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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Hadoop Wiki] Trivial Update of "HRDF" by Frederick Haebin Na
Date Mon, 27 Oct 2008 04:15:01 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

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The following page has been changed by Frederick Haebin Na:
http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/HRDF

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ HRDF project changed its name to [http://wiki.apache.org/incubator/HeartProposal HEART]
(Highly Extensible & Accumulative RDF Table).
- [[TableOfContents(4)]]
- ----
-  * I'm looking for champion/mentor who can leads the proposal process.
-  * http://wiki.apache.org/incubator/HRdfStoreProposal
-  * http://code.google.com/p/hrdf/
  
- == HRDF, a Planet-Scale RDF Data Store ==
- 
- We have started to think about storing and querying RDF data in Hadoop + Hbase. But we'll
jump into its implementation after prudence investigation. 
- 
- We introduce an Hadoop subsystem for RDF, called HRDF, which uses Hbase + !MapReduce to
store RDF data and execute queries (e.g., SPARQL) on them.
- We can store very sparse RDF data in a single table in Hbase, with as many columns as 
- they need. For example, we might make a row for each RDF subject in a table and store all
the properties and their values as columns in the table. 
- This reduces costly self-joins in answering queries asking questions on the same subject,
which results in efficient processing of queries, although we still need self-joins to answer
RDF path queries.
- 
- We can further accelerate query performance by using !MapReduce for 
- parallel, distributed query processing. 
-  
- === Initial Contributors ===
- 
-  * [:udanax:Edward Yoon] (R&D center, NHN corp.)
-  * [:InchulSong: Inchul Song] (Database Lab, KAIST) 
-  * [http://www.openrdf.org/forum/mvnforum/viewthread?thread=1423 A forum at Aduna/Sesame]
would be interested in working with this group.
- 
- ----
- == Some Ideas ==
- When we store RDF data in a single Hbase table and process queries on them, an important
issue we have to consider is how to efficiently perform costly self-joins needed to process
RDF path queries. 
- 
- To speed up these costly self-joins, it is natural to think about using 
- the !MapReduce framework we already have. However, in the Sawzall paper from Google, the
authors say that the !MapReduce framework is 
- not good, or inappropriate for performing table joins. 
- It is possible, but while we are reading one table in map 
- or reduce functions, we have to read other tables on the fly, which
- results in less parallelized join processing.
- 
- There is a paper on this subject written by Yang et al., from Yahoo (SIGMOD 07). 
- The paper provides Map-Reduce-Merge, which is an extended version of the !MapReduce framework,

- that implements several relational operators, including joins. They have extended the 
- !MapReduce framework with an additional Merge phase to implement efficient data relationship
processing.
- See the Paper section below for more information. -- Thanks stack.
- (Edward is now implementing join operators using the !MapReduce framework.)
- 
- But the problem is that there is an initial delay in executing !MapReduce jobs due to 
- the time spent in assigning the computations to multiple machines. This 
- might take far more time than necessary, thus hurt query response time. So, parallelism
obtained by using !MapReduce is best enjoyable for queries over huge amount of RDF data, where
it takes much time to process them. 
- We might consider a selective parallelism where 
- people can decide whether to use !MapReduce or not to process their queries, as in 
- "select ... '''in parallel'''".
- 
- Now that we have two sets of join algorithms, non-parallel versions and parallel versions
with !MapReduceMerge,
- we are ready to do some massive parallel query processing on tremendous amount of RDF data.
- Currently, C-Store shows the best query performance on RDF data.
- However, we, armed with Hbase and !MapReduceMerge, can do even better.
- ----
- == Resources ==
-  * http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ - The SPARQL RDF Query Language, a candidate recommendation
of W3C as of 14 June 2007.
-  * A test suit for SPARQL can be found at http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/DataAccess/tests/r2.
The web page provides test RDF data, SPARQL queries, and expected results.
-  * [https://jena.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/jena/ARQ/trunk/Grammar/sparql.jj SPARQL Grammer
in JavaCC] - from Jena ARQ
-  * [http://esw.w3.org/topic/LargeTripleStores Large triple stores]
-  * [http://web.mit.edu/dna/www/abadirdf.pdf Scalable Semantic Web Data Management Using
Vertical Partitioning] Good summary of techniques storing RDF in RDBMS.
-  * [http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/benchmarks-200801/ RDF Store Benchmarks] with DBpedia
- 
- == Architecture Sketch ==
- 
- === HRDF Data Loader ===
- HRDF Data Loader (HDL) reads RDF data from a file, and organizes the data 
- into a Hbase table in such a way that efficient query processing is possible. In Hbase,
we can store everything in a single table.
- The sparsicy of RDF data is not a problem, because Hbase, which is 
- a column-based storage and adopts various compression techniques, 
- is very good at dealing with nulls in the table
- 
- Figure 1. cell of space-time
- 
- === HRDF Query Processor ===
- HRDF Query Processor (HQP) executes RDF queries on RDF data stored in a Hbase table. 
- It translates RDF queries into API calls to Hbase, or !MapReduce jobs, gathers and returns
the results
- to the user. 
- 
- Query processing steps are as follows:
- 
- {{{
- SPARQL query -> Parse tree -> Logical operator tree 
- -> Physical operator tree -> Execution
- }}}
- 
- Implemenation of each step may proceed as an individual issue. 
- 
- === HRDF Data Materializer ===
- HRDF Data Materializer (HDM) pre-computes RDF path queries and stores the results
- into a Hbase table. Later, HQP uses those materialized data for efficient processing of

- RDF path queries. 
- ----
- == Alternatives For RDF Storage ==
-  * A triples table stores RDF triples in a single table with three attributes, subject,
property, and object.
-  * A property table. Put properties frequently queried togather into a single table to reduce
costly self-joins. Used in Jena and Oracle. 
-  * A dicomposed storage model (DSM), one table for each property, sorted by the subject.
Used in C-Store.
- ----
- == Papers ==
- 
-  * OSDI 2004, ''!MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters'', proposes a very
simple, but powerfull, and highly parallelized data processing technique.
-  * CIDR 2007, ''[http://db.lcs.mit.edu/projects/cstore/abadicidr07.pdf Column-Stores For
Wide and Sparse Data]'', discusses the benefits of using C-Store to store RDF and XML data.
-  * VLDB 2007, ''[http://db.lcs.mit.edu/projects/cstore/abadirdf.pdf Scalable Semantic Web
Data Management Using Vertical Partitoning]'', proposes an efficient method to store RDF data
in table projections (i.e., columns) and executes queries on them.
-  * SIGMOD 2007, ''Map-Reduce-Merge: Simplified Relational Data Processing on Large Clusters'',
!MapReduce implementation of several relational operators.
- 

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