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From omal...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1077514 - in /hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src: hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/ hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/ test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/
Date Fri, 04 Mar 2011 04:22:41 GMT
Author: omalley
Date: Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
New Revision: 1077514

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=1077514&view=rev
Log:
commit c56c0b135d0d1f92d0fb02520c1f191afc8a884d
Author: Tsz Wo Wo Sze <tsz@ucdev29.inktomisearch.com>
Date:   Thu Jun 24 18:54:07 2010 +0000

    HDFS-1114: from https://issues.apache.org/jira/secure/attachment/12447970/h1114_20100617b2_y0.20.1xx.patch
    
    +++ b/YAHOO-CHANGES.txt
    +    HDFS-1114. Implement LightWeightGSet for BlocksMap in order to reduce
    +    NameNode memory footprint.  (szetszwo)
    +

Added:
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/LightWeightGSet.java
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/TestGSet.java
Modified:
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/BlocksMap.java
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSNamesystem.java
    hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/GSet.java

Modified: hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/BlocksMap.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/BlocksMap.java?rev=1077514&r1=1077513&r2=1077514&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/BlocksMap.java
(original)
+++ hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/BlocksMap.java
Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ import java.util.Iterator;
 
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.Block;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util.GSet;
-import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util.GSetByHashMap;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util.LightWeightGSet;
 
 /**
  * This class maintains the map from a block to its metadata.
@@ -33,9 +33,12 @@ class BlocksMap {
   /**
    * Internal class for block metadata.
    */
-  static class BlockInfo extends Block {
+  static class BlockInfo extends Block implements LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement {
     private INodeFile          inode;
 
+    /** For implementing {@link LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement} interface */
+    private LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement nextLinkedElement;
+
     /**
      * This array contains triplets of references.
      * For each i-th data-node the block belongs to
@@ -268,6 +271,16 @@ class BlocksMap {
       }
       return true;
     }
+
+    @Override
+    public LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement getNext() {
+      return nextLinkedElement;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void setNext(LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement next) {
+      this.nextLinkedElement = next;
+    }
   }
 
   private static class NodeIterator implements Iterator<DatanodeDescriptor> {
@@ -292,20 +305,45 @@ class BlocksMap {
     }
   }
 
-  // Used for tracking HashMap capacity growth
-  private int capacity;
-  private final float loadFactor;
+  /** Constant {@link LightWeightGSet} capacity. */
+  private final int capacity;
   
   private GSet<Block, BlockInfo> blocks;
 
   BlocksMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
-    this.capacity = 1;
-    // Capacity is initialized to the next multiple of 2 of initialCapacity
-    while (this.capacity < initialCapacity)
-      this.capacity <<= 1;
-    this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
-    this.blocks = new GSetByHashMap<Block, BlockInfo>(
-        initialCapacity, loadFactor);
+    this.capacity = computeCapacity();
+    this.blocks = new LightWeightGSet<Block, BlockInfo>(capacity);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Let t = 2% of max memory.
+   * Let e = round(log_2 t).
+   * Then, we choose capacity = 2^e/(size of reference),
+   * unless it is outside the close interval [1, 2^30].
+   */
+  private static int computeCapacity() {
+    //VM detection
+    //See http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/HotSpotFAQ.html#64bit_detection
+    final String vmBit = System.getProperty("sun.arch.data.model");
+
+    //2% of max memory
+    final double twoPC = Runtime.getRuntime().maxMemory()/50.0;
+
+    //compute capacity
+    final int e1 = (int)(Math.log(twoPC)/Math.log(2.0) + 0.5);
+    final int e2 = e1 - ("32".equals(vmBit)? 2: 3);
+    final int exponent = e2 < 0? 0: e2 > 30? 30: e2;
+    final int c = 1 << exponent;
+
+    LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("VM type       = " + vmBit + "-bit");
+    LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("2% max memory = " + twoPC/(1 << 20) + " MB");
+    LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("capacity      = 2^" + exponent
+        + " = " + c + " entries");
+    return c;
+  }
+
+  void close() {
+    blocks = null;
   }
 
   /**
@@ -440,10 +478,6 @@ class BlocksMap {
   
   /** Get the capacity of the HashMap that stores blocks */
   public int getCapacity() {
-    // Capacity doubles every time the map size reaches the threshold
-    while (blocks.size() > (int)(capacity * loadFactor)) {
-      capacity <<= 1;
-    }
     return capacity;
   }
 }

Modified: hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSNamesystem.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSNamesystem.java?rev=1077514&r1=1077513&r2=1077514&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSNamesystem.java
(original)
+++ hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/namenode/FSNamesystem.java
Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
@@ -525,6 +525,7 @@ public class FSNamesystem implements FSC
           lmthread.join(3000);
         }
         dir.close();
+        blocksMap.close();
       } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
       } catch (IOException ie) {
         LOG.error("Error closing FSDirectory", ie);

Modified: hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/GSet.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/GSet.java?rev=1077514&r1=1077513&r2=1077514&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/GSet.java
(original)
+++ hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/GSet.java
Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@ public interface GSet<K, E extends K> ex
    * @param key The given key.
    * @return true if the given key equals to a stored element.
    *         Otherwise, return false.
+   * @throws NullPointerException if key == null.
    */
   boolean contains(K key);
 
@@ -47,6 +48,7 @@ public interface GSet<K, E extends K> ex
    * @param key The given key.
    * @return The stored element if it exists.
    *         Otherwise, return null.
+   * @throws NullPointerException if key == null.
    */
   E get(K key);
 
@@ -63,6 +65,7 @@ public interface GSet<K, E extends K> ex
    * @param element The element being put.
    * @return the previous stored element if there is any.
    *         Otherwise, return null.
+   * @throws NullPointerException if element == null.
    */
   E put(E element);
 
@@ -72,6 +75,7 @@ public interface GSet<K, E extends K> ex
    * @param key The key of the element being removed.
    * @return If such element exists, return it.
    *         Otherwise, return null. 
-   */
+    * @throws NullPointerException if key == null.
+  */
   E remove(K key);
 }
\ No newline at end of file

Added: hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/LightWeightGSet.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/LightWeightGSet.java?rev=1077514&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/LightWeightGSet.java
(added)
+++ hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/hdfs/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/LightWeightGSet.java
Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,283 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util;
+
+import java.io.PrintStream;
+import java.util.ConcurrentModificationException;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+
+import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
+import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
+
+/**
+ * A low memory footprint {@link GSet} implementation,
+ * which uses an array for storing the elements
+ * and linked lists for collision resolution.
+ *
+ * No rehash will be performed.
+ * Therefore, the internal array will never be resized.
+ *
+ * This class does not support null element.
+ *
+ * This class is not thread safe.
+ *
+ * @param <K> Key type for looking up the elements
+ * @param <E> Element type, which must be
+ *       (1) a subclass of K, and
+ *       (2) implementing {@link LinkedElement} interface.
+ */
+public class LightWeightGSet<K, E extends K> implements GSet<K, E> {
+  /**
+   * Elements of {@link LightWeightGSet}.
+   */
+  public static interface LinkedElement {
+    /** Set the next element. */
+    public void setNext(LinkedElement next);
+
+    /** Get the next element. */
+    public LinkedElement getNext();
+  }
+
+  public static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(GSet.class);
+  static final int MAX_ARRAY_LENGTH = 1 << 30; //prevent int overflow problem
+  static final int MIN_ARRAY_LENGTH = 1;
+
+  /**
+   * An internal array of entries, which are the rows of the hash table.
+   * The size must be a power of two.
+   */
+  private final LinkedElement[] entries;
+  /** A mask for computing the array index from the hash value of an element. */
+  private final int hash_mask;
+  /** The size of the set (not the entry array). */
+  private int size = 0;
+  /** Modification version for fail-fast.
+   * @see ConcurrentModificationException
+   */
+  private volatile int modification = 0;
+
+  /**
+   * @param recommended_length Recommended size of the internal array.
+   */
+  public LightWeightGSet(final int recommended_length) {
+    final int actual = actualArrayLength(recommended_length);
+    LOG.info("recommended=" + recommended_length + ", actual=" + actual);
+
+    entries = new LinkedElement[actual];
+    hash_mask = entries.length - 1;
+  }
+
+  //compute actual length
+  private static int actualArrayLength(int recommended) {
+    if (recommended > MAX_ARRAY_LENGTH) {
+      return MAX_ARRAY_LENGTH;
+    } else if (recommended < MIN_ARRAY_LENGTH) {
+      return MIN_ARRAY_LENGTH;
+    } else {
+      final int a = Integer.highestOneBit(recommended);
+      return a == recommended? a: a << 1;
+    }
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public int size() {
+    return size;
+  }
+
+  private int getIndex(final K key) {
+    return key.hashCode() & hash_mask;
+  }
+
+  private E convert(final LinkedElement e){
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    final E r = (E)e;
+    return r;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public E get(final K key) {
+    //validate key
+    if (key == null) {
+      throw new NullPointerException("key == null");
+    }
+
+    //find element
+    final int index = getIndex(key);
+    for(LinkedElement e = entries[index]; e != null; e = e.getNext()) {
+      if (e.equals(key)) {
+        return convert(e);
+      }
+    }
+    //element not found
+    return null;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public boolean contains(final K key) {
+    return get(key) != null;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public E put(final E element) {
+    //validate element
+    if (element == null) {
+      throw new NullPointerException("Null element is not supported.");
+    }
+    if (!(element instanceof LinkedElement)) {
+      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
+          "!(element instanceof LinkedElement), element.getClass()="
+          + element.getClass());
+    }
+    final LinkedElement e = (LinkedElement)element;
+
+    //find index
+    final int index = getIndex(element);
+
+    //remove if it already exists
+    final E existing = remove(index, element);
+
+    //insert the element to the head of the linked list
+    modification++;
+    size++;
+    e.setNext(entries[index]);
+    entries[index] = e;
+
+    return existing;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Remove the element corresponding to the key,
+   * given key.hashCode() == index.
+   *
+   * @return If such element exists, return it.
+   *         Otherwise, return null.
+   */
+  private E remove(final int index, final K key) {
+    if (entries[index] == null) {
+      return null;
+    } else if (entries[index].equals(key)) {
+      //remove the head of the linked list
+      modification++;
+      size--;
+      final LinkedElement e = entries[index];
+      entries[index] = e.getNext();
+      e.setNext(null);
+      return convert(e);
+    } else {
+      //head != null and key is not equal to head
+      //search the element
+      LinkedElement prev = entries[index];
+      for(LinkedElement curr = prev.getNext(); curr != null; ) {
+        if (curr.equals(key)) {
+          //found the element, remove it
+          modification++;
+          size--;
+          prev.setNext(curr.getNext());
+          curr.setNext(null);
+          return convert(curr);
+        } else {
+          prev = curr;
+          curr = curr.getNext();
+        }
+      }
+      //element not found
+      return null;
+    }
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public E remove(final K key) {
+    //validate key
+    if (key == null) {
+      throw new NullPointerException("key == null");
+    }
+    return remove(getIndex(key), key);
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public Iterator<E> iterator() {
+    return new SetIterator();
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public String toString() {
+    final StringBuilder b = new StringBuilder(getClass().getSimpleName());
+    b.append("(size=").append(size)
+     .append(String.format(", %08x", hash_mask))
+     .append(", modification=").append(modification)
+     .append(", entries.length=").append(entries.length)
+     .append(")");
+    return b.toString();
+  }
+
+  /** Print detailed information of this object. */
+  public void printDetails(final PrintStream out) {
+    out.print(this + ", entries = [");
+    for(int i = 0; i < entries.length; i++) {
+      if (entries[i] != null) {
+        LinkedElement e = entries[i];
+        out.print("\n  " + i + ": " + e);
+        for(e = e.getNext(); e != null; e = e.getNext()) {
+          out.print(" -> " + e);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    out.println("\n]");
+  }
+
+  private class SetIterator implements Iterator<E> {
+    /** The starting modification for fail-fast. */
+    private final int startModification = modification;
+    /** The current index of the entry array. */
+    private int index = -1;
+    /** The next element to return. */
+    private LinkedElement next = nextNonemptyEntry();
+
+    /** Find the next nonempty entry starting at (index + 1). */
+    private LinkedElement nextNonemptyEntry() {
+      for(index++; index < entries.length && entries[index] == null; index++);
+      return index < entries.length? entries[index]: null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean hasNext() {
+      return next != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public E next() {
+      if (modification != startModification) {
+        throw new ConcurrentModificationException("modification=" + modification
+            + " != startModification = " + startModification);
+      }
+
+      final E e = convert(next);
+
+      //find the next element
+      final LinkedElement n = next.getNext();
+      next = n != null? n: nextNonemptyEntry();
+
+      return e;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void remove() {
+      throw new UnsupportedOperationException("Remove is not supported.");
+    }
+  }
+}

Added: hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/TestGSet.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/TestGSet.java?rev=1077514&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/TestGSet.java
(added)
+++ hadoop/common/branches/branch-0.20-security-patches/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/util/TestGSet.java
Fri Mar  4 04:22:41 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,454 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.util;
+
+import java.util.ConcurrentModificationException;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.Random;
+
+import org.junit.Assert;
+import org.junit.Test;
+
+public class TestGSet {
+  private static final Random ran = new Random();
+  private static final long starttime = System.currentTimeMillis();
+
+  private static void print(Object s) {
+    System.out.print(s);
+    System.out.flush();
+  }
+
+  private static void println(Object s) {
+    System.out.println(s);
+  }
+
+  @Test
+  public void testExceptionCases() {
+    {
+      //test contains
+      final LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer> gset
+        = new LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer>(16);
+      try {
+        //test contains with a null element
+        gset.contains(null);
+        Assert.fail();
+      } catch(NullPointerException e) {
+        LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    {
+      //test get
+      final LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer> gset
+        = new LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer>(16);
+      try {
+        //test get with a null element
+        gset.get(null);
+        Assert.fail();
+      } catch(NullPointerException e) {
+        LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    {
+      //test put
+      final LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer> gset
+        = new LightWeightGSet<Integer, Integer>(16);
+      try {
+        //test put with a null element
+        gset.put(null);
+        Assert.fail();
+      } catch(NullPointerException e) {
+        LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+      }
+      try {
+        //test putting an element which is not implementing LinkedElement
+        gset.put(1);
+        Assert.fail();
+      } catch(IllegalArgumentException e) {
+        LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    {
+      //test iterator
+      final IntElement[] data = new IntElement[5];
+      for(int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {
+        data[i] = new IntElement(i, i);
+      }
+
+      for(int v = 1; v < data.length-1; v++) {
+        {
+          //test remove while iterating
+          final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> gset = createGSet(data);
+          for(IntElement i : gset) {
+            if (i.value == v) {
+              //okay because data[0] is not in gset
+              gset.remove(data[0]);
+            }
+          }
+
+          try {
+            //exception because data[1] is in gset
+            for(IntElement i : gset) {
+              if (i.value == v) {
+                gset.remove(data[1]);
+              }
+            }
+            Assert.fail();
+          } catch(ConcurrentModificationException e) {
+            LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+          }
+        }
+
+        {
+          //test put new element while iterating
+          final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> gset = createGSet(data);
+          try {
+            for(IntElement i : gset) {
+              if (i.value == v) {
+                gset.put(data[0]);
+              }
+            }
+            Assert.fail();
+          } catch(ConcurrentModificationException e) {
+            LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+          }
+        }
+
+        {
+          //test put existing element while iterating
+          final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> gset = createGSet(data);
+          try {
+            for(IntElement i : gset) {
+              if (i.value == v) {
+                gset.put(data[3]);
+              }
+            }
+            Assert.fail();
+          } catch(ConcurrentModificationException e) {
+            LightWeightGSet.LOG.info("GOOD: getting " + e, e);
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  private static GSet<IntElement, IntElement> createGSet(final IntElement[] data) {
+    final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> gset
+      = new LightWeightGSet<IntElement, IntElement>(8);
+    for(int i = 1; i < data.length; i++) {
+      gset.put(data[i]);
+    }
+    return gset;
+  }
+
+  @Test
+  public void testGSet() {
+    //The parameters are: table length, data size, modulus.
+    check(new GSetTestCase(1, 1 << 4, 65537));
+    check(new GSetTestCase(17, 1 << 16, 17));
+    check(new GSetTestCase(255, 1 << 10, 65537));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A long test,
+   * which may take ~5 hours,
+   * with various data sets and parameters.
+   * If you are changing the implementation,
+   * please un-comment the following line in order to run the test.
+   */
+  //@Test
+  public void runMultipleTestGSet() {
+    for(int offset = -2; offset <= 2; offset++) {
+      runTestGSet(1, offset);
+      for(int i = 1; i < Integer.SIZE - 1; i++) {
+        runTestGSet((1 << i) + 1, offset);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  private static void runTestGSet(final int modulus, final int offset) {
+    println("\n\nmodulus=" + modulus + ", offset=" + offset);
+    for(int i = 0; i <= 16; i += 4) {
+      final int tablelength = (1 << i) + offset;
+
+      final int upper = i + 2;
+      final int steps = Math.max(1, upper/3);
+
+      for(int j = 0; j <= upper; j += steps) {
+        final int datasize = 1 << j;
+        check(new GSetTestCase(tablelength, datasize, modulus));
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  private static void check(final GSetTestCase test) {
+    //check add
+    print("  check add .................. ");
+    for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size()/2; i++) {
+      test.put(test.data.get(i));
+    }
+    for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size(); i++) {
+      test.put(test.data.get(i));
+    }
+    println("DONE " + test.stat());
+
+    //check remove and add
+    print("  check remove & add ......... ");
+    for(int j = 0; j < 10; j++) {
+      for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size()/2; i++) {
+        final int r = ran.nextInt(test.data.size());
+        test.remove(test.data.get(r));
+      }
+      for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size()/2; i++) {
+        final int r = ran.nextInt(test.data.size());
+        test.put(test.data.get(r));
+      }
+    }
+    println("DONE " + test.stat());
+
+    //check remove
+    print("  check remove ............... ");
+    for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size(); i++) {
+      test.remove(test.data.get(i));
+    }
+    Assert.assertEquals(0, test.gset.size());
+    println("DONE " + test.stat());
+
+    //check remove and add again
+    print("  check remove & add again ... ");
+    for(int j = 0; j < 10; j++) {
+      for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size()/2; i++) {
+        final int r = ran.nextInt(test.data.size());
+        test.remove(test.data.get(r));
+      }
+      for(int i = 0; i < test.data.size()/2; i++) {
+        final int r = ran.nextInt(test.data.size());
+        test.put(test.data.get(r));
+      }
+    }
+    println("DONE " + test.stat());
+
+    final long s = (System.currentTimeMillis() - starttime)/1000L;
+    println("total time elapsed=" + s + "s\n");
+  }
+
+  /** Test cases */
+  private static class GSetTestCase implements GSet<IntElement, IntElement> {
+    final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> expected
+        = new GSetByHashMap<IntElement, IntElement>(1024, 0.75f);
+    final GSet<IntElement, IntElement> gset;
+    final IntData data;
+
+    final String info;
+    final long starttime = System.currentTimeMillis();
+    /** Determine the probability in {@link #check()}. */
+    final int denominator;
+    int iterate_count = 0;
+    int contain_count = 0;
+
+    GSetTestCase(int tablelength, int datasize, int modulus) {
+      denominator = Math.min((datasize >> 7) + 1, 1 << 16);
+      info = getClass().getSimpleName()
+          + ": tablelength=" + tablelength
+          + ", datasize=" + datasize
+          + ", modulus=" + modulus
+          + ", denominator=" + denominator;
+      println(info);
+
+      data  = new IntData(datasize, modulus);
+      gset = new LightWeightGSet<IntElement, IntElement>(tablelength);
+
+      Assert.assertEquals(0, gset.size());
+    }
+
+    private boolean containsTest(IntElement key) {
+      final boolean e = expected.contains(key);
+      Assert.assertEquals(e, gset.contains(key));
+      return e;
+    }
+    @Override
+    public boolean contains(IntElement key) {
+      final boolean e = containsTest(key);
+      check();
+      return e;
+    }
+
+    private IntElement getTest(IntElement key) {
+      final IntElement e = expected.get(key);
+      Assert.assertEquals(e.id, gset.get(key).id);
+      return e;
+    }
+    @Override
+    public IntElement get(IntElement key) {
+      final IntElement e = getTest(key);
+      check();
+      return e;
+    }
+
+    private IntElement putTest(IntElement element) {
+      final IntElement e = expected.put(element);
+      if (e == null) {
+        Assert.assertEquals(null, gset.put(element));
+      } else {
+        Assert.assertEquals(e.id, gset.put(element).id);
+      }
+      return e;
+    }
+    @Override
+    public IntElement put(IntElement element) {
+      final IntElement e = putTest(element);
+      check();
+      return e;
+    }
+
+    private IntElement removeTest(IntElement key) {
+      final IntElement e = expected.remove(key);
+      if (e == null) {
+        Assert.assertEquals(null, gset.remove(key));
+      } else {
+        Assert.assertEquals(e.id, gset.remove(key).id);
+      }
+
+      check();
+      return e;
+    }
+    @Override
+    public IntElement remove(IntElement key) {
+      final IntElement e = removeTest(key);
+      check();
+      return e;
+    }
+
+    private int sizeTest() {
+      final int s = expected.size();
+      Assert.assertEquals(s, gset.size());
+      return s;
+    }
+    @Override
+    public int size() {
+      final int s = sizeTest();
+      check();
+      return s;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Iterator<IntElement> iterator() {
+      throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+    }
+
+    void check() {
+      //test size
+      sizeTest();
+
+      if (ran.nextInt(denominator) == 0) {
+        //test get(..), check content and test iterator
+        iterate_count++;
+        for(IntElement i : gset) {
+          getTest(i);
+        }
+      }
+
+      if (ran.nextInt(denominator) == 0) {
+        //test contains(..)
+        contain_count++;
+        final int count = Math.min(data.size(), 1000);
+        if (count == data.size()) {
+          for(IntElement i : data.integers) {
+            containsTest(i);
+          }
+        } else {
+          for(int j = 0; j < count; j++) {
+            containsTest(data.get(ran.nextInt(data.size())));
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    String stat() {
+      final long t = System.currentTimeMillis() - starttime;
+      return String.format(" iterate=%5d, contain=%5d, time elapsed=%5d.%03ds",
+          iterate_count, contain_count, t/1000, t%1000);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /** Test data set */
+  private static class IntData {
+    final IntElement[] integers;
+
+    IntData(int size, int modulus) {
+      integers = new IntElement[size];
+      for(int i = 0; i < integers.length; i++) {
+        integers[i] = new IntElement(i, ran.nextInt(modulus));
+      }
+    }
+
+    IntElement get(int i) {
+      return integers[i];
+    }
+
+    int size() {
+      return integers.length;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /** Elements of {@link LightWeightGSet} in this test */
+  private static class IntElement implements LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement,
+      Comparable<IntElement> {
+    private LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement next;
+    final int id;
+    final int value;
+
+    IntElement(int id, int value) {
+      this.id = id;
+      this.value = value;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
+      return obj != null && obj instanceof IntElement
+          && value == ((IntElement)obj).value;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int hashCode() {
+      return value;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int compareTo(IntElement that) {
+      return value - that.value;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public String toString() {
+      return id + "#" + value;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement getNext() {
+      return next;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void setNext(LightWeightGSet.LinkedElement e) {
+      next = e;
+    }
+  }
+}



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