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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Hadoop Wiki] Update of "PerformanceTuning" by RyanRawson
Date Wed, 06 May 2009 21:04:25 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Hadoop Wiki" for change notification.

The following page has been changed by RyanRawson:

New page:
== Performance tips ==

 * Use compression, see [UsingLzoCompression]
 * Ram, ram, ram.  Don't starve HBase.
 * More CPUs is important, as you will see in the next section
 * Use a 64 bit platform, and a 64 bit JVM.
 * Your clients might need tuning: [http://ryantwopointoh.blogspot.com/2009/01/performance-of-hbase-importing.html]
 * Make sure that java implies -server on your machines, or else you will have to explicitly
enable it.

== JVM and GC ==

HBase is memory intensive, and using the default GC you can see long pauses in all threads.
 With the addition of ZooKeeper this can cause false errors as ZooKeeper and the HBase master
thinks a regionserver has died.  

To avoid this, you must use Java6 CMS: [http://java.sun.com/javase/technologies/hotspot/gc/gc_tuning_6.html]

To enable, in hbase-env.sh add: {{{
export HBASE_OPTS="-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -verbose:gc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps

Adjust the log directory to wherever you log.

the CMS collector will use many threads to do the concurrent sweeping of your heap, if you
are running on a 2 cpu system, you should probably also enable Incremental mode [http://java.sun.com/javase/technologies/hotspot/gc/gc_tuning_6.html#icms]:
export HBASE_OPTS="-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:+CMSIncrementalMode <other options>"

At this point you should see logs like so:
64898.952: [GC [1 CMS-initial-mark: 2811538K(3055704K)] 2812179K(3061272K), 0.0007360 secs]
[Times: user=0.00 sys=0.00, real=0.00 secs] 
64898.953: [CMS-concurrent-mark-start]
64898.971: [GC 64898.971: [ParNew: 5567K->576K(5568K), 0.0101110 secs] 2817105K->2812715K(3061272K),
0.0102200 secs] [Times: user=0.07 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 

In this section, the first line indicates a 0.0007360 second pause for the CMS to initially
mark.  This pauses the entire VM, all threads for that period of time.

The third line indicates a "minor GC", which pauses the VM for 0.0101110 seconds - aka 10
milliseconds.  It has reduced the "ParNew" from about 5.5m to 576k.  

Later on in this cycle we see:
64901.445: [CMS-concurrent-mark: 1.542/2.492 secs] [Times: user=10.49 sys=0.33, real=2.49
64901.445: [CMS-concurrent-preclean-start]
64901.453: [GC 64901.453: [ParNew: 5505K->573K(5568K), 0.0062440 secs] 2868746K->2864292K(3061272K),
0.0063360 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.476: [GC 64901.476: [ParNew: 5563K->575K(5568K), 0.0072510 secs] 2869283K->2864837K(3061272K),
0.0073320 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.500: [GC 64901.500: [ParNew: 5517K->573K(5568K), 0.0120390 secs] 2869780K->2865267K(3061272K),
0.0121150 secs] [Times: user=0.09 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.529: [GC 64901.529: [ParNew: 5507K->569K(5568K), 0.0086240 secs] 2870200K->2865742K(3061272K),
0.0087180 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.554: [GC 64901.555: [ParNew: 5516K->575K(5568K), 0.0107130 secs] 2870689K->2866291K(3061272K),
0.0107820 secs] [Times: user=0.06 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.578: [CMS-concurrent-preclean: 0.070/0.133 secs] [Times: user=0.48 sys=0.01, real=0.14
64901.578: [CMS-concurrent-abortable-preclean-start]
64901.584: [GC 64901.584: [ParNew: 5504K->571K(5568K), 0.0087270 secs] 2871220K->2866830K(3061272K),
0.0088220 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.609: [GC 64901.609: [ParNew: 5512K->569K(5568K), 0.0063370 secs] 2871771K->2867322K(3061272K),
0.0064230 secs] [Times: user=0.06 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.615: [CMS-concurrent-abortable-preclean: 0.007/0.037 secs] [Times: user=0.13 sys=0.00,
real=0.03 secs] 
64901.616: [GC[YG occupancy: 645 K (5568 K)]64901.616: [Rescan (parallel) , 0.0020210 secs]64901.618:
[weak refs processing, 0.0027950 secs] [1 CMS-remark: 2866753K(3055704K)] 2867399K(3061272K),
0.0049380 secs] [Times: user=0.00 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs] 
64901.621: [CMS-concurrent-sweep-start]

The first line indicates that the CMS concurrent mark (finding garbage) has taken 2.4 seconds.
 But this is a _concurrent_ 2.4 seconds, Java has not been paused at any point in time.  

There are a few more minor GCs, then there is a pause at the 2nd last line: {{{
64901.616: [GC[YG occupancy: 645 K (5568 K)]64901.616: [Rescan (parallel) , 0.0020210 secs]64901.618:
[weak refs processing, 0.0027950 secs] [1 CMS-remark: 2866753K(3055704K)] 2867399K(3061272K),
0.0049380 secs] [Times: user=0.00 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs] 
The pause here is 0.0049380 seconds (aka 4.9 milliseconds) to 'remark' the heap.

At this point the sweep starts, and you can watch the heap size go down: {{{
64901.637: [GC 64901.637: [ParNew: 5501K->569K(5568K), 0.0097350 secs] 2871958K->2867441K(3061272K),
0.0098370 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
...  lines removed ...
64904.936: [GC 64904.936: [ParNew: 5532K->568K(5568K), 0.0070720 secs] 1365024K->1360689K(3061272K),
0.0071930 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs] 
64904.953: [CMS-concurrent-sweep: 2.030/3.332 secs] [Times: user=9.57 sys=0.26, real=3.33

At this point, the CMS sweep took 3.332 seconds, and heap went from about ~ 2.8 GB to 1.3
GB (approximate).  

The key points here is to keep all these pauses low.  CMS pauses are always low, but if your
ParNew starts growing, you can see minor GC pauses approach 100ms, exceed 100ms and hit as
high at 400ms.

This can be due to the size of the ParNew, which should be relatively small.  If your ParNew
is very large after running HBase for a while, in one example a ParNew was about 150MB, then
you might have to constrain the size of ParNew.

Add this to HBASE_OPTS: {{{
export HBASE_OPTS="-XX:NewSize=6m -XX:MaxNewSize=6m <cms options from above> <gc
logging options from above>"

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