+A newer release is downgradable to the pre-upgrade release
+only if both the namenode layout version and the datenode layout version
+are not changed between these two releases.
+
+In a HA cluster,
+when a rolling upgrade from an old software release to a new software release is in progress,
+it is possible to downgrade, in a rolling fashion, the upgraded machines back to the old software release.
+Same as before, suppose *NN1* and *NN2* are respectively in active and standby states.
+Below are the steps for rolling downgrade without downtime:
+
+1. Downgrade *DNs*
+    1. Choose a small subset of datanodes (e.g. all datanodes under a particular rack).
+        1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT> upgrade`](#dfsadmin_-shutdownDatanode)"
+           to shutdown one of the chosen datanodes.
+        1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT>`](#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo)"
+           to check and wait for the datanode to shutdown.
+        1. Downgrade and restart the datanode.
+        1. Perform the above steps for all the chosen datanodes in the subset in parallel.
+    1. Repeat the above steps until all upgraded datanodes in the cluster are downgraded.
+1. Downgrade Active and Standby *NNs*
+    1. Shutdown and downgrade *NN2*.
+    1. Start *NN2* as standby normally.
+    1. Failover from *NN1* to *NN2*
+       so that *NN2* becomes active and *NN1* becomes standby.
+    1. Shutdown and upgrade *NN1*.
+    1. Start *NN1* as standby normally.
+1. Finalize Rolling Downgrade
+    1. Run "[`hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade finalize`](#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade)"
+       to finalize the rolling downgrade.
+
+Note that the datanodes must be downgraded before downgrading the namenodes
+since protocols may be changed in a backward compatible manner but not forward compatible,
+i.e. old datanodes can talk to the new namenodes but not vice versa.
+
+
+Rollback
+--------
+
+*Rollback* restores the software back to the pre-upgrade release
+but also reverts the user data back to the pre-upgrade state.
+Suppose time *T* is the rolling upgrade start time and the upgrade is terminated by rollback.
+The files created before *T* remain available in HDFS but the files created after *T* become unavailable.
+The files deleted before *T* remain deleted in HDFS but the files deleted after *T* are restored.
+
+Rollback from a newer release to the pre-upgrade release is always supported.
+However, it cannot be done in a rolling fashion.  It requires cluster downtime.
+Suppose *NN1* and *NN2* are respectively in active and standby states.
+Below are the steps for rollback:
+
+* Rollback HDFS
+    1. Shutdown all *NNs* and *DNs*.
+    1. Restore the pre-upgrade release in all machines.
+    1. Start *NN1* as Active with the
+       "[`-rollingUpgrade rollback`](#namenode_-rollingUpgrade)" option.
+    1. Run `-bootstrapStandby' on NN2 and start it normally as standby.
+    1. Start *DNs* with the "`-rollback`" option.
+
+
+Commands and Startup Options for Rolling Upgrade
+------------------------------------------------
+
+### DFSAdmin Commands
+
+#### `dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade`
+
+    hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade <query|prepare|finalize>
+
+Execute a rolling upgrade action.
+
+* Options:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | `query` | Query the current rolling upgrade status. |
+    | `prepare` | Prepare a new rolling upgrade. |
+    | `finalize` | Finalize the current rolling upgrade. |
+
+
+#### `dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo`
+
+    hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT>
+
+Get the information about the given datanode.
+This command can be used for checking if a datanode is alive
+like the Unix `ping` command.
+
+
+#### `dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode`
+
+    hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode <DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT> [upgrade]
+
+Submit a shutdown request for the given datanode.
+If the optional `upgrade` argument is specified,
+clients accessing the datanode will be advised to wait for it to restart
+and the fast start-up mode will be enabled.
+When the restart does not happen in time, clients will timeout and ignore the datanode.
+In such case, the fast start-up mode will also be disabled.
+
+Note that the command does not wait for the datanode shutdown to complete.
+The "[`dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo`](#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo)"
+command can be used for checking if the datanode shutdown is completed.
+
+
+### NameNode Startup Options
+
+#### `namenode -rollingUpgrade`
+
+    hdfs namenode -rollingUpgrade <rollback|started>
+
+When a rolling upgrade is in progress,
+the `-rollingUpgrade` namenode startup option is used to specify
+various rolling upgrade options.
+
+* Options:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | `rollback` | Restores the namenode back to the pre-upgrade release but also reverts the user data back to the pre-upgrade state. |
+    | `started` | Specifies a rolling upgrade already started so that the namenode should allow image directories with different layout versions during startup. |
+
+**WARN: downgrade options is obsolete.**
+It is not necessary to start namenode with downgrade options explicitly.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/7b5b2c58/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsSnapshots.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsSnapshots.md b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsSnapshots.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..94a37cd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/markdown/HdfsSnapshots.md
@@ -0,0 +1,301 @@
+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+
+HDFS Snapshots
+==============
+
+* [HDFS Snapshots](#HDFS_Snapshots)
+    * [Overview](#Overview)
+        * [Snapshottable Directories](#Snapshottable_Directories)
+        * [Snapshot Paths](#Snapshot_Paths)
+    * [Upgrading to a version of HDFS with snapshots](#Upgrading_to_a_version_of_HDFS_with_snapshots)
+    * [Snapshot Operations](#Snapshot_Operations)
+        * [Administrator Operations](#Administrator_Operations)
+            * [Allow Snapshots](#Allow_Snapshots)
+            * [Disallow Snapshots](#Disallow_Snapshots)
+        * [User Operations](#User_Operations)
+            * [Create Snapshots](#Create_Snapshots)
+            * [Delete Snapshots](#Delete_Snapshots)
+            * [Rename Snapshots](#Rename_Snapshots)
+            * [Get Snapshottable Directory Listing](#Get_Snapshottable_Directory_Listing)
+            * [Get Snapshots Difference Report](#Get_Snapshots_Difference_Report)
+
+
+Overview
+--------
+
+HDFS Snapshots are read-only point-in-time copies of the file system.
+Snapshots can be taken on a subtree of the file system or the entire file system.
+Some common use cases of snapshots are data backup, protection against user errors
+and disaster recovery.
+
+The implementation of HDFS Snapshots is efficient:
+
+
+* Snapshot creation is instantaneous:
+  the cost is *O(1)* excluding the inode lookup time.
+
+* Additional memory is used only when modifications are made relative to a snapshot:
+  memory usage is *O(M)*,
+  where *M* is the number of modified files/directories.
+
+* Blocks in datanodes are not copied:
+  the snapshot files record the block list and the file size.
+  There is no data copying.
+
+* Snapshots do not adversely affect regular HDFS operations:
+  modifications are recorded in reverse chronological order
+  so that the current data can be accessed directly.
+  The snapshot data is computed by subtracting the modifications
+  from the current data.
+
+
+### Snapshottable Directories
+
+Snapshots can be taken on any directory once the directory has been set as
+*snapshottable*.
+A snapshottable directory is able to accommodate 65,536 simultaneous snapshots.
+There is no limit on the number of snapshottable directories.
+Administrators may set any directory to be snapshottable.
+If there are snapshots in a snapshottable directory,
+the directory can be neither deleted nor renamed
+before all the snapshots are deleted.
+
+Nested snapshottable directories are currently not allowed.
+In other words, a directory cannot be set to snapshottable
+if one of its ancestors/descendants is a snapshottable directory.
+
+
+### Snapshot Paths
+
+For a snapshottable directory,
+the path component *".snapshot"* is used for accessing its snapshots.
+Suppose `/foo` is a snapshottable directory,
+`/foo/bar` is a file/directory in `/foo`,
+and `/foo` has a snapshot `s0`.
+Then, the path `/foo/.snapshot/s0/bar`
+refers to the snapshot copy of `/foo/bar`.
+The usual API and CLI can work with the ".snapshot" paths.
+The following are some examples.
+
+* Listing all the snapshots under a snapshottable directory:
+
+        hdfs dfs -ls /foo/.snapshot
+
+* Listing the files in snapshot `s0`:
+
+        hdfs dfs -ls /foo/.snapshot/s0
+
+* Copying a file from snapshot `s0`:
+
+        hdfs dfs -cp -ptopax /foo/.snapshot/s0/bar /tmp
+
+    Note that this example uses the preserve option to preserve
+    timestamps, ownership, permission, ACLs and XAttrs.
+
+
+Upgrading to a version of HDFS with snapshots
+---------------------------------------------
+
+The HDFS snapshot feature introduces a new reserved path name used to
+interact with snapshots: `.snapshot`. When upgrading from an
+older version of HDFS, existing paths named `.snapshot` need
+to first be renamed or deleted to avoid conflicting with the reserved path.
+See the upgrade section in
+[the HDFS user guide](HdfsUserGuide.html#Upgrade_and_Rollback)
+for more information.
+
+
+Snapshot Operations
+-------------------
+
+
+### Administrator Operations
+
+The operations described in this section require superuser privilege.
+
+
+#### Allow Snapshots
+
+
+Allowing snapshots of a directory to be created.
+If the operation completes successfully, the directory becomes snapshottable.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs dfsadmin -allowSnapshot <path>
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`void allowSnapshot(Path path)` in `HdfsAdmin`.
+
+
+#### Disallow Snapshots
+
+Disallowing snapshots of a directory to be created.
+All snapshots of the directory must be deleted before disallowing snapshots.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs dfsadmin -disallowSnapshot <path>
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`void disallowSnapshot(Path path)` in `HdfsAdmin`.
+
+
+### User Operations
+
+The section describes user operations.
+Note that HDFS superuser can perform all the operations
+without satisfying the permission requirement in the individual operations.
+
+
+#### Create Snapshots
+
+Create a snapshot of a snapshottable directory.
+This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs dfs -createSnapshot <path> [<snapshotName>]
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+    | snapshotName | The snapshot name, which is an optional argument. When it is omitted, a default name is generated using a timestamp with the format `"'s'yyyyMMdd-HHmmss.SSS"`, e.g. `"s20130412-151029.033"`. |
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`Path createSnapshot(Path path)` and
+`Path createSnapshot(Path path, String snapshotName)`
+in [FileSystem](../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html)
+The snapshot path is returned in these methods.
+
+
+#### Delete Snapshots
+
+Delete a snapshot of from a snapshottable directory.
+This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs dfs -deleteSnapshot <path> <snapshotName>
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+    | snapshotName | The snapshot name. |
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`void deleteSnapshot(Path path, String snapshotName)`
+in [FileSystem](../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html).
+
+
+#### Rename Snapshots
+
+Rename a snapshot.
+This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs dfs -renameSnapshot <path> <oldName> <newName>
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+    | oldName | The old snapshot name. |
+    | newName | The new snapshot name. |
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`void renameSnapshot(Path path, String oldName, String newName)`
+in [FileSystem](../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html).
+
+
+#### Get Snapshottable Directory Listing
+
+Get all the snapshottable directories where the current user has permission to take snapshtos.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs lsSnapshottableDir
+
+* Arguments: none
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`SnapshottableDirectoryStatus[] getSnapshottableDirectoryListing()`
+in `DistributedFileSystem`.
+
+
+#### Get Snapshots Difference Report
+
+Get the differences between two snapshots.
+This operation requires read access privilege for all files/directories in both snapshots.
+
+* Command:
+
+        hdfs snapshotDiff <path> <fromSnapshot> <toSnapshot>
+
+* Arguments:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | path | The path of the snapshottable directory. |
+    | fromSnapshot | The name of the starting snapshot. |
+    | toSnapshot | The name of the ending snapshot. |
+
+    Note that snapshotDiff can be used to get the difference report between two snapshots, or between
+    a snapshot and the current status of a directory. Users can use "." to represent the current status.
+
+* Results:
+
+    | --- | --- |
+    | \+  | The file/directory has been created. |
+    | \-  | The file/directory has been deleted. |
+    | M   | The file/directory has been modified. |
+    | R   | The file/directory has been renamed. |
+
+A *RENAME* entry indicates a file/directory has been renamed but
+is still under the same snapshottable directory. A file/directory is
+reported as deleted if it was renamed to outside of the snapshottble directory.
+A file/directory renamed from outside of the snapshottble directory is
+reported as newly created.
+
+The snapshot difference report does not guarantee the same operation sequence.
+For example, if we rename the directory *"/foo"* to *"/foo2"*, and
+then append new data to the file *"/foo2/bar"*, the difference report will
+be:
+
+    R. /foo -> /foo2
+    M. /foo/bar
+
+I.e., the changes on the files/directories under a renamed directory is
+reported using the original path before the rename (*"/foo/bar"* in
+the above example).
+
+See also the corresponding Java API
+`SnapshotDiffReport getSnapshotDiffReport(Path path, String fromSnapshot, String toSnapshot)`
+in `DistributedFileSystem`.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/7b5b2c58/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsRollingUpgrade.xml
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsRollingUpgrade.xml b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsRollingUpgrade.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index f0b0ccf..0000000
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsRollingUpgrade.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,329 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<!--
-  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
-  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
-  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
-  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
-  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
-  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
-
-      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
-
-  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
-  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
-  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
-  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-  limitations under the License.
--->
-<document xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/XDOC/2.0"
-  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
-  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/XDOC/2.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/xdoc-2.0.xsd">
-
-  <properties>
-    <title>HDFS Rolling Upgrade</title>
-  </properties>
-
-  <body>
-
-  <h1>HDFS Rolling Upgrade</h1>
-  <macro name="toc">
-    <param name="section" value="0"/>
-    <param name="fromDepth" value="0"/>
-    <param name="toDepth" value="4"/>
-  </macro>
-
-  <section name="Introduction" id="Introduction">
-  <p>
-    <em>HDFS rolling upgrade</em> allows upgrading individual HDFS daemons.
-    For examples, the datanodes can be upgraded independent of the namenodes.
-    A namenode can be upgraded independent of the other namenodes.
-    The namenodes can be upgraded independent of datanods and journal nodes.
-  </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Upgrade" id="Upgrade">
-  <p>
-    In Hadoop v2, HDFS supports highly-available (HA) namenode services and wire compatibility.
-    These two capabilities make it feasible to upgrade HDFS without incurring HDFS downtime.
-    In order to upgrade a HDFS cluster without downtime, the cluster must be setup with HA.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    If there is any new feature which is enabled in new software release, may not work with old software release after upgrade.
-    In such cases upgrade should be done by following steps.
-  </p>
-  <ol>
-    <li>Disable new feature.</li>
-    <li>Upgrade the cluster.</li>
-    <li>Enable the new feature.</li>
-  </ol>
-  <p>
-    Note that rolling upgrade is supported only from Hadoop-2.4.0 onwards.
-  </p>
-  <subsection name="Upgrade without Downtime" id="UpgradeWithoutDowntime">
-  <p>
-    In a HA cluster, there are two or more <em>NameNodes (NNs)</em>, many <em>DataNodes (DNs)</em>,
-    a few <em>JournalNodes (JNs)</em> and a few <em>ZooKeeperNodes (ZKNs)</em>.
-    <em>JNs</em> is relatively stable and does not require upgrade when upgrading HDFS in most of the cases.
-    In the rolling upgrade procedure described here,
-    only <em>NNs</em> and <em>DNs</em> are considered but <em>JNs</em> and <em>ZKNs</em> are not.
-    Upgrading <em>JNs</em> and <em>ZKNs</em> may incur cluster downtime.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Upgrading Non-Federated Clusters</h4>
-  <p>
-    Suppose there are two namenodes <em>NN1</em> and <em>NN2</em>,
-    where <em>NN1</em> and <em>NN2</em> are respectively in active and standby states.
-    The following are the steps for upgrading a HA cluster:
-  </p>
-  <ol>
-    <li>Prepare Rolling Upgrade<ol>
-      <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade">hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade prepare</a></code>"
-        to create a fsimage for rollback.
-      </li>
-      <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade">hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade query</a></code>"
-        to check the status of the rollback image.
-        Wait and re-run the command until
-        the "<tt>Proceed with rolling upgrade</tt>" message is shown.
-      </li>
-    </ol></li>
-    <li>Upgrade Active and Standby <em>NNs</em><ol>
-      <li>Shutdown and upgrade <em>NN2</em>.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN2</em> as standby with the
-        "<a href="#namenode_-rollingUpgrade"><code>-rollingUpgrade started</code></a>" option.</li>
-      <li>Failover from <em>NN1</em> to <em>NN2</em>
-               so that <em>NN2</em> becomes active and <em>NN1</em> becomes standby.</li>
-      <li>Shutdown and upgrade <em>NN1</em>.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN1</em> as standby with the
-        "<a href="#namenode_-rollingUpgrade"><code>-rollingUpgrade started</code></a>" option.</li>
-    </ol></li>
-    <li>Upgrade <em>DNs</em><ol>
-      <li>Choose a small subset of datanodes (e.g. all datanodes under a particular rack).</li>
-      <ol>
-        <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-shutdownDatanode">hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt; upgrade</a></code>"
-          to shutdown one of the chosen datanodes.</li>
-        <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo">hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt;</a></code>"
-          to check and wait for the datanode to shutdown.</li>
-        <li>Upgrade and restart the datanode.</li>
-        <li>Perform the above steps for all the chosen datanodes in the subset in parallel.</li>
-      </ol>
-      <li>Repeat the above steps until all datanodes in the cluster are upgraded.</li>
-    </ol></li>
-    <li>Finalize Rolling Upgrade<ul>
-      <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade">hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade finalize</a></code>"
-       to finalize the rolling upgrade.</li>
-    </ul></li>
-  </ol>
-
-  <h4>Upgrading Federated Clusters</h4>
-  <p>
-    In a federated cluster, there are multiple namespaces
-    and a pair of active and standby <em>NNs</em> for each namespace.
-    The procedure for upgrading a federated cluster is similar to upgrading a non-federated cluster
-    except that Step 1 and Step 4 are performed on each namespace
-    and Step 2 is performed on each pair of active and standby <em>NNs</em>, i.e.
-  </p>
-  <ol>
-    <li>Prepare Rolling Upgrade for Each Namespace</li>
-    <li>Upgrade Active and Standby <em>NN</em> pairs for Each Namespace</li>
-    <li>Upgrade <em>DNs</em></li>
-    <li>Finalize Rolling Upgrade for Each Namespace</li>
-  </ol>
-
-  </subsection>
-
-  <subsection name="Upgrade with Downtime" id="UpgradeWithDowntime">
-  <p>
-    For non-HA clusters,
-    it is impossible to upgrade HDFS without downtime since it requires restarting the namenodes.
-    However, datanodes can still be upgraded in a rolling manner.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Upgrading Non-HA Clusters</h4>
-  <p>
-    In a non-HA cluster, there are a <em>NameNode (NN)</em>, a <em>SecondaryNameNode (SNN)</em>
-    and many <em>DataNodes (DNs)</em>.
-    The procedure for upgrading a non-HA cluster is similar to upgrading a HA cluster
-    except that Step 2 "Upgrade Active and Standby <em>NNs</em>" is changed to below:
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Upgrade <em>NN</em> and <em>SNN</em><ol>
-      <li>Shutdown <em>SNN</em></li>
-      <li>Shutdown and upgrade <em>NN</em>.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN</em> with the
-        "<a href="#namenode_-rollingUpgrade"><code>-rollingUpgrade started</code></a>" option.</li>
-      <li>Upgrade and restart <em>SNN</em></li>
-    </ol></li>
-  </ul>
-  </subsection>
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Downgrade and Rollback" id="DowngradeAndRollback">
-  <p>
-    When the upgraded release is undesirable
-    or, in some unlikely case, the upgrade fails (due to bugs in the newer release),
-    administrators may choose to downgrade HDFS back to the pre-upgrade release,
-    or rollback HDFS to the pre-upgrade release and the pre-upgrade state.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    Note that downgrade can be done in a rolling fashion but rollback cannot.
-    Rollback requires cluster downtime.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    Note also that downgrade and rollback are possible only after a rolling upgrade is started and
-    before the upgrade is terminated.
-    An upgrade can be terminated by either finalize, downgrade or rollback.
-    Therefore, it may not be possible to perform rollback after finalize or downgrade,
-    or to perform downgrade after finalize.
-  </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Downgrade" id="Downgrade">
-  <p>
-    <em>Downgrade</em> restores the software back to the pre-upgrade release
-    and preserves the user data.
-    Suppose time <em>T</em> is the rolling upgrade start time and the upgrade is terminated by downgrade.
-    Then, the files created before or after <em>T</em> remain available in HDFS.
-    The files deleted before or after <em>T</em> remain deleted in HDFS.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    A newer release is downgradable to the pre-upgrade release
-    only if both the namenode layout version and the datenode layout version
-    are not changed between these two releases.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    In a HA cluster,
-    when a rolling upgrade from an old software release to a new software release is in progress,
-    it is possible to downgrade, in a rolling fashion, the upgraded machines back to the old software release.
-    Same as before, suppose <em>NN1</em> and <em>NN2</em> are respectively in active and standby states.
-    Below are the steps for rolling downgrade without downtime:
-  </p>
-  <ol>
-    <li>Downgrade <em>DNs</em><ol>
-      <li>Choose a small subset of datanodes (e.g. all datanodes under a particular rack).</li>
-      <ol>
-        <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-shutdownDatanode">hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt; upgrade</a></code>"
-          to shutdown one of the chosen datanodes.</li>
-        <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo">hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt;</a></code>"
-          to check and wait for the datanode to shutdown.</li>
-        <li>Downgrade and restart the datanode.</li>
-        <li>Perform the above steps for all the chosen datanodes in the subset in parallel.</li>
-      </ol>
-      <li>Repeat the above steps until all upgraded datanodes in the cluster are downgraded.</li>
-    </ol></li>
-    <li>Downgrade Active and Standby <em>NNs</em><ol>
-      <li>Shutdown and downgrade <em>NN2</em>.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN2</em> as standby normally.
-      </li>
-      <li>Failover from <em>NN1</em> to <em>NN2</em>
-        so that <em>NN2</em> becomes active and <em>NN1</em> becomes standby.</li>
-      <li>Shutdown and upgrade <em>NN1</em>.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN1</em> as standby normally.
-      </li>
-    </ol></li>
-    <li>Finalize Rolling Downgrade<ul>
-      <li>Run "<code><a href="#dfsadmin_-rollingUpgrade">hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade finalize</a></code>"
-       to finalize the rolling downgrade.</li>
-    </ul></li>
-  </ol>
-  <p>
-    Note that the datanodes must be downgraded before downgrading the namenodes
-    since protocols may be changed in a backward compatible manner but not forward compatible,
-    i.e. old datanodes can talk to the new namenodes but not vice versa.
-  </p>
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Rollback" id="Rollback">
-  <p>
-    <em>Rollback</em> restores the software back to the pre-upgrade release
-    but also reverts the user data back to the pre-upgrade state.
-    Suppose time <em>T</em> is the rolling upgrade start time and the upgrade is terminated by rollback.
-    The files created before <em>T</em> remain available in HDFS but the files created after <em>T</em> become unavailable.
-    The files deleted before <em>T</em> remain deleted in HDFS but the files deleted after <em>T</em> are restored.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    Rollback from a newer release to the pre-upgrade release is always supported.
-    However, it cannot be done in a rolling fashion.  It requires cluster downtime.
-    Suppose <em>NN1</em> and <em>NN2</em> are respectively in active and standby states.
-    Below are the steps for rollback:
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Rollback HDFS<ol>
-      <li>Shutdown all <em>NNs</em> and <em>DNs</em>.</li>
-      <li>Restore the pre-upgrade release in all machines.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>NN1</em> as Active with the
-        "<a href="#namenode_-rollingUpgrade"><code>-rollingUpgrade rollback</code></a>" option.</li>
-      <li>Run `-bootstrapStandby' on NN2 and start it normally as standby.</li>
-      <li>Start <em>DNs</em> with the "<code>-rollback</code>" option.</li>
-    </ol></li>
-  </ul>
-
-  </section>
-  
-  <section name="Commands and Startup Options for Rolling Upgrade" id="dfsadminCommands">
-    
-  <subsection name="DFSAdmin Commands" id="dfsadminCommands">
-  <h4><code>dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade</code></h4>
-  <source>hdfs dfsadmin -rollingUpgrade &lt;query|prepare|finalize&gt;</source>
-  <p>
-    Execute a rolling upgrade action.
-    <ul><li>Options:<table>
-      <tr><td><code>query</code></td><td>Query the current rolling upgrade status.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td><code>prepare</code></td><td>Prepare a new rolling upgrade.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td><code>finalize</code></td><td>Finalize the current rolling upgrade.</td></tr>
-    </table></li></ul>
-  </p>
-
-  <h4><code>dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo</code></h4>
-  <source>hdfs dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt;</source>
-  <p>
-    Get the information about the given datanode.
-    This command can be used for checking if a datanode is alive
-    like the Unix <code>ping</code> command.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4><code>dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode</code></h4>
-  <source>hdfs dfsadmin -shutdownDatanode &lt;DATANODE_HOST:IPC_PORT&gt; [upgrade]</source>
-  <p>
-    Submit a shutdown request for the given datanode.
-    If the optional <code>upgrade</code> argument is specified,
-    clients accessing the datanode will be advised to wait for it to restart
-    and the fast start-up mode will be enabled.
-    When the restart does not happen in time, clients will timeout and ignore the datanode.
-    In such case, the fast start-up mode will also be disabled.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    Note that the command does not wait for the datanode shutdown to complete.
-    The "<a href="#dfsadmin_-getDatanodeInfo">dfsadmin -getDatanodeInfo</a>"
-   command can be used for checking if the datanode shutdown is completed.
-  </p>
-  </subsection>
-
-  <subsection name="NameNode Startup Options" id="dfsadminCommands">
-
-  <h4><code>namenode -rollingUpgrade</code></h4>
-  <source>hdfs namenode -rollingUpgrade &lt;rollback|started&gt;</source>
-  <p>
-    When a rolling upgrade is in progress,
-    the <code>-rollingUpgrade</code> namenode startup option is used to specify
-    various rolling upgrade options.
-  </p>
-    <ul><li>Options:<table>
-      <tr><td><code>rollback</code></td>
-        <td>Restores the namenode back to the pre-upgrade release
-            but also reverts the user data back to the pre-upgrade state.</td>
-      </tr>
-      <tr><td><code>started</code></td>
-        <td>Specifies a rolling upgrade already started
-          so that the namenode should allow image directories
-          with different layout versions during startup.</td>
-      </tr>
-    </table></li></ul>
-  <p>
-    <b>WARN: downgrade options is obsolete.</b>
-      It is not necessary to start namenode with downgrade options explicitly.
-  </p>
-  </subsection>
-
-  </section>
-  </body>
-</document>

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/7b5b2c58/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsSnapshots.xml
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsSnapshots.xml b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsSnapshots.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index 330d00f..0000000
--- a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/site/xdoc/HdfsSnapshots.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,303 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<!--
-  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
-  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
-  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
-  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
-  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
-  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
-
-      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
-
-  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
-  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
-  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
-  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-  limitations under the License.
--->
-<document xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/XDOC/2.0"
-  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
-  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/XDOC/2.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/xdoc-2.0.xsd">
-
-  <properties>
-    <title>HDFS Snapshots</title>
-  </properties>
-
-  <body>
-
-  <h1>HDFS Snapshots</h1>
-  <macro name="toc">
-    <param name="section" value="0"/>
-    <param name="fromDepth" value="0"/>
-    <param name="toDepth" value="4"/>
-  </macro>
-
-  <section name="Overview" id="Overview">
-  <p>
-    HDFS Snapshots are read-only point-in-time copies of the file system.
-    Snapshots can be taken on a subtree of the file system or the entire file system.
-    Some common use cases of snapshots are data backup, protection against user errors
-    and disaster recovery.
-  </p>
-
-  <p>
-    The implementation of HDFS Snapshots is efficient:
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Snapshot creation is instantaneous:
-        the cost is <em>O(1)</em> excluding the inode lookup time.</li>
-    <li>Additional memory is used only when modifications are made relative to a snapshot:
-        memory usage is <em>O(M)</em>,
-        where <em>M</em> is the number of modified files/directories.</li>
-    <li>Blocks in datanodes are not copied:
-        the snapshot files record the block list and the file size.
-        There is no data copying.</li>
-    <li>Snapshots do not adversely affect regular HDFS operations:
-        modifications are recorded in reverse chronological order
-        so that the current data can be accessed directly.
-        The snapshot data is computed by subtracting the modifications
-        from the current data.</li>
-  </ul>
-
-  <subsection name="Snapshottable Directories" id="SnapshottableDirectories">
-  <p>
-    Snapshots can be taken on any directory once the directory has been set as
-    <em>snapshottable</em>.
-    A snapshottable directory is able to accommodate 65,536 simultaneous snapshots.
-    There is no limit on the number of snapshottable directories.
-    Administrators may set any directory to be snapshottable.
-    If there are snapshots in a snapshottable directory,
-    the directory can be neither deleted nor renamed
-    before all the snapshots are deleted.
-  </p>
-
-  <p>
-    Nested snapshottable directories are currently not allowed.
-    In other words, a directory cannot be set to snapshottable
-    if one of its ancestors/descendants is a snapshottable directory.
-  </p>
-
-  </subsection>
-
-  <subsection name="Snapshot Paths" id="SnapshotPaths">
-  <p>
-    For a snapshottable directory,
-    the path component <em>".snapshot"</em> is used for accessing its snapshots.
-    Suppose <code>/foo</code> is a snapshottable directory,
-    <code>/foo/bar</code> is a file/directory in <code>/foo</code>,
-    and <code>/foo</code> has a snapshot <code>s0</code>.
-    Then, the path <source>/foo/.snapshot/s0/bar</source>
-    refers to the snapshot copy of <code>/foo/bar</code>.
-    The usual API and CLI can work with the ".snapshot" paths.
-    The following are some examples.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Listing all the snapshots under a snapshottable directory:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -ls /foo/.snapshot</source></li>
-    <li>Listing the files in snapshot <code>s0</code>:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -ls /foo/.snapshot/s0</source></li>
-    <li>Copying a file from snapshot <code>s0</code>:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -cp -ptopax /foo/.snapshot/s0/bar /tmp</source>
-      <p>Note that this example uses the preserve option to preserve
-         timestamps, ownership, permission, ACLs and XAttrs.</p></li>
-  </ul>
-  </subsection>
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Upgrading to a version of HDFS with snapshots" id="Upgrade">
-
-  <p>
-    The HDFS snapshot feature introduces a new reserved path name used to
-    interact with snapshots: <tt>.snapshot</tt>. When upgrading from an
-    older version of HDFS, existing paths named <tt>.snapshot</tt> need
-    to first be renamed or deleted to avoid conflicting with the reserved path.
-    See the upgrade section in
-    <a href="HdfsUserGuide.html#Upgrade_and_Rollback">the HDFS user guide</a>
-    for more information.  </p>
-
-  </section>
-
-  <section name="Snapshot Operations" id="SnapshotOperations">
-  <subsection name="Administrator Operations" id="AdministratorOperations">
-  <p>
-    The operations described in this section require superuser privilege.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Allow Snapshots</h4>
-  <p>
-    Allowing snapshots of a directory to be created.
-    If the operation completes successfully, the directory becomes snapshottable.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs dfsadmin -allowSnapshot &lt;path&gt;</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>void allowSnapshot(Path path)</code> in <code>HdfsAdmin</code>.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Disallow Snapshots</h4>
-  <p>
-    Disallowing snapshots of a directory to be created.
-    All snapshots of the directory must be deleted before disallowing snapshots.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs dfsadmin -disallowSnapshot &lt;path&gt;</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>void disallowSnapshot(Path path)</code> in <code>HdfsAdmin</code>.
-  </p>
-  </subsection>
-
-  <subsection name="User Operations" id="UserOperations">
-  <p>
-    The section describes user operations.
-    Note that HDFS superuser can perform all the operations
-    without satisfying the permission requirement in the individual operations.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Create Snapshots</h4>
-  <p>
-    Create a snapshot of a snapshottable directory.
-    This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -createSnapshot &lt;path&gt; [&lt;snapshotName&gt;]</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>snapshotName</td><td>
-        The snapshot name, which is an optional argument.
-        When it is omitted, a default name is generated using a timestamp with the format
-        <code>"'s'yyyyMMdd-HHmmss.SSS"</code>, e.g. "s20130412-151029.033".
-      </td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>Path createSnapshot(Path path)</code> and
-    <code>Path createSnapshot(Path path, String snapshotName)</code>
-    in <a href="../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html"><code>FileSystem</code></a>.
-    The snapshot path is returned in these methods.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Delete Snapshots</h4>
-  <p>
-    Delete a snapshot of from a snapshottable directory.
-    This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -deleteSnapshot &lt;path&gt; &lt;snapshotName&gt;</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>snapshotName</td><td>The snapshot name.</td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>void deleteSnapshot(Path path, String snapshotName)</code>
-    in <a href="../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html"><code>FileSystem</code></a>.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Rename Snapshots</h4>
-  <p>
-    Rename a snapshot.
-    This operation requires owner privilege of the snapshottable directory.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs dfs -renameSnapshot &lt;path&gt; &lt;oldName&gt; &lt;newName&gt;</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>oldName</td><td>The old snapshot name.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>newName</td><td>The new snapshot name.</td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>void renameSnapshot(Path path, String oldName, String newName)</code>
-    in <a href="../../api/org/apache/hadoop/fs/FileSystem.html"><code>FileSystem</code></a>.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Get Snapshottable Directory Listing</h4>
-  <p>
-    Get all the snapshottable directories where the current user has permission to take snapshtos.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs lsSnapshottableDir</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments: none</li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>SnapshottableDirectoryStatus[] getSnapshottableDirectoryListing()</code>
-    in <code>DistributedFileSystem</code>.
-  </p>
-
-  <h4>Get Snapshots Difference Report</h4>
-  <p>
-    Get the differences between two snapshots.
-    This operation requires read access privilege for all files/directories in both snapshots.
-  </p>
-  <ul>
-    <li>Command:
-      <source>hdfs snapshotDiff &lt;path&gt; &lt;fromSnapshot&gt; &lt;toSnapshot&gt;</source></li>
-    <li>Arguments:<table>
-      <tr><td>path</td><td>The path of the snapshottable directory.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>fromSnapshot</td><td>The name of the starting snapshot.</td></tr>
-      <tr><td>toSnapshot</td><td>The name of the ending snapshot.</td></tr>
-    </table></li>
-    <p>
-      Note that snapshotDiff can be used to get the difference report between two snapshots, or between
-      a snapshot and the current status of a directory.Users can use "." to represent the current status.
-    </p>
-    <li>Results:
-      <table>
-        <tr><td>+</td><td>The file/directory has been created.</td></tr>
-        <tr><td>-</td><td>The file/directory has been deleted.</td></tr>
-        <tr><td>M</td><td>The file/directory has been modified.</td></tr>
-        <tr><td>R</td><td>The file/directory has been renamed.</td></tr>
-      </table>
-    </li>
-  </ul>
-  <p>
-    A <em>RENAME</em> entry indicates a file/directory has been renamed but
-    is still under the same snapshottable directory. A file/directory is
-    reported as deleted if it was renamed to outside of the snapshottble directory.
-    A file/directory renamed from outside of the snapshottble directory is
-    reported as newly created.
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    The snapshot difference report does not guarantee the same operation sequence.
-    For example, if we rename the directory <em>"/foo"</em> to <em>"/foo2"</em>, and
-    then append new data to the file <em>"/foo2/bar"</em>, the difference report will
-    be:
-    <source>
-    R. /foo -> /foo2
-    M. /foo/bar
-    </source>
-    I.e., the changes on the files/directories under a renamed directory is
-    reported using the original path before the rename (<em>"/foo/bar"</em> in
-    the above example).
-  </p>
-  <p>
-    See also the corresponding Java API
-    <code>SnapshotDiffReport getSnapshotDiffReport(Path path, String fromSnapshot, String toSnapshot)</code>
-    in <code>DistributedFileSystem</code>.
-  </p>
-
-  </subsection>
-  </section>
-
-  </body>
-</document>


Mime
View raw message