hadoop-common-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From cmcc...@apache.org
Subject [06/26] HDFS-7010. boot up libhdfs3 project (cmccabe)
Date Tue, 23 Sep 2014 00:50:22 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/826a4144/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-death-test.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-death-test.cc b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-death-test.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a6023fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-death-test.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,1344 @@
+// Copyright 2005, Google Inc.
+// All rights reserved.
+//
+// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
+// met:
+//
+//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
+// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
+// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
+// distribution.
+//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
+// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
+// this software without specific prior written permission.
+//
+// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
+// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
+// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
+// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
+// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
+// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
+// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
+// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
+// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+//
+// Author: wan@google.com (Zhanyong Wan), vladl@google.com (Vlad Losev)
+//
+// This file implements death tests.
+
+#include "gtest/gtest-death-test.h"
+#include "gtest/internal/gtest-port.h"
+
+#if GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
+
+# if GTEST_OS_MAC
+#  include <crt_externs.h>
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_MAC
+
+# include <errno.h>
+# include <fcntl.h>
+# include <limits.h>
+
+# if GTEST_OS_LINUX
+#  include <signal.h>
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_LINUX
+
+# include <stdarg.h>
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+#  include <windows.h>
+# else
+#  include <sys/mman.h>
+#  include <sys/wait.h>
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+# if GTEST_OS_QNX
+#  include <spawn.h>
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_QNX
+
+#endif  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
+
+#include "gtest/gtest-message.h"
+#include "gtest/internal/gtest-string.h"
+
+// Indicates that this translation unit is part of Google Test's
+// implementation.  It must come before gtest-internal-inl.h is
+// included, or there will be a compiler error.  This trick is to
+// prevent a user from accidentally including gtest-internal-inl.h in
+// his code.
+#define GTEST_IMPLEMENTATION_ 1
+#include "src/gtest-internal-inl.h"
+#undef GTEST_IMPLEMENTATION_
+
+namespace testing {
+
+// Constants.
+
+// The default death test style.
+static const char kDefaultDeathTestStyle[] = "fast";
+
+GTEST_DEFINE_string_(
+    death_test_style,
+    internal::StringFromGTestEnv("death_test_style", kDefaultDeathTestStyle),
+    "Indicates how to run a death test in a forked child process: "
+    "\"threadsafe\" (child process re-executes the test binary "
+    "from the beginning, running only the specific death test) or "
+    "\"fast\" (child process runs the death test immediately "
+    "after forking).");
+
+GTEST_DEFINE_bool_(
+    death_test_use_fork,
+    internal::BoolFromGTestEnv("death_test_use_fork", false),
+    "Instructs to use fork()/_exit() instead of clone() in death tests. "
+    "Ignored and always uses fork() on POSIX systems where clone() is not "
+    "implemented. Useful when running under valgrind or similar tools if "
+    "those do not support clone(). Valgrind 3.3.1 will just fail if "
+    "it sees an unsupported combination of clone() flags. "
+    "It is not recommended to use this flag w/o valgrind though it will "
+    "work in 99% of the cases. Once valgrind is fixed, this flag will "
+    "most likely be removed.");
+
+namespace internal {
+GTEST_DEFINE_string_(
+    internal_run_death_test, "",
+    "Indicates the file, line number, temporal index of "
+    "the single death test to run, and a file descriptor to "
+    "which a success code may be sent, all separated by "
+    "the '|' characters.  This flag is specified if and only if the current "
+    "process is a sub-process launched for running a thread-safe "
+    "death test.  FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.");
+}  // namespace internal
+
+#if GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
+
+namespace internal {
+
+// Valid only for fast death tests. Indicates the code is running in the
+// child process of a fast style death test.
+static bool g_in_fast_death_test_child = false;
+
+// Returns a Boolean value indicating whether the caller is currently
+// executing in the context of the death test child process.  Tools such as
+// Valgrind heap checkers may need this to modify their behavior in death
+// tests.  IMPORTANT: This is an internal utility.  Using it may break the
+// implementation of death tests.  User code MUST NOT use it.
+bool InDeathTestChild() {
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  // On Windows, death tests are thread-safe regardless of the value of the
+  // death_test_style flag.
+  return !GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).empty();
+
+# else
+
+  if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "threadsafe")
+    return !GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).empty();
+  else
+    return g_in_fast_death_test_child;
+#endif
+}
+
+}  // namespace internal
+
+// ExitedWithCode constructor.
+ExitedWithCode::ExitedWithCode(int exit_code) : exit_code_(exit_code) {
+}
+
+// ExitedWithCode function-call operator.
+bool ExitedWithCode::operator()(int exit_status) const {
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  return exit_status == exit_code_;
+
+# else
+
+  return WIFEXITED(exit_status) && WEXITSTATUS(exit_status) == exit_code_;
+
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+}
+
+# if !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+// KilledBySignal constructor.
+KilledBySignal::KilledBySignal(int signum) : signum_(signum) {
+}
+
+// KilledBySignal function-call operator.
+bool KilledBySignal::operator()(int exit_status) const {
+  return WIFSIGNALED(exit_status) && WTERMSIG(exit_status) == signum_;
+}
+# endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+namespace internal {
+
+// Utilities needed for death tests.
+
+// Generates a textual description of a given exit code, in the format
+// specified by wait(2).
+static std::string ExitSummary(int exit_code) {
+  Message m;
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  m << "Exited with exit status " << exit_code;
+
+# else
+
+  if (WIFEXITED(exit_code)) {
+    m << "Exited with exit status " << WEXITSTATUS(exit_code);
+  } else if (WIFSIGNALED(exit_code)) {
+    m << "Terminated by signal " << WTERMSIG(exit_code);
+  }
+#  ifdef WCOREDUMP
+  if (WCOREDUMP(exit_code)) {
+    m << " (core dumped)";
+  }
+#  endif
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  return m.GetString();
+}
+
+// Returns true if exit_status describes a process that was terminated
+// by a signal, or exited normally with a nonzero exit code.
+bool ExitedUnsuccessfully(int exit_status) {
+  return !ExitedWithCode(0)(exit_status);
+}
+
+# if !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+// Generates a textual failure message when a death test finds more than
+// one thread running, or cannot determine the number of threads, prior
+// to executing the given statement.  It is the responsibility of the
+// caller not to pass a thread_count of 1.
+static std::string DeathTestThreadWarning(size_t thread_count) {
+  Message msg;
+  msg << "Death tests use fork(), which is unsafe particularly"
+      << " in a threaded context. For this test, " << GTEST_NAME_ << " ";
+  if (thread_count == 0)
+    msg << "couldn't detect the number of threads.";
+  else
+    msg << "detected " << thread_count << " threads.";
+  return msg.GetString();
+}
+# endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+// Flag characters for reporting a death test that did not die.
+static const char kDeathTestLived = 'L';
+static const char kDeathTestReturned = 'R';
+static const char kDeathTestThrew = 'T';
+static const char kDeathTestInternalError = 'I';
+
+// An enumeration describing all of the possible ways that a death test can
+// conclude.  DIED means that the process died while executing the test
+// code; LIVED means that process lived beyond the end of the test code;
+// RETURNED means that the test statement attempted to execute a return
+// statement, which is not allowed; THREW means that the test statement
+// returned control by throwing an exception.  IN_PROGRESS means the test
+// has not yet concluded.
+// TODO(vladl@google.com): Unify names and possibly values for
+// AbortReason, DeathTestOutcome, and flag characters above.
+enum DeathTestOutcome { IN_PROGRESS, DIED, LIVED, RETURNED, THREW };
+
+// Routine for aborting the program which is safe to call from an
+// exec-style death test child process, in which case the error
+// message is propagated back to the parent process.  Otherwise, the
+// message is simply printed to stderr.  In either case, the program
+// then exits with status 1.
+void DeathTestAbort(const std::string& message) {
+  // On a POSIX system, this function may be called from a threadsafe-style
+  // death test child process, which operates on a very small stack.  Use
+  // the heap for any additional non-minuscule memory requirements.
+  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
+      GetUnitTestImpl()->internal_run_death_test_flag();
+  if (flag != NULL) {
+    FILE* parent = posix::FDOpen(flag->write_fd(), "w");
+    fputc(kDeathTestInternalError, parent);
+    fprintf(parent, "%s", message.c_str());
+    fflush(parent);
+    _exit(1);
+  } else {
+    fprintf(stderr, "%s", message.c_str());
+    fflush(stderr);
+    posix::Abort();
+  }
+}
+
+// A replacement for CHECK that calls DeathTestAbort if the assertion
+// fails.
+# define GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(expression) \
+  do { \
+    if (!::testing::internal::IsTrue(expression)) { \
+      DeathTestAbort( \
+          ::std::string("CHECK failed: File ") + __FILE__ +  ", line " \
+          + ::testing::internal::StreamableToString(__LINE__) + ": " \
+          + #expression); \
+    } \
+  } while (::testing::internal::AlwaysFalse())
+
+// This macro is similar to GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_, but it is meant for
+// evaluating any system call that fulfills two conditions: it must return
+// -1 on failure, and set errno to EINTR when it is interrupted and
+// should be tried again.  The macro expands to a loop that repeatedly
+// evaluates the expression as long as it evaluates to -1 and sets
+// errno to EINTR.  If the expression evaluates to -1 but errno is
+// something other than EINTR, DeathTestAbort is called.
+# define GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(expression) \
+  do { \
+    int gtest_retval; \
+    do { \
+      gtest_retval = (expression); \
+    } while (gtest_retval == -1 && errno == EINTR); \
+    if (gtest_retval == -1) { \
+      DeathTestAbort( \
+          ::std::string("CHECK failed: File ") + __FILE__ + ", line " \
+          + ::testing::internal::StreamableToString(__LINE__) + ": " \
+          + #expression + " != -1"); \
+    } \
+  } while (::testing::internal::AlwaysFalse())
+
+// Returns the message describing the last system error in errno.
+std::string GetLastErrnoDescription() {
+    return errno == 0 ? "" : posix::StrError(errno);
+}
+
+// This is called from a death test parent process to read a failure
+// message from the death test child process and log it with the FATAL
+// severity. On Windows, the message is read from a pipe handle. On other
+// platforms, it is read from a file descriptor.
+static void FailFromInternalError(int fd) {
+  Message error;
+  char buffer[256];
+  int num_read;
+
+  do {
+    while ((num_read = posix::Read(fd, buffer, 255)) > 0) {
+      buffer[num_read] = '\0';
+      error << buffer;
+    }
+  } while (num_read == -1 && errno == EINTR);
+
+  if (num_read == 0) {
+    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << error.GetString();
+  } else {
+    const int last_error = errno;
+    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Error while reading death test internal: "
+                      << GetLastErrnoDescription() << " [" << last_error << "]";
+  }
+}
+
+// Death test constructor.  Increments the running death test count
+// for the current test.
+DeathTest::DeathTest() {
+  TestInfo* const info = GetUnitTestImpl()->current_test_info();
+  if (info == NULL) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Cannot run a death test outside of a TEST or "
+                   "TEST_F construct");
+  }
+}
+
+// Creates and returns a death test by dispatching to the current
+// death test factory.
+bool DeathTest::Create(const char* statement, const RE* regex,
+                       const char* file, int line, DeathTest** test) {
+  return GetUnitTestImpl()->death_test_factory()->Create(
+      statement, regex, file, line, test);
+}
+
+const char* DeathTest::LastMessage() {
+  return last_death_test_message_.c_str();
+}
+
+void DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(const std::string& message) {
+  last_death_test_message_ = message;
+}
+
+std::string DeathTest::last_death_test_message_;
+
+// Provides cross platform implementation for some death functionality.
+class DeathTestImpl : public DeathTest {
+ protected:
+  DeathTestImpl(const char* a_statement, const RE* a_regex)
+      : statement_(a_statement),
+        regex_(a_regex),
+        spawned_(false),
+        status_(-1),
+        outcome_(IN_PROGRESS),
+        read_fd_(-1),
+        write_fd_(-1) {}
+
+  // read_fd_ is expected to be closed and cleared by a derived class.
+  ~DeathTestImpl() { GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(read_fd_ == -1); }
+
+  void Abort(AbortReason reason);
+  virtual bool Passed(bool status_ok);
+
+  const char* statement() const { return statement_; }
+  const RE* regex() const { return regex_; }
+  bool spawned() const { return spawned_; }
+  void set_spawned(bool is_spawned) { spawned_ = is_spawned; }
+  int status() const { return status_; }
+  void set_status(int a_status) { status_ = a_status; }
+  DeathTestOutcome outcome() const { return outcome_; }
+  void set_outcome(DeathTestOutcome an_outcome) { outcome_ = an_outcome; }
+  int read_fd() const { return read_fd_; }
+  void set_read_fd(int fd) { read_fd_ = fd; }
+  int write_fd() const { return write_fd_; }
+  void set_write_fd(int fd) { write_fd_ = fd; }
+
+  // Called in the parent process only. Reads the result code of the death
+  // test child process via a pipe, interprets it to set the outcome_
+  // member, and closes read_fd_.  Outputs diagnostics and terminates in
+  // case of unexpected codes.
+  void ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
+
+ private:
+  // The textual content of the code this object is testing.  This class
+  // doesn't own this string and should not attempt to delete it.
+  const char* const statement_;
+  // The regular expression which test output must match.  DeathTestImpl
+  // doesn't own this object and should not attempt to delete it.
+  const RE* const regex_;
+  // True if the death test child process has been successfully spawned.
+  bool spawned_;
+  // The exit status of the child process.
+  int status_;
+  // How the death test concluded.
+  DeathTestOutcome outcome_;
+  // Descriptor to the read end of the pipe to the child process.  It is
+  // always -1 in the child process.  The child keeps its write end of the
+  // pipe in write_fd_.
+  int read_fd_;
+  // Descriptor to the child's write end of the pipe to the parent process.
+  // It is always -1 in the parent process.  The parent keeps its end of the
+  // pipe in read_fd_.
+  int write_fd_;
+};
+
+// Called in the parent process only. Reads the result code of the death
+// test child process via a pipe, interprets it to set the outcome_
+// member, and closes read_fd_.  Outputs diagnostics and terminates in
+// case of unexpected codes.
+void DeathTestImpl::ReadAndInterpretStatusByte() {
+  char flag;
+  int bytes_read;
+
+  // The read() here blocks until data is available (signifying the
+  // failure of the death test) or until the pipe is closed (signifying
+  // its success), so it's okay to call this in the parent before
+  // the child process has exited.
+  do {
+    bytes_read = posix::Read(read_fd(), &flag, 1);
+  } while (bytes_read == -1 && errno == EINTR);
+
+  if (bytes_read == 0) {
+    set_outcome(DIED);
+  } else if (bytes_read == 1) {
+    switch (flag) {
+      case kDeathTestReturned:
+        set_outcome(RETURNED);
+        break;
+      case kDeathTestThrew:
+        set_outcome(THREW);
+        break;
+      case kDeathTestLived:
+        set_outcome(LIVED);
+        break;
+      case kDeathTestInternalError:
+        FailFromInternalError(read_fd());  // Does not return.
+        break;
+      default:
+        GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Death test child process reported "
+                          << "unexpected status byte ("
+                          << static_cast<unsigned int>(flag) << ")";
+    }
+  } else {
+    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Read from death test child process failed: "
+                      << GetLastErrnoDescription();
+  }
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(posix::Close(read_fd()));
+  set_read_fd(-1);
+}
+
+// Signals that the death test code which should have exited, didn't.
+// Should be called only in a death test child process.
+// Writes a status byte to the child's status file descriptor, then
+// calls _exit(1).
+void DeathTestImpl::Abort(AbortReason reason) {
+  // The parent process considers the death test to be a failure if
+  // it finds any data in our pipe.  So, here we write a single flag byte
+  // to the pipe, then exit.
+  const char status_ch =
+      reason == TEST_DID_NOT_DIE ? kDeathTestLived :
+      reason == TEST_THREW_EXCEPTION ? kDeathTestThrew : kDeathTestReturned;
+
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(posix::Write(write_fd(), &status_ch, 1));
+  // We are leaking the descriptor here because on some platforms (i.e.,
+  // when built as Windows DLL), destructors of global objects will still
+  // run after calling _exit(). On such systems, write_fd_ will be
+  // indirectly closed from the destructor of UnitTestImpl, causing double
+  // close if it is also closed here. On debug configurations, double close
+  // may assert. As there are no in-process buffers to flush here, we are
+  // relying on the OS to close the descriptor after the process terminates
+  // when the destructors are not run.
+  _exit(1);  // Exits w/o any normal exit hooks (we were supposed to crash)
+}
+
+// Returns an indented copy of stderr output for a death test.
+// This makes distinguishing death test output lines from regular log lines
+// much easier.
+static ::std::string FormatDeathTestOutput(const ::std::string& output) {
+  ::std::string ret;
+  for (size_t at = 0; ; ) {
+    const size_t line_end = output.find('\n', at);
+    ret += "[  DEATH   ] ";
+    if (line_end == ::std::string::npos) {
+      ret += output.substr(at);
+      break;
+    }
+    ret += output.substr(at, line_end + 1 - at);
+    at = line_end + 1;
+  }
+  return ret;
+}
+
+// Assesses the success or failure of a death test, using both private
+// members which have previously been set, and one argument:
+//
+// Private data members:
+//   outcome:  An enumeration describing how the death test
+//             concluded: DIED, LIVED, THREW, or RETURNED.  The death test
+//             fails in the latter three cases.
+//   status:   The exit status of the child process. On *nix, it is in the
+//             in the format specified by wait(2). On Windows, this is the
+//             value supplied to the ExitProcess() API or a numeric code
+//             of the exception that terminated the program.
+//   regex:    A regular expression object to be applied to
+//             the test's captured standard error output; the death test
+//             fails if it does not match.
+//
+// Argument:
+//   status_ok: true if exit_status is acceptable in the context of
+//              this particular death test, which fails if it is false
+//
+// Returns true iff all of the above conditions are met.  Otherwise, the
+// first failing condition, in the order given above, is the one that is
+// reported. Also sets the last death test message string.
+bool DeathTestImpl::Passed(bool status_ok) {
+  if (!spawned())
+    return false;
+
+  const std::string error_message = GetCapturedStderr();
+
+  bool success = false;
+  Message buffer;
+
+  buffer << "Death test: " << statement() << "\n";
+  switch (outcome()) {
+    case LIVED:
+      buffer << "    Result: failed to die.\n"
+             << " Error msg:\n" << FormatDeathTestOutput(error_message);
+      break;
+    case THREW:
+      buffer << "    Result: threw an exception.\n"
+             << " Error msg:\n" << FormatDeathTestOutput(error_message);
+      break;
+    case RETURNED:
+      buffer << "    Result: illegal return in test statement.\n"
+             << " Error msg:\n" << FormatDeathTestOutput(error_message);
+      break;
+    case DIED:
+      if (status_ok) {
+        const bool matched = RE::PartialMatch(error_message.c_str(), *regex());
+        if (matched) {
+          success = true;
+        } else {
+          buffer << "    Result: died but not with expected error.\n"
+                 << "  Expected: " << regex()->pattern() << "\n"
+                 << "Actual msg:\n" << FormatDeathTestOutput(error_message);
+        }
+      } else {
+        buffer << "    Result: died but not with expected exit code:\n"
+               << "            " << ExitSummary(status()) << "\n"
+               << "Actual msg:\n" << FormatDeathTestOutput(error_message);
+      }
+      break;
+    case IN_PROGRESS:
+    default:
+      GTEST_LOG_(FATAL)
+          << "DeathTest::Passed somehow called before conclusion of test";
+  }
+
+  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(buffer.GetString());
+  return success;
+}
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+// WindowsDeathTest implements death tests on Windows. Due to the
+// specifics of starting new processes on Windows, death tests there are
+// always threadsafe, and Google Test considers the
+// --gtest_death_test_style=fast setting to be equivalent to
+// --gtest_death_test_style=threadsafe there.
+//
+// A few implementation notes:  Like the Linux version, the Windows
+// implementation uses pipes for child-to-parent communication. But due to
+// the specifics of pipes on Windows, some extra steps are required:
+//
+// 1. The parent creates a communication pipe and stores handles to both
+//    ends of it.
+// 2. The parent starts the child and provides it with the information
+//    necessary to acquire the handle to the write end of the pipe.
+// 3. The child acquires the write end of the pipe and signals the parent
+//    using a Windows event.
+// 4. Now the parent can release the write end of the pipe on its side. If
+//    this is done before step 3, the object's reference count goes down to
+//    0 and it is destroyed, preventing the child from acquiring it. The
+//    parent now has to release it, or read operations on the read end of
+//    the pipe will not return when the child terminates.
+// 5. The parent reads child's output through the pipe (outcome code and
+//    any possible error messages) from the pipe, and its stderr and then
+//    determines whether to fail the test.
+//
+// Note: to distinguish Win32 API calls from the local method and function
+// calls, the former are explicitly resolved in the global namespace.
+//
+class WindowsDeathTest : public DeathTestImpl {
+ public:
+  WindowsDeathTest(const char* a_statement,
+                   const RE* a_regex,
+                   const char* file,
+                   int line)
+      : DeathTestImpl(a_statement, a_regex), file_(file), line_(line) {}
+
+  // All of these virtual functions are inherited from DeathTest.
+  virtual int Wait();
+  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
+
+ private:
+  // The name of the file in which the death test is located.
+  const char* const file_;
+  // The line number on which the death test is located.
+  const int line_;
+  // Handle to the write end of the pipe to the child process.
+  AutoHandle write_handle_;
+  // Child process handle.
+  AutoHandle child_handle_;
+  // Event the child process uses to signal the parent that it has
+  // acquired the handle to the write end of the pipe. After seeing this
+  // event the parent can release its own handles to make sure its
+  // ReadFile() calls return when the child terminates.
+  AutoHandle event_handle_;
+};
+
+// Waits for the child in a death test to exit, returning its exit
+// status, or 0 if no child process exists.  As a side effect, sets the
+// outcome data member.
+int WindowsDeathTest::Wait() {
+  if (!spawned())
+    return 0;
+
+  // Wait until the child either signals that it has acquired the write end
+  // of the pipe or it dies.
+  const HANDLE wait_handles[2] = { child_handle_.Get(), event_handle_.Get() };
+  switch (::WaitForMultipleObjects(2,
+                                   wait_handles,
+                                   FALSE,  // Waits for any of the handles.
+                                   INFINITE)) {
+    case WAIT_OBJECT_0:
+    case WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 1:
+      break;
+    default:
+      GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(false);  // Should not get here.
+  }
+
+  // The child has acquired the write end of the pipe or exited.
+  // We release the handle on our side and continue.
+  write_handle_.Reset();
+  event_handle_.Reset();
+
+  ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
+
+  // Waits for the child process to exit if it haven't already. This
+  // returns immediately if the child has already exited, regardless of
+  // whether previous calls to WaitForMultipleObjects synchronized on this
+  // handle or not.
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
+      WAIT_OBJECT_0 == ::WaitForSingleObject(child_handle_.Get(),
+                                             INFINITE));
+  DWORD status_code;
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
+      ::GetExitCodeProcess(child_handle_.Get(), &status_code) != FALSE);
+  child_handle_.Reset();
+  set_status(static_cast<int>(status_code));
+  return status();
+}
+
+// The AssumeRole process for a Windows death test.  It creates a child
+// process with the same executable as the current process to run the
+// death test.  The child process is given the --gtest_filter and
+// --gtest_internal_run_death_test flags such that it knows to run the
+// current death test only.
+DeathTest::TestRole WindowsDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
+  const UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
+  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
+      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
+  const TestInfo* const info = impl->current_test_info();
+  const int death_test_index = info->result()->death_test_count();
+
+  if (flag != NULL) {
+    // ParseInternalRunDeathTestFlag() has performed all the necessary
+    // processing.
+    set_write_fd(flag->write_fd());
+    return EXECUTE_TEST;
+  }
+
+  // WindowsDeathTest uses an anonymous pipe to communicate results of
+  // a death test.
+  SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES handles_are_inheritable = {
+    sizeof(SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES), NULL, TRUE };
+  HANDLE read_handle, write_handle;
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
+      ::CreatePipe(&read_handle, &write_handle, &handles_are_inheritable,
+                   0)  // Default buffer size.
+      != FALSE);
+  set_read_fd(::_open_osfhandle(reinterpret_cast<intptr_t>(read_handle),
+                                O_RDONLY));
+  write_handle_.Reset(write_handle);
+  event_handle_.Reset(::CreateEvent(
+      &handles_are_inheritable,
+      TRUE,    // The event will automatically reset to non-signaled state.
+      FALSE,   // The initial state is non-signalled.
+      NULL));  // The even is unnamed.
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(event_handle_.Get() != NULL);
+  const std::string filter_flag =
+      std::string("--") + GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_ + kFilterFlag + "=" +
+      info->test_case_name() + "." + info->name();
+  const std::string internal_flag =
+      std::string("--") + GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_ + kInternalRunDeathTestFlag +
+      "=" + file_ + "|" + StreamableToString(line_) + "|" +
+      StreamableToString(death_test_index) + "|" +
+      StreamableToString(static_cast<unsigned int>(::GetCurrentProcessId())) +
+      // size_t has the same width as pointers on both 32-bit and 64-bit
+      // Windows platforms.
+      // See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/tcxf1dw6.aspx.
+      "|" + StreamableToString(reinterpret_cast<size_t>(write_handle)) +
+      "|" + StreamableToString(reinterpret_cast<size_t>(event_handle_.Get()));
+
+  char executable_path[_MAX_PATH + 1];  // NOLINT
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
+      _MAX_PATH + 1 != ::GetModuleFileNameA(NULL,
+                                            executable_path,
+                                            _MAX_PATH));
+
+  std::string command_line =
+      std::string(::GetCommandLineA()) + " " + filter_flag + " \"" +
+      internal_flag + "\"";
+
+  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
+
+  CaptureStderr();
+  // Flush the log buffers since the log streams are shared with the child.
+  FlushInfoLog();
+
+  // The child process will share the standard handles with the parent.
+  STARTUPINFOA startup_info;
+  memset(&startup_info, 0, sizeof(STARTUPINFO));
+  startup_info.dwFlags = STARTF_USESTDHANDLES;
+  startup_info.hStdInput = ::GetStdHandle(STD_INPUT_HANDLE);
+  startup_info.hStdOutput = ::GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);
+  startup_info.hStdError = ::GetStdHandle(STD_ERROR_HANDLE);
+
+  PROCESS_INFORMATION process_info;
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(::CreateProcessA(
+      executable_path,
+      const_cast<char*>(command_line.c_str()),
+      NULL,   // Retuned process handle is not inheritable.
+      NULL,   // Retuned thread handle is not inheritable.
+      TRUE,   // Child inherits all inheritable handles (for write_handle_).
+      0x0,    // Default creation flags.
+      NULL,   // Inherit the parent's environment.
+      UnitTest::GetInstance()->original_working_dir(),
+      &startup_info,
+      &process_info) != FALSE);
+  child_handle_.Reset(process_info.hProcess);
+  ::CloseHandle(process_info.hThread);
+  set_spawned(true);
+  return OVERSEE_TEST;
+}
+# else  // We are not on Windows.
+
+// ForkingDeathTest provides implementations for most of the abstract
+// methods of the DeathTest interface.  Only the AssumeRole method is
+// left undefined.
+class ForkingDeathTest : public DeathTestImpl {
+ public:
+  ForkingDeathTest(const char* statement, const RE* regex);
+
+  // All of these virtual functions are inherited from DeathTest.
+  virtual int Wait();
+
+ protected:
+  void set_child_pid(pid_t child_pid) { child_pid_ = child_pid; }
+
+ private:
+  // PID of child process during death test; 0 in the child process itself.
+  pid_t child_pid_;
+};
+
+// Constructs a ForkingDeathTest.
+ForkingDeathTest::ForkingDeathTest(const char* a_statement, const RE* a_regex)
+    : DeathTestImpl(a_statement, a_regex),
+      child_pid_(-1) {}
+
+// Waits for the child in a death test to exit, returning its exit
+// status, or 0 if no child process exists.  As a side effect, sets the
+// outcome data member.
+int ForkingDeathTest::Wait() {
+  if (!spawned())
+    return 0;
+
+  ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
+
+  int status_value;
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(waitpid(child_pid_, &status_value, 0));
+  set_status(status_value);
+  return status_value;
+}
+
+// A concrete death test class that forks, then immediately runs the test
+// in the child process.
+class NoExecDeathTest : public ForkingDeathTest {
+ public:
+  NoExecDeathTest(const char* a_statement, const RE* a_regex) :
+      ForkingDeathTest(a_statement, a_regex) { }
+  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
+};
+
+// The AssumeRole process for a fork-and-run death test.  It implements a
+// straightforward fork, with a simple pipe to transmit the status byte.
+DeathTest::TestRole NoExecDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
+  const size_t thread_count = GetThreadCount();
+  if (thread_count != 1) {
+    GTEST_LOG_(WARNING) << DeathTestThreadWarning(thread_count);
+  }
+
+  int pipe_fd[2];
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(pipe(pipe_fd) != -1);
+
+  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
+  CaptureStderr();
+  // When we fork the process below, the log file buffers are copied, but the
+  // file descriptors are shared.  We flush all log files here so that closing
+  // the file descriptors in the child process doesn't throw off the
+  // synchronization between descriptors and buffers in the parent process.
+  // This is as close to the fork as possible to avoid a race condition in case
+  // there are multiple threads running before the death test, and another
+  // thread writes to the log file.
+  FlushInfoLog();
+
+  const pid_t child_pid = fork();
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(child_pid != -1);
+  set_child_pid(child_pid);
+  if (child_pid == 0) {
+    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[0]));
+    set_write_fd(pipe_fd[1]);
+    // Redirects all logging to stderr in the child process to prevent
+    // concurrent writes to the log files.  We capture stderr in the parent
+    // process and append the child process' output to a log.
+    LogToStderr();
+    // Event forwarding to the listeners of event listener API mush be shut
+    // down in death test subprocesses.
+    GetUnitTestImpl()->listeners()->SuppressEventForwarding();
+    g_in_fast_death_test_child = true;
+    return EXECUTE_TEST;
+  } else {
+    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[1]));
+    set_read_fd(pipe_fd[0]);
+    set_spawned(true);
+    return OVERSEE_TEST;
+  }
+}
+
+// A concrete death test class that forks and re-executes the main
+// program from the beginning, with command-line flags set that cause
+// only this specific death test to be run.
+class ExecDeathTest : public ForkingDeathTest {
+ public:
+  ExecDeathTest(const char* a_statement, const RE* a_regex,
+                const char* file, int line) :
+      ForkingDeathTest(a_statement, a_regex), file_(file), line_(line) { }
+  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
+ private:
+  static ::std::vector<testing::internal::string>
+  GetArgvsForDeathTestChildProcess() {
+    ::std::vector<testing::internal::string> args = GetInjectableArgvs();
+    return args;
+  }
+  // The name of the file in which the death test is located.
+  const char* const file_;
+  // The line number on which the death test is located.
+  const int line_;
+};
+
+// Utility class for accumulating command-line arguments.
+class Arguments {
+ public:
+  Arguments() {
+    args_.push_back(NULL);
+  }
+
+  ~Arguments() {
+    for (std::vector<char*>::iterator i = args_.begin(); i != args_.end();
+         ++i) {
+      free(*i);
+    }
+  }
+  void AddArgument(const char* argument) {
+    args_.insert(args_.end() - 1, posix::StrDup(argument));
+  }
+
+  template <typename Str>
+  void AddArguments(const ::std::vector<Str>& arguments) {
+    for (typename ::std::vector<Str>::const_iterator i = arguments.begin();
+         i != arguments.end();
+         ++i) {
+      args_.insert(args_.end() - 1, posix::StrDup(i->c_str()));
+    }
+  }
+  char* const* Argv() {
+    return &args_[0];
+  }
+
+ private:
+  std::vector<char*> args_;
+};
+
+// A struct that encompasses the arguments to the child process of a
+// threadsafe-style death test process.
+struct ExecDeathTestArgs {
+  char* const* argv;  // Command-line arguments for the child's call to exec
+  int close_fd;       // File descriptor to close; the read end of a pipe
+};
+
+#  if GTEST_OS_MAC
+inline char** GetEnviron() {
+  // When Google Test is built as a framework on MacOS X, the environ variable
+  // is unavailable. Apple's documentation (man environ) recommends using
+  // _NSGetEnviron() instead.
+  return *_NSGetEnviron();
+}
+#  else
+// Some POSIX platforms expect you to declare environ. extern "C" makes
+// it reside in the global namespace.
+extern "C" char** environ;
+inline char** GetEnviron() { return environ; }
+#  endif  // GTEST_OS_MAC
+
+#  if !GTEST_OS_QNX
+// The main function for a threadsafe-style death test child process.
+// This function is called in a clone()-ed process and thus must avoid
+// any potentially unsafe operations like malloc or libc functions.
+static int ExecDeathTestChildMain(void* child_arg) {
+  ExecDeathTestArgs* const args = static_cast<ExecDeathTestArgs*>(child_arg);
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(args->close_fd));
+
+  // We need to execute the test program in the same environment where
+  // it was originally invoked.  Therefore we change to the original
+  // working directory first.
+  const char* const original_dir =
+      UnitTest::GetInstance()->original_working_dir();
+  // We can safely call chdir() as it's a direct system call.
+  if (chdir(original_dir) != 0) {
+    DeathTestAbort(std::string("chdir(\"") + original_dir + "\") failed: " +
+                   GetLastErrnoDescription());
+    return EXIT_FAILURE;
+  }
+
+  // We can safely call execve() as it's a direct system call.  We
+  // cannot use execvp() as it's a libc function and thus potentially
+  // unsafe.  Since execve() doesn't search the PATH, the user must
+  // invoke the test program via a valid path that contains at least
+  // one path separator.
+  execve(args->argv[0], args->argv, GetEnviron());
+  DeathTestAbort(std::string("execve(") + args->argv[0] + ", ...) in " +
+                 original_dir + " failed: " +
+                 GetLastErrnoDescription());
+  return EXIT_FAILURE;
+}
+#  endif  // !GTEST_OS_QNX
+
+// Two utility routines that together determine the direction the stack
+// grows.
+// This could be accomplished more elegantly by a single recursive
+// function, but we want to guard against the unlikely possibility of
+// a smart compiler optimizing the recursion away.
+//
+// GTEST_NO_INLINE_ is required to prevent GCC 4.6 from inlining
+// StackLowerThanAddress into StackGrowsDown, which then doesn't give
+// correct answer.
+void StackLowerThanAddress(const void* ptr, bool* result) GTEST_NO_INLINE_;
+void StackLowerThanAddress(const void* ptr, bool* result) {
+  int dummy;
+  *result = (&dummy < ptr);
+}
+
+bool StackGrowsDown() {
+  int dummy;
+  bool result;
+  StackLowerThanAddress(&dummy, &result);
+  return result;
+}
+
+// Spawns a child process with the same executable as the current process in
+// a thread-safe manner and instructs it to run the death test.  The
+// implementation uses fork(2) + exec.  On systems where clone(2) is
+// available, it is used instead, being slightly more thread-safe.  On QNX,
+// fork supports only single-threaded environments, so this function uses
+// spawn(2) there instead.  The function dies with an error message if
+// anything goes wrong.
+static pid_t ExecDeathTestSpawnChild(char* const* argv, int close_fd) {
+  ExecDeathTestArgs args = { argv, close_fd };
+  pid_t child_pid = -1;
+
+#  if GTEST_OS_QNX
+  // Obtains the current directory and sets it to be closed in the child
+  // process.
+  const int cwd_fd = open(".", O_RDONLY);
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(cwd_fd != -1);
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(fcntl(cwd_fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC));
+  // We need to execute the test program in the same environment where
+  // it was originally invoked.  Therefore we change to the original
+  // working directory first.
+  const char* const original_dir =
+      UnitTest::GetInstance()->original_working_dir();
+  // We can safely call chdir() as it's a direct system call.
+  if (chdir(original_dir) != 0) {
+    DeathTestAbort(std::string("chdir(\"") + original_dir + "\") failed: " +
+                   GetLastErrnoDescription());
+    return EXIT_FAILURE;
+  }
+
+  int fd_flags;
+  // Set close_fd to be closed after spawn.
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(fd_flags = fcntl(close_fd, F_GETFD));
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(fcntl(close_fd, F_SETFD,
+                                        fd_flags | FD_CLOEXEC));
+  struct inheritance inherit = {0};
+  // spawn is a system call.
+  child_pid = spawn(args.argv[0], 0, NULL, &inherit, args.argv, GetEnviron());
+  // Restores the current working directory.
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(fchdir(cwd_fd) != -1);
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(cwd_fd));
+
+#  else   // GTEST_OS_QNX
+#   if GTEST_OS_LINUX
+  // When a SIGPROF signal is received while fork() or clone() are executing,
+  // the process may hang. To avoid this, we ignore SIGPROF here and re-enable
+  // it after the call to fork()/clone() is complete.
+  struct sigaction saved_sigprof_action;
+  struct sigaction ignore_sigprof_action;
+  memset(&ignore_sigprof_action, 0, sizeof(ignore_sigprof_action));
+  sigemptyset(&ignore_sigprof_action.sa_mask);
+  ignore_sigprof_action.sa_handler = SIG_IGN;
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(sigaction(
+      SIGPROF, &ignore_sigprof_action, &saved_sigprof_action));
+#   endif  // GTEST_OS_LINUX
+
+#   if GTEST_HAS_CLONE
+  const bool use_fork = GTEST_FLAG(death_test_use_fork);
+
+  if (!use_fork) {
+    static const bool stack_grows_down = StackGrowsDown();
+    const size_t stack_size = getpagesize();
+    // MMAP_ANONYMOUS is not defined on Mac, so we use MAP_ANON instead.
+    void* const stack = mmap(NULL, stack_size, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
+                             MAP_ANON | MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0);
+    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(stack != MAP_FAILED);
+
+    // Maximum stack alignment in bytes:  For a downward-growing stack, this
+    // amount is subtracted from size of the stack space to get an address
+    // that is within the stack space and is aligned on all systems we care
+    // about.  As far as I know there is no ABI with stack alignment greater
+    // than 64.  We assume stack and stack_size already have alignment of
+    // kMaxStackAlignment.
+    const size_t kMaxStackAlignment = 64;
+    void* const stack_top =
+        static_cast<char*>(stack) +
+            (stack_grows_down ? stack_size - kMaxStackAlignment : 0);
+    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(stack_size > kMaxStackAlignment &&
+        reinterpret_cast<intptr_t>(stack_top) % kMaxStackAlignment == 0);
+
+    child_pid = clone(&ExecDeathTestChildMain, stack_top, SIGCHLD, &args);
+
+    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(munmap(stack, stack_size) != -1);
+  }
+#   else
+  const bool use_fork = true;
+#   endif  // GTEST_HAS_CLONE
+
+  if (use_fork && (child_pid = fork()) == 0) {
+      ExecDeathTestChildMain(&args);
+      _exit(0);
+  }
+#  endif  // GTEST_OS_QNX
+#  if GTEST_OS_LINUX
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(
+      sigaction(SIGPROF, &saved_sigprof_action, NULL));
+#  endif  // GTEST_OS_LINUX
+
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(child_pid != -1);
+  return child_pid;
+}
+
+// The AssumeRole process for a fork-and-exec death test.  It re-executes the
+// main program from the beginning, setting the --gtest_filter
+// and --gtest_internal_run_death_test flags to cause only the current
+// death test to be re-run.
+DeathTest::TestRole ExecDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
+  const UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
+  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
+      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
+  const TestInfo* const info = impl->current_test_info();
+  const int death_test_index = info->result()->death_test_count();
+
+  if (flag != NULL) {
+    set_write_fd(flag->write_fd());
+    return EXECUTE_TEST;
+  }
+
+  int pipe_fd[2];
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(pipe(pipe_fd) != -1);
+  // Clear the close-on-exec flag on the write end of the pipe, lest
+  // it be closed when the child process does an exec:
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(fcntl(pipe_fd[1], F_SETFD, 0) != -1);
+
+  const std::string filter_flag =
+      std::string("--") + GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_ + kFilterFlag + "="
+      + info->test_case_name() + "." + info->name();
+  const std::string internal_flag =
+      std::string("--") + GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_ + kInternalRunDeathTestFlag + "="
+      + file_ + "|" + StreamableToString(line_) + "|"
+      + StreamableToString(death_test_index) + "|"
+      + StreamableToString(pipe_fd[1]);
+  Arguments args;
+  args.AddArguments(GetArgvsForDeathTestChildProcess());
+  args.AddArgument(filter_flag.c_str());
+  args.AddArgument(internal_flag.c_str());
+
+  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
+
+  CaptureStderr();
+  // See the comment in NoExecDeathTest::AssumeRole for why the next line
+  // is necessary.
+  FlushInfoLog();
+
+  const pid_t child_pid = ExecDeathTestSpawnChild(args.Argv(), pipe_fd[0]);
+  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[1]));
+  set_child_pid(child_pid);
+  set_read_fd(pipe_fd[0]);
+  set_spawned(true);
+  return OVERSEE_TEST;
+}
+
+# endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+// Creates a concrete DeathTest-derived class that depends on the
+// --gtest_death_test_style flag, and sets the pointer pointed to
+// by the "test" argument to its address.  If the test should be
+// skipped, sets that pointer to NULL.  Returns true, unless the
+// flag is set to an invalid value.
+bool DefaultDeathTestFactory::Create(const char* statement, const RE* regex,
+                                     const char* file, int line,
+                                     DeathTest** test) {
+  UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
+  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
+      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
+  const int death_test_index = impl->current_test_info()
+      ->increment_death_test_count();
+
+  if (flag != NULL) {
+    if (death_test_index > flag->index()) {
+      DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(
+          "Death test count (" + StreamableToString(death_test_index)
+          + ") somehow exceeded expected maximum ("
+          + StreamableToString(flag->index()) + ")");
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (!(flag->file() == file && flag->line() == line &&
+          flag->index() == death_test_index)) {
+      *test = NULL;
+      return true;
+    }
+  }
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "threadsafe" ||
+      GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "fast") {
+    *test = new WindowsDeathTest(statement, regex, file, line);
+  }
+
+# else
+
+  if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "threadsafe") {
+    *test = new ExecDeathTest(statement, regex, file, line);
+  } else if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "fast") {
+    *test = new NoExecDeathTest(statement, regex);
+  }
+
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  else {  // NOLINT - this is more readable than unbalanced brackets inside #if.
+    DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(
+        "Unknown death test style \"" + GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style)
+        + "\" encountered");
+    return false;
+  }
+
+  return true;
+}
+
+// Splits a given string on a given delimiter, populating a given
+// vector with the fields.  GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST implies that we have
+// ::std::string, so we can use it here.
+static void SplitString(const ::std::string& str, char delimiter,
+                        ::std::vector< ::std::string>* dest) {
+  ::std::vector< ::std::string> parsed;
+  ::std::string::size_type pos = 0;
+  while (::testing::internal::AlwaysTrue()) {
+    const ::std::string::size_type colon = str.find(delimiter, pos);
+    if (colon == ::std::string::npos) {
+      parsed.push_back(str.substr(pos));
+      break;
+    } else {
+      parsed.push_back(str.substr(pos, colon - pos));
+      pos = colon + 1;
+    }
+  }
+  dest->swap(parsed);
+}
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+// Recreates the pipe and event handles from the provided parameters,
+// signals the event, and returns a file descriptor wrapped around the pipe
+// handle. This function is called in the child process only.
+int GetStatusFileDescriptor(unsigned int parent_process_id,
+                            size_t write_handle_as_size_t,
+                            size_t event_handle_as_size_t) {
+  AutoHandle parent_process_handle(::OpenProcess(PROCESS_DUP_HANDLE,
+                                                   FALSE,  // Non-inheritable.
+                                                   parent_process_id));
+  if (parent_process_handle.Get() == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Unable to open parent process " +
+                   StreamableToString(parent_process_id));
+  }
+
+  // TODO(vladl@google.com): Replace the following check with a
+  // compile-time assertion when available.
+  GTEST_CHECK_(sizeof(HANDLE) <= sizeof(size_t));
+
+  const HANDLE write_handle =
+      reinterpret_cast<HANDLE>(write_handle_as_size_t);
+  HANDLE dup_write_handle;
+
+  // The newly initialized handle is accessible only in in the parent
+  // process. To obtain one accessible within the child, we need to use
+  // DuplicateHandle.
+  if (!::DuplicateHandle(parent_process_handle.Get(), write_handle,
+                         ::GetCurrentProcess(), &dup_write_handle,
+                         0x0,    // Requested privileges ignored since
+                                 // DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS is used.
+                         FALSE,  // Request non-inheritable handler.
+                         DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS)) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Unable to duplicate the pipe handle " +
+                   StreamableToString(write_handle_as_size_t) +
+                   " from the parent process " +
+                   StreamableToString(parent_process_id));
+  }
+
+  const HANDLE event_handle = reinterpret_cast<HANDLE>(event_handle_as_size_t);
+  HANDLE dup_event_handle;
+
+  if (!::DuplicateHandle(parent_process_handle.Get(), event_handle,
+                         ::GetCurrentProcess(), &dup_event_handle,
+                         0x0,
+                         FALSE,
+                         DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS)) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Unable to duplicate the event handle " +
+                   StreamableToString(event_handle_as_size_t) +
+                   " from the parent process " +
+                   StreamableToString(parent_process_id));
+  }
+
+  const int write_fd =
+      ::_open_osfhandle(reinterpret_cast<intptr_t>(dup_write_handle), O_APPEND);
+  if (write_fd == -1) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Unable to convert pipe handle " +
+                   StreamableToString(write_handle_as_size_t) +
+                   " to a file descriptor");
+  }
+
+  // Signals the parent that the write end of the pipe has been acquired
+  // so the parent can release its own write end.
+  ::SetEvent(dup_event_handle);
+
+  return write_fd;
+}
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+// Returns a newly created InternalRunDeathTestFlag object with fields
+// initialized from the GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test) flag if
+// the flag is specified; otherwise returns NULL.
+InternalRunDeathTestFlag* ParseInternalRunDeathTestFlag() {
+  if (GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test) == "") return NULL;
+
+  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST implies that we have ::std::string, so we
+  // can use it here.
+  int line = -1;
+  int index = -1;
+  ::std::vector< ::std::string> fields;
+  SplitString(GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).c_str(), '|', &fields);
+  int write_fd = -1;
+
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  unsigned int parent_process_id = 0;
+  size_t write_handle_as_size_t = 0;
+  size_t event_handle_as_size_t = 0;
+
+  if (fields.size() != 6
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[1], &line)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[2], &index)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[3], &parent_process_id)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[4], &write_handle_as_size_t)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[5], &event_handle_as_size_t)) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Bad --gtest_internal_run_death_test flag: " +
+                   GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test));
+  }
+  write_fd = GetStatusFileDescriptor(parent_process_id,
+                                     write_handle_as_size_t,
+                                     event_handle_as_size_t);
+# else
+
+  if (fields.size() != 4
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[1], &line)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[2], &index)
+      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[3], &write_fd)) {
+    DeathTestAbort("Bad --gtest_internal_run_death_test flag: "
+        + GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test));
+  }
+
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+  return new InternalRunDeathTestFlag(fields[0], line, index, write_fd);
+}
+
+}  // namespace internal
+
+#endif  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
+
+}  // namespace testing

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/blob/826a4144/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-filepath.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-filepath.cc b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-filepath.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6be58b6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/contrib/libhdfs3/gtest/src/gtest-filepath.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,382 @@
+// Copyright 2008, Google Inc.
+// All rights reserved.
+//
+// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
+// met:
+//
+//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
+// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
+// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
+// distribution.
+//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
+// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
+// this software without specific prior written permission.
+//
+// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
+// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
+// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
+// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
+// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
+// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
+// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
+// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
+// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+//
+// Authors: keith.ray@gmail.com (Keith Ray)
+
+#include "gtest/gtest-message.h"
+#include "gtest/internal/gtest-filepath.h"
+#include "gtest/internal/gtest-port.h"
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+# include <windows.h>
+#elif GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+# include <direct.h>
+# include <io.h>
+#elif GTEST_OS_SYMBIAN
+// Symbian OpenC has PATH_MAX in sys/syslimits.h
+# include <sys/syslimits.h>
+#else
+# include <limits.h>
+# include <climits>  // Some Linux distributions define PATH_MAX here.
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+# define GTEST_PATH_MAX_ _MAX_PATH
+#elif defined(PATH_MAX)
+# define GTEST_PATH_MAX_ PATH_MAX
+#elif defined(_XOPEN_PATH_MAX)
+# define GTEST_PATH_MAX_ _XOPEN_PATH_MAX
+#else
+# define GTEST_PATH_MAX_ _POSIX_PATH_MAX
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+#include "gtest/internal/gtest-string.h"
+
+namespace testing {
+namespace internal {
+
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+// On Windows, '\\' is the standard path separator, but many tools and the
+// Windows API also accept '/' as an alternate path separator. Unless otherwise
+// noted, a file path can contain either kind of path separators, or a mixture
+// of them.
+const char kPathSeparator = '\\';
+const char kAlternatePathSeparator = '/';
+const char kPathSeparatorString[] = "\\";
+const char kAlternatePathSeparatorString[] = "/";
+# if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+// Windows CE doesn't have a current directory. You should not use
+// the current directory in tests on Windows CE, but this at least
+// provides a reasonable fallback.
+const char kCurrentDirectoryString[] = "\\";
+// Windows CE doesn't define INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES
+const DWORD kInvalidFileAttributes = 0xffffffff;
+# else
+const char kCurrentDirectoryString[] = ".\\";
+# endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+#else
+const char kPathSeparator = '/';
+const char kPathSeparatorString[] = "/";
+const char kCurrentDirectoryString[] = "./";
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+
+// Returns whether the given character is a valid path separator.
+static bool IsPathSeparator(char c) {
+#if GTEST_HAS_ALT_PATH_SEP_
+  return (c == kPathSeparator) || (c == kAlternatePathSeparator);
+#else
+  return c == kPathSeparator;
+#endif
+}
+
+// Returns the current working directory, or "" if unsuccessful.
+FilePath FilePath::GetCurrentDir() {
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+  // Windows CE doesn't have a current directory, so we just return
+  // something reasonable.
+  return FilePath(kCurrentDirectoryString);
+#elif GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+  char cwd[GTEST_PATH_MAX_ + 1] = { '\0' };
+  return FilePath(_getcwd(cwd, sizeof(cwd)) == NULL ? "" : cwd);
+#else
+  char cwd[GTEST_PATH_MAX_ + 1] = { '\0' };
+  return FilePath(getcwd(cwd, sizeof(cwd)) == NULL ? "" : cwd);
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+}
+
+// Returns a copy of the FilePath with the case-insensitive extension removed.
+// Example: FilePath("dir/file.exe").RemoveExtension("EXE") returns
+// FilePath("dir/file"). If a case-insensitive extension is not
+// found, returns a copy of the original FilePath.
+FilePath FilePath::RemoveExtension(const char* extension) const {
+  const std::string dot_extension = std::string(".") + extension;
+  if (String::EndsWithCaseInsensitive(pathname_, dot_extension)) {
+    return FilePath(pathname_.substr(
+        0, pathname_.length() - dot_extension.length()));
+  }
+  return *this;
+}
+
+// Returns a pointer to the last occurence of a valid path separator in
+// the FilePath. On Windows, for example, both '/' and '\' are valid path
+// separators. Returns NULL if no path separator was found.
+const char* FilePath::FindLastPathSeparator() const {
+  const char* const last_sep = strrchr(c_str(), kPathSeparator);
+#if GTEST_HAS_ALT_PATH_SEP_
+  const char* const last_alt_sep = strrchr(c_str(), kAlternatePathSeparator);
+  // Comparing two pointers of which only one is NULL is undefined.
+  if (last_alt_sep != NULL &&
+      (last_sep == NULL || last_alt_sep > last_sep)) {
+    return last_alt_sep;
+  }
+#endif
+  return last_sep;
+}
+
+// Returns a copy of the FilePath with the directory part removed.
+// Example: FilePath("path/to/file").RemoveDirectoryName() returns
+// FilePath("file"). If there is no directory part ("just_a_file"), it returns
+// the FilePath unmodified. If there is no file part ("just_a_dir/") it
+// returns an empty FilePath ("").
+// On Windows platform, '\' is the path separator, otherwise it is '/'.
+FilePath FilePath::RemoveDirectoryName() const {
+  const char* const last_sep = FindLastPathSeparator();
+  return last_sep ? FilePath(last_sep + 1) : *this;
+}
+
+// RemoveFileName returns the directory path with the filename removed.
+// Example: FilePath("path/to/file").RemoveFileName() returns "path/to/".
+// If the FilePath is "a_file" or "/a_file", RemoveFileName returns
+// FilePath("./") or, on Windows, FilePath(".\\"). If the filepath does
+// not have a file, like "just/a/dir/", it returns the FilePath unmodified.
+// On Windows platform, '\' is the path separator, otherwise it is '/'.
+FilePath FilePath::RemoveFileName() const {
+  const char* const last_sep = FindLastPathSeparator();
+  std::string dir;
+  if (last_sep) {
+    dir = std::string(c_str(), last_sep + 1 - c_str());
+  } else {
+    dir = kCurrentDirectoryString;
+  }
+  return FilePath(dir);
+}
+
+// Helper functions for naming files in a directory for xml output.
+
+// Given directory = "dir", base_name = "test", number = 0,
+// extension = "xml", returns "dir/test.xml". If number is greater
+// than zero (e.g., 12), returns "dir/test_12.xml".
+// On Windows platform, uses \ as the separator rather than /.
+FilePath FilePath::MakeFileName(const FilePath& directory,
+                                const FilePath& base_name,
+                                int number,
+                                const char* extension) {
+  std::string file;
+  if (number == 0) {
+    file = base_name.string() + "." + extension;
+  } else {
+    file = base_name.string() + "_" + StreamableToString(number)
+        + "." + extension;
+  }
+  return ConcatPaths(directory, FilePath(file));
+}
+
+// Given directory = "dir", relative_path = "test.xml", returns "dir/test.xml".
+// On Windows, uses \ as the separator rather than /.
+FilePath FilePath::ConcatPaths(const FilePath& directory,
+                               const FilePath& relative_path) {
+  if (directory.IsEmpty())
+    return relative_path;
+  const FilePath dir(directory.RemoveTrailingPathSeparator());
+  return FilePath(dir.string() + kPathSeparator + relative_path.string());
+}
+
+// Returns true if pathname describes something findable in the file-system,
+// either a file, directory, or whatever.
+bool FilePath::FileOrDirectoryExists() const {
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+  LPCWSTR unicode = String::AnsiToUtf16(pathname_.c_str());
+  const DWORD attributes = GetFileAttributes(unicode);
+  delete [] unicode;
+  return attributes != kInvalidFileAttributes;
+#else
+  posix::StatStruct file_stat;
+  return posix::Stat(pathname_.c_str(), &file_stat) == 0;
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+}
+
+// Returns true if pathname describes a directory in the file-system
+// that exists.
+bool FilePath::DirectoryExists() const {
+  bool result = false;
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+  // Don't strip off trailing separator if path is a root directory on
+  // Windows (like "C:\\").
+  const FilePath& path(IsRootDirectory() ? *this :
+                                           RemoveTrailingPathSeparator());
+#else
+  const FilePath& path(*this);
+#endif
+
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+  LPCWSTR unicode = String::AnsiToUtf16(path.c_str());
+  const DWORD attributes = GetFileAttributes(unicode);
+  delete [] unicode;
+  if ((attributes != kInvalidFileAttributes) &&
+      (attributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)) {
+    result = true;
+  }
+#else
+  posix::StatStruct file_stat;
+  result = posix::Stat(path.c_str(), &file_stat) == 0 &&
+      posix::IsDir(file_stat);
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+// Returns true if pathname describes a root directory. (Windows has one
+// root directory per disk drive.)
+bool FilePath::IsRootDirectory() const {
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+  // TODO(wan@google.com): on Windows a network share like
+  // \\server\share can be a root directory, although it cannot be the
+  // current directory.  Handle this properly.
+  return pathname_.length() == 3 && IsAbsolutePath();
+#else
+  return pathname_.length() == 1 && IsPathSeparator(pathname_.c_str()[0]);
+#endif
+}
+
+// Returns true if pathname describes an absolute path.
+bool FilePath::IsAbsolutePath() const {
+  const char* const name = pathname_.c_str();
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+  return pathname_.length() >= 3 &&
+     ((name[0] >= 'a' && name[0] <= 'z') ||
+      (name[0] >= 'A' && name[0] <= 'Z')) &&
+     name[1] == ':' &&
+     IsPathSeparator(name[2]);
+#else
+  return IsPathSeparator(name[0]);
+#endif
+}
+
+// Returns a pathname for a file that does not currently exist. The pathname
+// will be directory/base_name.extension or
+// directory/base_name_<number>.extension if directory/base_name.extension
+// already exists. The number will be incremented until a pathname is found
+// that does not already exist.
+// Examples: 'dir/foo_test.xml' or 'dir/foo_test_1.xml'.
+// There could be a race condition if two or more processes are calling this
+// function at the same time -- they could both pick the same filename.
+FilePath FilePath::GenerateUniqueFileName(const FilePath& directory,
+                                          const FilePath& base_name,
+                                          const char* extension) {
+  FilePath full_pathname;
+  int number = 0;
+  do {
+    full_pathname.Set(MakeFileName(directory, base_name, number++, extension));
+  } while (full_pathname.FileOrDirectoryExists());
+  return full_pathname;
+}
+
+// Returns true if FilePath ends with a path separator, which indicates that
+// it is intended to represent a directory. Returns false otherwise.
+// This does NOT check that a directory (or file) actually exists.
+bool FilePath::IsDirectory() const {
+  return !pathname_.empty() &&
+         IsPathSeparator(pathname_.c_str()[pathname_.length() - 1]);
+}
+
+// Create directories so that path exists. Returns true if successful or if
+// the directories already exist; returns false if unable to create directories
+// for any reason.
+bool FilePath::CreateDirectoriesRecursively() const {
+  if (!this->IsDirectory()) {
+    return false;
+  }
+
+  if (pathname_.length() == 0 || this->DirectoryExists()) {
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  const FilePath parent(this->RemoveTrailingPathSeparator().RemoveFileName());
+  return parent.CreateDirectoriesRecursively() && this->CreateFolder();
+}
+
+// Create the directory so that path exists. Returns true if successful or
+// if the directory already exists; returns false if unable to create the
+// directory for any reason, including if the parent directory does not
+// exist. Not named "CreateDirectory" because that's a macro on Windows.
+bool FilePath::CreateFolder() const {
+#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+  FilePath removed_sep(this->RemoveTrailingPathSeparator());
+  LPCWSTR unicode = String::AnsiToUtf16(removed_sep.c_str());
+  int result = CreateDirectory(unicode, NULL) ? 0 : -1;
+  delete [] unicode;
+#elif GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
+  int result = _mkdir(pathname_.c_str());
+#else
+  int result = mkdir(pathname_.c_str(), 0777);
+#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS_MOBILE
+
+  if (result == -1) {
+    return this->DirectoryExists();  // An error is OK if the directory exists.
+  }
+  return true;  // No error.
+}
+
+// If input name has a trailing separator character, remove it and return the
+// name, otherwise return the name string unmodified.
+// On Windows platform, uses \ as the separator, other platforms use /.
+FilePath FilePath::RemoveTrailingPathSeparator() const {
+  return IsDirectory()
+      ? FilePath(pathname_.substr(0, pathname_.length() - 1))
+      : *this;
+}
+
+// Removes any redundant separators that might be in the pathname.
+// For example, "bar///foo" becomes "bar/foo". Does not eliminate other
+// redundancies that might be in a pathname involving "." or "..".
+// TODO(wan@google.com): handle Windows network shares (e.g. \\server\share).
+void FilePath::Normalize() {
+  if (pathname_.c_str() == NULL) {
+    pathname_ = "";
+    return;
+  }
+  const char* src = pathname_.c_str();
+  char* const dest = new char[pathname_.length() + 1];
+  char* dest_ptr = dest;
+  memset(dest_ptr, 0, pathname_.length() + 1);
+
+  while (*src != '\0') {
+    *dest_ptr = *src;
+    if (!IsPathSeparator(*src)) {
+      src++;
+    } else {
+#if GTEST_HAS_ALT_PATH_SEP_
+      if (*dest_ptr == kAlternatePathSeparator) {
+        *dest_ptr = kPathSeparator;
+      }
+#endif
+      while (IsPathSeparator(*src))
+        src++;
+    }
+    dest_ptr++;
+  }
+  *dest_ptr = '\0';
+  pathname_ = dest;
+  delete[] dest;
+}
+
+}  // namespace internal
+}  // namespace testing


Mime
View raw message