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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Hadoop Wiki] Update of "Hive/StorageHandlers" by JohnSichi
Date Wed, 03 Mar 2010 03:02:26 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Hadoop Wiki" for change notification.

The "Hive/StorageHandlers" page has been changed by JohnSichi.
http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive/StorageHandlers

--------------------------------------------------

New page:
= Introduction =

This page documents the storage handler support being added to Hive as
part of work on [[Hive/HBaseIntegration]].  The motivation is to make
it possible to allow Hive to access data stored and managed by other
systems in a modular, extensible fashion.

The support is currently targeted at other Hadoop-based systems such
as HBase; systems such as Cassandra could be included via further
integration efforts, e.g.
[[http://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-342|CASSANDRA-342]].

Hive storage handler support builds on existing extensibility features in
both Hadoop and Hive:

 * input formats
 * output formats
 * serialization/deserialization libraries

Besides bundling these together, a storage handler can also implement
a new metadata hook interface, allowing Hive DDL to be used for
managing object definitions in both the Hive metastore and the
other system's catalog simultaneously and consistently.

= Terminology =

Before storage handlers, Hive already had a concept of ''managed'' vs
''external'' tables.  A managed table is one for which the definition
is primarily managed in Hive's metastore, and for whose data
storage Hive is responsible.  An external table is one whose
definition is managed in some external catalog, and whose data Hive
does not own (i.e. it will not be deleted when the table is dropped).

Storage handlers introduce a distinction between ''native'' and
''non-native'' tables.  A native table is one which Hive knows how to
manage and access without a storage handler; a non-native table is one
which requires a storage handler.

These two distinctions (''managed vs. external'' and ''native vs
non-native'') are orthogonal.  Hence, there are four possibilities for
base tables:

 * managed native:  what you get by default with CREATE TABLE
 * external native:  what you get with CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE when no STORED BY clause is specified
 * managed non-native:  what you get with CREATE TABLE when a STORED BY clause is specified;
Hive stores the definition in its metastore, but does not create any files itself; instead,
it calls the storage handler with a request to create a corresponding object structure
 * external non-native:  what you get with CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE when a STORED BY clause is
specified; Hive registers the definition in its metastore and calls the storage handler to
check that it matches the primary definition in the other system

Note that we avoid the term ''file-based'' in these definitions, since
the form of storage used by the other system is irrelevant.

= DDL =

Storage handlers are associated with a table when it is created via
the new STORED BY clause, an alternative to the existing ROW FORMAT
and STORED AS clause:

{{{
CREATE [EXTERNAL] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] table_name
  [(col_name data_type [COMMENT col_comment], ...)]
  [COMMENT table_comment]
  [PARTITIONED BY (col_name data_type [col_comment], col_name data_type [COMMENT col_comment],
...)]
  [CLUSTERED BY (col_name, col_name, ...) [SORTED BY (col_name, ...)] INTO num_buckets BUCKETS]
  [
   [ROW FORMAT row_format] [STORED AS file_format]
   | STORED BY 'storage.handler.class.name' [ WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (...) ]
  ]
  [LOCATION hdfs_path]
  [AS select_statement]
}}}

When STORED BY is specified, then row_format (DELIMITED or SERDE) and
STORED AS cannot be specified.  Optional SERDEPROPERTIES can be
specified as part of the STORED BY clause and will be passed to the
serde provided by the storage handler.

Example:

{{{
CREATE TABLE hbase_table_1(key int, value string) 
STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.hbase.HBaseStorageHandler'
WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (
"hbase.columns.mapping" = "cf:string",
"hbase.table.name" = "hbase_table_0"
);
}}}

DROP TABLE works as usual, but ALTER TABLE is not yet supported for
non-native tables.

= Storage Handler Interface =

The Java interface which must be implemented by a storage handler is
reproduced below; for details, see the Javadoc in the code:

{{{
package org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata;

import java.util.Map;

import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configurable;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.HiveMetaHook;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.plan.TableDesc;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.SerDe;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.InputFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.OutputFormat;

public interface HiveStorageHandler extends Configurable {
  public Class<? extends InputFormat> getInputFormatClass();
  public Class<? extends OutputFormat> getOutputFormatClass();
  public Class<? extends SerDe> getSerDeClass();
  public HiveMetaHook getMetaHook();
  public void configureTableJobProperties(
    TableDesc tableDesc,
    Map<String, String> jobProperties);
}
}}}

The {{{HiveMetaHook}}} is optional, and described in the next section.
If {{{getMetaHook}}} returns non-null, the returned object's methods
will be invoked as part of metastore modification operations.

The {{{configureTableJobProperties}}} method is called as part of
planning a job for execution by Hadoop.  It is the responsibility of
the storage handler to examine the table definition and set corresponding
attributes on jobProperties.  At execution time, only these jobProperties
will be available to the input format, output format, and serde.

= HiveMetaHook Interface =

The {{{HiveMetaHook}}} interface is reproduced below; for details, see
the Javadoc in the code:

{{{
package org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore;

import org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.api.MetaException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.api.Partition;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.api.Table;

public interface HiveMetaHook {
  public void preCreateTable(Table table)
    throws MetaException;
  public void rollbackCreateTable(Table table)
    throws MetaException;
  public void commitCreateTable(Table table)
    throws MetaException;
  public void preDropTable(Table table)
    throws MetaException;
  public void rollbackDropTable(Table table)
    throws MetaException;
  public void commitDropTable(Table table, boolean deleteData)
    throws MetaException;
}}}

Note that regardless of whether or not a remote Thrift metastore
process is used in the Hive configuration, meta hook calls are always
made from the Hive client JVM (never from the Thrift metastore
server).  This means that the jar containing the storage handler class
needs to be available on the client, but not the thrift server.

Also note that there is no facilitiy for two-phase commit in metadata
transactions against the Hive metastore and the storage handler.  As a
result, there is a small window in which a crash during DDL can lead
to the two systems getting out of sync.  

= Open Issues =

 * The storage handler class name is currently saved to the metastore via table property {{{storage_handler}}};
this should probably be a first-class attribute on MTable instead
 * Names of helper classes such as input format and output format are saved into the metastore
based on what the storage handler returns during CREATE TABLE; it would be better to leave
these null in case they are changed later as part of a handler upgrade
 * A dummy location is currently set for a non-native table (the same as if it were a native
table), even though no Hive files are created for it.  We would prefer to store null, but
first we need to fix the way data source information is passed to input formats (HIVE-1133)
 * Storage handlers are currently set only at the table level.  We may want to allow them
to be specified per partition, including support for a table spanning different storage handlers.
 * FileSinkOperator should probably be refactored, since non-native tables aren't accessed
as files, meaning a lot of the logic is irrelevant for them
 * It may be a good idea to support temporary disablement of metastore hooks as part of manual
catalog repair operations
 * The CREATE TABLE grammar isn't quite as strict as the one given above; some changes are
needed in order to prevent STORED BY and row_format both being specified at once

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