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From j...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r585219 - in /lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase: CHANGES.txt src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java
Date Tue, 16 Oct 2007 18:56:29 GMT
Author: jimk
Date: Tue Oct 16 11:56:28 2007
New Revision: 585219

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=585219&view=rev
Log:
HADOOP-2061 Add new Base64 dialects

Added:
    lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java
    lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java
Modified:
    lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/CHANGES.txt

Modified: lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/CHANGES.txt
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/CHANGES.txt?rev=585219&r1=585218&r2=585219&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/CHANGES.txt (original)
+++ lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/CHANGES.txt Tue Oct 16 11:56:28 2007
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
     HADOOP-1913 Build a Lucene index on an HBase table
                 (Ning Li via Stack)
     HADOOP-1957 Web UI with report on cluster state and basic browsing of tables
+    HADOOP-2061 Add new Base64 dialects
 
   OPTIMIZATIONS
 

Added: lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java?rev=585219&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java (added)
+++ lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/Base64.java Tue Oct 16 11:56:28 2007
@@ -0,0 +1,1638 @@
+/**
+ * Encodes and decodes to and from Base64 notation.
+ * 
+ * <p>
+ * Homepage: <a href="http://iharder.net/base64">http://iharder.net/base64</a>.
+ * </p>
+ *
+ * <p>
+ * Change Log:
+ * </p>
+ * <ul>
+ *   <li>v2.2.1 - Fixed bug using URL_SAFE and ORDERED encodings. Fixed bug
+ *     when using very small files (~< 40 bytes).</li>
+ *   <li>v2.2 - Added some helper methods for encoding/decoding directly from
+ *     one file to the next. Also added a main() method to support command
+ *     line encoding/decoding from one file to the next. Also added these
+ *     Base64 dialects:
+ *     <ol>
+ *       <li>The default is RFC3548 format.</li>
+ *       <li>Using Base64.URLSAFE generates URL and file name friendly format as
+ *         described in Section 4 of RFC3548.
+ *         http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</li>
+ *       <li>Using Base64.ORDERED generates URL and file name friendly format
+ *         that preserves lexical ordering as described in
+ *         http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</li>
+ *     </ol>
+ *     <p>
+ *     Special thanks to Jim Kellerman at <a href="http://www.powerset.com/">
+ *     http://www.powerset.com/</a> for contributing the new Base64 dialects.
+ *   </li>
+ * 
+ *   <li>v2.1 - Cleaned up javadoc comments and unused variables and methods.
+ *     Added some convenience methods for reading and writing to and from files.
+ *   </li>
+ *   <li>v2.0.2 - Now specifies UTF-8 encoding in places where the code fails on
+ *     systems with other encodings (like EBCDIC).</li>
+ *   <li>v2.0.1 - Fixed an error when decoding a single byte, that is, when the
+ *     encoded data was a single byte.</li>
+ *   <li>v2.0 - I got rid of methods that used booleans to set options. Now
+ *     everything is more consolidated and cleaner. The code now detects when
+ *     data that's being decoded is gzip-compressed and will decompress it
+ *     automatically. Generally things are cleaner. You'll probably have to
+ *     change some method calls that you were making to support the new options
+ *     format (<tt>int</tt>s that you "OR" together).</li>
+ *   <li>v1.5.1 - Fixed bug when decompressing and decoding to a byte[] using
+ *     <tt>decode( String s, boolean gzipCompressed )</tt>. Added the ability to
+ *     "suspend" encoding in the Output Stream so you can turn on and off the
+ *     encoding if you need to embed base64 data in an otherwise "normal" stream
+ *     (like an XML file).</li>  
+ *   <li>v1.5 - Output stream pases on flush() command but doesn't do anything
+ *     itself. This helps when using GZIP streams. Added the ability to
+ *     GZip-compress objects before encoding them.</li>
+ *   <li>v1.4 - Added helper methods to read/write files.</li>
+ *   <li>v1.3.6 - Fixed OutputStream.flush() so that 'position' is reset.</li>
+ *   <li>v1.3.5 - Added flag to turn on and off line breaks. Fixed bug in input
+ *     stream where last buffer being read, if not completely full, was not
+ *     returned.</li>
+ *   <li>v1.3.4 - Fixed when "improperly padded stream" error was thrown at the
+ *     wrong time.</li>
+ *   <li>v1.3.3 - Fixed I/O streams which were totally messed up.</li>
+ * </ul>
+ *
+ * <p>
+ * I am placing this code in the Public Domain. Do with it as you will. This
+ * software comes with no guarantees or warranties but with plenty of
+ * well-wishing instead!
+ * <p>
+ * Please visit <a href="http://iharder.net/base64">http://iharder.net/base64</a>
+ * periodically to check for updates or to contribute improvements.
+ * <p>
+ * author: Robert Harder, rob@iharder.net
+ * <br>
+ * version: 2.2.1
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Copyright 2007 The Apache Software Foundation
+ *
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util;
+
+import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
+import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
+import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
+import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
+import java.io.File;
+import java.io.FileInputStream;
+import java.io.FileOutputStream;
+import java.io.FilterInputStream;
+import java.io.FilterOutputStream;
+import java.io.InputStream;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
+import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
+import java.io.OutputStream;
+import java.io.Serializable;
+import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
+import java.lang.ClassNotFoundException;
+import java.util.zip.GZIPInputStream;
+import java.util.zip.GZIPOutputStream;
+
+import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
+import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
+
+/**
+ * Encodes and decodes to and from Base64 notation.
+ */
+public class Base64 {
+
+  /* ******** P U B L I C   F I E L D S ******** */
+
+  /** No options specified. Value is zero. */
+  public final static int NO_OPTIONS = 0;
+
+  /** Specify encoding. */
+  public final static int ENCODE = 1;
+
+  /** Specify decoding. */
+  public final static int DECODE = 0;
+
+  /** Specify that data should be gzip-compressed. */
+  public final static int GZIP = 2;
+
+  /** Don't break lines when encoding (violates strict Base64 specification) */
+  public final static int DONT_BREAK_LINES = 8;
+
+  /**
+   * Encode using Base64-like encoding that is URL and Filename safe as
+   * described in Section 4 of RFC3548: 
+   * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">
+   * http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</a>.
+   * It is important to note that data encoded this way is <em>not</em>
+   * officially valid Base64, or at the very least should not be called Base64
+   * without also specifying that is was encoded using the URL and
+   * Filename safe dialect.
+   */
+  public final static int URL_SAFE = 16;
+
+  /**
+   * Encode using the special "ordered" dialect of Base64 described here:
+   * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html">
+   * http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</a>.
+   */
+  public final static int ORDERED = 32;
+
+  /* ******** P R I V A T E   F I E L D S ******** */
+  
+  private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(Base64.class);
+
+  /** Maximum line length (76) of Base64 output. */
+  private final static int MAX_LINE_LENGTH = 76;
+
+  /** The equals sign (=) as a byte. */
+  private final static byte EQUALS_SIGN = (byte) '=';
+
+  /** The new line character (\n) as a byte. */
+  private final static byte NEW_LINE = (byte) '\n';
+
+  /** Preferred encoding. */
+  private final static String PREFERRED_ENCODING = "UTF-8";
+
+  private final static byte WHITE_SPACE_ENC = -5; // Indicates white space
+  private final static byte EQUALS_SIGN_ENC = -1; // Indicates equals sign
+
+  /* ******** S T A N D A R D   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T ******** */
+
+  /** The 64 valid Base64 values. */
+
+  /*
+   * Host platform may be something funny like EBCDIC, so we hardcode these
+   * values.
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _STANDARD_ALPHABET = { (byte) 'A', (byte) 'B',
+    (byte) 'C', (byte) 'D', (byte) 'E', (byte) 'F', (byte) 'G', (byte) 'H',
+    (byte) 'I', (byte) 'J', (byte) 'K', (byte) 'L', (byte) 'M', (byte) 'N',
+    (byte) 'O', (byte) 'P', (byte) 'Q', (byte) 'R', (byte) 'S', (byte) 'T',
+    (byte) 'U', (byte) 'V', (byte) 'W', (byte) 'X', (byte) 'Y', (byte) 'Z',
+    (byte) 'a', (byte) 'b', (byte) 'c', (byte) 'd', (byte) 'e', (byte) 'f',
+    (byte) 'g', (byte) 'h', (byte) 'i', (byte) 'j', (byte) 'k', (byte) 'l',
+    (byte) 'm', (byte) 'n', (byte) 'o', (byte) 'p', (byte) 'q', (byte) 'r',
+    (byte) 's', (byte) 't', (byte) 'u', (byte) 'v', (byte) 'w', (byte) 'x',
+    (byte) 'y', (byte) 'z', (byte) '0', (byte) '1', (byte) '2', (byte) '3',
+    (byte) '4', (byte) '5', (byte) '6', (byte) '7', (byte) '8', (byte) '9',
+    (byte) '+', (byte) '/'
+  };
+
+  /**
+   * Translates a Base64 value to either its 6-bit reconstruction value or a
+   * negative number indicating some other meaning.
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _STANDARD_DECODABET = {
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,             // Decimal 0 - 8
+    -5, -5,                                         // Whitespace: Tab, Newline
+    -9, -9,                                         // Decimal 11 - 12
+    -5,                                             // Whitespace: Return
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, // Decimal 14 - 26
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                             // Decimal 27 - 31
+    -5,                                             // Whitespace: Space
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,         // Decimal 33 - 42
+    62,                                             // Plus sign at decimal 43
+    -9, -9, -9,                                     // Decimal 44 - 46
+    63,                                             // Slash at decimal 47
+    52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,         // Numbers zero - nine
+    -9, -9, -9,                                     // Decimal 58 - 60
+    -1,                                             // Equals sign at decimal 61
+    -9, -9, -9,                                     // Decimal 62 - 64
+    0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,   // Letters 'A' - 'N'
+    14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, // Letters 'O' - 'Z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                         // Decimal 91 - 96
+    26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, // Letters 'a' - 'm'
+    39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, // Letters 'n' -'z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9                                  // Decimal 123 - 126
+  };
+
+  /* ******** U R L   S A F E   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * Used in the URL and Filename safe dialect described in Section 4 of RFC3548
+   * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">
+   * http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</a>.
+   * Notice that the last two bytes become "hyphen" and "underscore" instead of
+   * "plus" and "slash."
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _URL_SAFE_ALPHABET = { (byte) 'A', (byte) 'B',
+    (byte) 'C', (byte) 'D', (byte) 'E', (byte) 'F', (byte) 'G', (byte) 'H',
+    (byte) 'I', (byte) 'J', (byte) 'K', (byte) 'L', (byte) 'M', (byte) 'N',
+    (byte) 'O', (byte) 'P', (byte) 'Q', (byte) 'R', (byte) 'S', (byte) 'T',
+    (byte) 'U', (byte) 'V', (byte) 'W', (byte) 'X', (byte) 'Y', (byte) 'Z',
+    (byte) 'a', (byte) 'b', (byte) 'c', (byte) 'd', (byte) 'e', (byte) 'f',
+    (byte) 'g', (byte) 'h', (byte) 'i', (byte) 'j', (byte) 'k', (byte) 'l',
+    (byte) 'm', (byte) 'n', (byte) 'o', (byte) 'p', (byte) 'q', (byte) 'r',
+    (byte) 's', (byte) 't', (byte) 'u', (byte) 'v', (byte) 'w', (byte) 'x',
+    (byte) 'y', (byte) 'z', (byte) '0', (byte) '1', (byte) '2', (byte) '3',
+    (byte) '4', (byte) '5', (byte) '6', (byte) '7', (byte) '8', (byte) '9',
+    (byte) '-', (byte) '_'
+  };
+
+  /**
+   * Used in decoding URL and Filename safe dialects of Base64.
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _URL_SAFE_DECODABET = {
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                 // Decimal 0 - 8
+    -5, -5,                                             // Whitespace: Tab, Newline
+    -9, -9,                                             // Decimal 11 - 12
+    -5,                                                 // Whitespace: Return
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, // Decimal 14 - 26
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                                 // Decimal 27 - 31
+    -5,                                                 // Whitespace: Space
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,             // Decimal 33 - 42
+    -9,                                                 // Plus sign at 43
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 44
+    62,                                                 // Minus sign at 45
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 46
+    -9,                                                 // Slash at 47
+    52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,             // Numbers 0 - 9
+    -9, -9, -9,                                         // Decimal 58 - 60
+    -1,                                                 // Equals sign at 61
+    -9, -9, -9,                                         // Decimal 62 - 64
+    0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,       // Letters 'A' - 'N'
+    14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,     // Letters 'O' - 'Z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9,                                     // Decimal 91 - 94
+    63,                                                 // Underscore at 95
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 96
+    26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, // Letters 'a' - 'm'
+    39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, // Letters 'n' - 'z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9                                      // Decimal 123 - 126
+  };
+
+  /* ******** O R D E R E D   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * In addition to being URL and file name friendly, this encoding preserves
+   * the sort order of encoded values. Whatever is input, be it string or
+   * just an array of bytes, when you use this encoding, the encoded value sorts
+   * exactly the same as the input value. It is described in the RFC change
+   * request: <a href="http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html">
+   * http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</a>.
+   * 
+   * It replaces "plus" and "slash" with "hyphen" and "underscore" and 
+   * rearranges the alphabet so that the characters are in their natural sort
+   * order.
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _ORDERED_ALPHABET = { (byte) '-', (byte) '0',
+    (byte) '1', (byte) '2', (byte) '3', (byte) '4', (byte) '5', (byte) '6',
+    (byte) '7', (byte) '8', (byte) '9', (byte) 'A', (byte) 'B', (byte) 'C',
+    (byte) 'D', (byte) 'E', (byte) 'F', (byte) 'G', (byte) 'H', (byte) 'I',
+    (byte) 'J', (byte) 'K', (byte) 'L', (byte) 'M', (byte) 'N', (byte) 'O',
+    (byte) 'P', (byte) 'Q', (byte) 'R', (byte) 'S', (byte) 'T', (byte) 'U',
+    (byte) 'V', (byte) 'W', (byte) 'X', (byte) 'Y', (byte) 'Z', (byte) '_',
+    (byte) 'a', (byte) 'b', (byte) 'c', (byte) 'd', (byte) 'e', (byte) 'f',
+    (byte) 'g', (byte) 'h', (byte) 'i', (byte) 'j', (byte) 'k', (byte) 'l',
+    (byte) 'm', (byte) 'n', (byte) 'o', (byte) 'p', (byte) 'q', (byte) 'r',
+    (byte) 's', (byte) 't', (byte) 'u', (byte) 'v', (byte) 'w', (byte) 'x',
+    (byte) 'y', (byte) 'z'
+  };
+
+  /**
+   * Used in decoding the "ordered" dialect of Base64.
+   */
+  private final static byte[] _ORDERED_DECODABET = {
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                 // Decimal 0 - 8
+    -5, -5,                                             // Whitespace: Tab, Newline
+    -9, -9,                                             // Decimal 11 - 12
+    -5,                                                 // Whitespace: Return
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, // Decimal 14 - 26
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,                                 // Decimal 27 - 31
+    -5,                                                 // Whitespace: Space
+    -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9, -9,             // Decimal 33 - 42
+    -9,                                                 // Plus sign at 43
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 44
+    0,                                                  // Minus sign at 45
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 46
+    -9,                                                 // Slash at decimal 47
+    1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,                      // Numbers 0 - 9
+    -9, -9, -9,                                         // Decimal 58 - 60
+    -1,                                                 // Equals sign at 61
+    -9, -9, -9,                                         // Decimal 62 - 64
+    11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, // Letters 'A' - 'M'
+    24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, // Letters 'N' - 'Z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9,                                     // Decimal 91 - 94
+    37,                                                 // Underscore at 95
+    -9,                                                 // Decimal 96
+    38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, // Letters 'a' - 'm'
+    51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, // Letters 'n' - 'z'
+    -9, -9, -9, -9                                      // Decimal 123 - 126
+  };
+
+  /* ******** D E T E R M I N E   W H I C H   A L H A B E T ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * Returns one of the _SOMETHING_ALPHABET byte arrays depending on the options
+   * specified. It's possible, though silly, to specify ORDERED and URLSAFE in
+   * which case one of them will be picked, though there is no guarantee as to
+   * which one will be picked.
+   */
+  protected final static byte[] getAlphabet(int options) {
+    if ((options & URL_SAFE) == URL_SAFE) {
+      return _URL_SAFE_ALPHABET;
+
+    } else if ((options & ORDERED) == ORDERED) {
+      return _ORDERED_ALPHABET;
+      
+    } else {
+      return _STANDARD_ALPHABET;
+    }
+  } // end getAlphabet
+
+  /**
+   * Returns one of the _SOMETHING_DECODABET byte arrays depending on the
+   * options specified. It's possible, though silly, to specify ORDERED and
+   * URL_SAFE in which case one of them will be picked, though there is no
+   * guarantee as to which one will be picked.
+   */
+  protected final static byte[] getDecodabet(int options) {
+    if ((options & URL_SAFE) == URL_SAFE) {
+      return _URL_SAFE_DECODABET;
+      
+    } else if ((options & ORDERED) == ORDERED) {
+      return _ORDERED_DECODABET;
+      
+    } else {
+      return _STANDARD_DECODABET;
+    }
+  } // end getDecodabet
+
+  /** Defeats instantiation. */
+  private Base64() {}
+
+  /**
+   * Main program. Used for testing.
+   * 
+   * Encodes or decodes two files from the command line
+   * 
+   * @param args command arguments
+   */
+  public final static void main(String[] args) {
+    if (args.length < 3) {
+      usage("Not enough arguments.");
+
+    } else {
+      String flag = args[0];
+      String infile = args[1];
+      String outfile = args[2];
+      if (flag.equals("-e")) {                          // encode
+        encodeFileToFile(infile, outfile);
+
+      } else if (flag.equals("-d")) {                   // decode
+        decodeFileToFile(infile, outfile);
+
+      } else {
+        usage("Unknown flag: " + flag);
+      }
+    }
+  } // end main
+
+  /**
+   * Prints command line usage.
+   * 
+   * @param msg A message to include with usage info.
+   */
+  private final static void usage(String msg) {
+    System.err.println(msg);
+    System.err.println("Usage: java Base64 -e|-d inputfile outputfile");
+  } // end usage
+
+  /* ******** E N C O D I N G   M E T H O D S ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes up to the first three bytes of array <var>threeBytes</var> and
+   * returns a four-byte array in Base64 notation. The actual number of
+   * significant bytes in your array is given by <var>numSigBytes</var>. The
+   * array <var>threeBytes</var> needs only be as big as <var>numSigBytes</var>.
+   * Code can reuse a byte array by passing a four-byte array as <var>b4</var>.
+   * 
+   * @param b4 A reusable byte array to reduce array instantiation
+   * @param threeBytes the array to convert
+   * @param numSigBytes the number of significant bytes in your array
+   * @return four byte array in Base64 notation.
+   * @since 1.5.1
+   */
+  protected static byte[] encode3to4(byte[] b4, byte[] threeBytes,
+      int numSigBytes, int options) {
+    encode3to4(threeBytes, 0, numSigBytes, b4, 0, options);
+    return b4;
+  } // end encode3to4
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes up to three bytes of the array <var>source</var> and writes the
+   * resulting four Base64 bytes to <var>destination</var>. The source and
+   * destination arrays can be manipulated anywhere along their length by
+   * specifying <var>srcOffset</var> and <var>destOffset</var>. This method
+   * does not check to make sure your arrays are large enough to accomodate
+   * <var>srcOffset</var> + 3 for the <var>source</var> array or
+   * <var>destOffset</var> + 4 for the <var>destination</var> array. The
+   * actual number of significant bytes in your array is given by
+   * <var>numSigBytes</var>.
+   * <p>
+   * This is the lowest level of the encoding methods with all possible
+   * parameters.
+   * 
+   * @param source the array to convert
+   * @param srcOffset the index where conversion begins
+   * @param numSigBytes the number of significant bytes in your array
+   * @param destination the array to hold the conversion
+   * @param destOffset the index where output will be put
+   * @return the <var>destination</var> array
+   * @since 1.3
+   */
+  protected static byte[] encode3to4(byte[] source, int srcOffset,
+      int numSigBytes, byte[] destination, int destOffset, int options) {
+    byte[] ALPHABET = getAlphabet(options);
+
+    //           1         2         3  
+    // 01234567890123456789012345678901 Bit position
+    // --------000000001111111122222222 Array position from threeBytes
+    // --------|    ||    ||    ||    | Six bit groups to index ALPHABET
+    //          >>18  >>12  >> 6  >> 0  Right shift necessary
+    //                0x3f  0x3f  0x3f  Additional AND
+
+    // Create buffer with zero-padding if there are only one or two
+    // significant bytes passed in the array.
+    // We have to shift left 24 in order to flush out the 1's that appear
+    // when Java treats a value as negative that is cast from a byte to an int.
+    int inBuff =
+        (numSigBytes > 0 ? ((source[srcOffset] << 24) >>> 8) : 0)
+            | (numSigBytes > 1 ? ((source[srcOffset + 1] << 24) >>> 16) : 0)
+            | (numSigBytes > 2 ? ((source[srcOffset + 2] << 24) >>> 24) : 0);
+
+    switch (numSigBytes) {
+    case 3:
+      destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
+      destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
+      destination[destOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 6) & 0x3f];
+      destination[destOffset + 3] = ALPHABET[(inBuff) & 0x3f];
+      return destination;
+
+    case 2:
+      destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
+      destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
+      destination[destOffset + 2] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 6) & 0x3f];
+      destination[destOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+      return destination;
+
+    case 1:
+      destination[destOffset] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 18)];
+      destination[destOffset + 1] = ALPHABET[(inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f];
+      destination[destOffset + 2] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+      destination[destOffset + 3] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+      return destination;
+
+    default:
+      return destination;
+    } // end switch
+  } // end encode3to4
+
+  /**
+   * Serializes an object and returns the Base64-encoded version of that
+   * serialized object. If the object cannot be serialized or there is another
+   * error, the method will return <tt>null</tt>. The object is not
+   * GZip-compressed before being encoded.
+   * 
+   * @param serializableObject The object to encode
+   * @return The Base64-encoded object
+   * @since 1.4
+   */
+  public static String encodeObject(Serializable serializableObject) {
+    return encodeObject(serializableObject, NO_OPTIONS);
+  } // end encodeObject
+
+  /**
+   * Serializes an object and returns the Base64-encoded version of that
+   * serialized object. If the object cannot be serialized or there is another
+   * error, the method will return <tt>null</tt>.
+   * <p>
+   * Valid options:
+   * <ul>
+   *   <li>GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.</li>
+   *   <li>DONT_BREAK_LINES: don't break lines at 76 characters. <i>Note:
+   *     Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.</i></li>
+   * </ul>
+   * <p>
+   * Example: <code>encodeObject( myObj, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+   * <p>
+   * Example:
+   * <code>encodeObject( myObj, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DONT_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+   * 
+   * @param serializableObject The object to encode
+   * @param options Specified options
+   * @see Base64#GZIP
+   * @see Base64#DONT_BREAK_LINES
+   * @return The Base64-encoded object
+   * @since 2.0
+   */
+  public static String encodeObject(Serializable serializableObject,
+      int options) {
+
+    ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
+    OutputStream b64os = null;
+    ObjectOutputStream oos = null;
+    try {
+      // ObjectOutputStream -> (GZIP) -> Base64 -> ByteArrayOutputStream
+      b64os = new Base64OutputStream(baos, ENCODE | options);
+
+      oos = ((options & GZIP) == GZIP) ?
+          new ObjectOutputStream(new GZIPOutputStream(b64os)) :
+            new ObjectOutputStream(b64os);
+
+      oos.writeObject(serializableObject);
+      return new String(baos.toByteArray(), PREFERRED_ENCODING);
+
+    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uue) {
+      return new String(baos.toByteArray());
+      
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error encoding object", e);
+      return null;
+      
+    } finally {
+      if (oos != null) {
+        try {
+          oos.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing ObjectOutputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+      if (b64os != null) {
+        try {
+          b64os.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing Base64OutputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+      try {
+        baos.close();
+      } catch (Exception e) {
+        LOG.error("error closing ByteArrayOutputStream", e);
+      }
+    } // end finally
+  } // end encode
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation. Does not GZip-compress data.
+   * 
+   * @param source The data to convert
+   * @return encoded byte array
+   * @since 1.4
+   */
+  public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source) {
+    return encodeBytes(source, 0, source.length, NO_OPTIONS);
+  } // end encodeBytes
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+   * <p>
+   * Valid options:
+   * <ul>
+   *   <li>GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.</li>
+   *   <li>DONT_BREAK_LINES: don't break lines at 76 characters. <i>Note:
+   *     Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.</i></li>
+   * </ul>
+   * 
+   * <p>
+   * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+   * <p>
+   * Example:
+   * <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DONT_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+   * 
+   * @param source The data to convert
+   * @param options Specified options
+   * @see Base64#GZIP
+   * @see Base64#DONT_BREAK_LINES
+   * @see Base64#URL_SAFE
+   * @see Base64#ORDERED
+   * @return encoded byte array
+   * @since 2.0
+   */
+  public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source, int options) {
+    return encodeBytes(source, 0, source.length, options);
+  } // end encodeBytes
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation. Does not GZip-compress data.
+   * 
+   * @param source The data to convert
+   * @param off Offset in array where conversion should begin
+   * @param len Length of data to convert
+   * @return encoded byte array
+   * @since 1.4
+   */
+  public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source, int off, int len) {
+    return encodeBytes(source, off, len, NO_OPTIONS);
+  } // end encodeBytes
+
+  /**
+   * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+   * <p>
+   * Valid options:
+   * <ul>
+   *   <li>GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.</li>
+   *   <li>DONT_BREAK_LINES: don't break lines at 76 characters. <i>Note:
+   *     Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.</i></li>
+   * </ul>
+   * 
+   * <p>
+   * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+   * <p>
+   * Example:
+   * <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DONT_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+   * 
+   * @param source The data to convert
+   * @param off Offset in array where conversion should begin
+   * @param len Length of data to convert
+   * @param options Specified options
+   * @see Base64#GZIP
+   * @see Base64#DONT_BREAK_LINES
+   * @see Base64#URL_SAFE
+   * @see Base64#ORDERED
+   * @return encoded byte array
+   * @since 2.0
+   */
+  public static String encodeBytes(byte[] source, int off, int len, int options) {
+    if ((options & GZIP) == GZIP) {                             // Compress?
+      // GZip -> Base64 -> ByteArray
+      ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
+      GZIPOutputStream gzos = null;
+
+      try {
+        gzos = 
+          new GZIPOutputStream(new Base64OutputStream(baos, ENCODE | options));
+
+        gzos.write(source, off, len);
+        gzos.close();
+        gzos = null;
+        return new String(baos.toByteArray(), PREFERRED_ENCODING);
+
+      } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uue) {
+        return new String(baos.toByteArray());
+
+      } catch (IOException e) {
+        LOG.error("error encoding byte array", e);
+        return null;
+        
+      } finally {
+        if (gzos != null) {
+          try {
+            gzos.close();
+          } catch (Exception e) {
+            LOG.error("error closing GZIPOutputStream", e);
+          }
+        }
+        try {
+          baos.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing ByteArrayOutputStream", e);
+        }
+      } // end finally
+
+    } // end Compress
+    
+    // Don't compress. Better not to use streams at all then.
+
+    boolean breakLines = ((options & DONT_BREAK_LINES) == 0);
+
+    int len43 = len * 4 / 3;
+    byte[] outBuff =
+      new byte[(len43)                                          // Main 4:3
+               + ((len % 3) > 0 ? 4 : 0)                        // padding
+               + (breakLines ? (len43 / MAX_LINE_LENGTH) : 0)]; // New lines
+    int d = 0;
+    int e = 0;
+    int len2 = len - 2;
+    int lineLength = 0;
+    for (; d < len2; d += 3, e += 4) {
+      encode3to4(source, d + off, 3, outBuff, e, options);
+
+      lineLength += 4;
+      if (breakLines && lineLength == MAX_LINE_LENGTH) {
+        outBuff[e + 4] = NEW_LINE;
+        e++;
+        lineLength = 0;
+      } // end if: end of line
+    } // end for: each piece of array
+
+    if (d < len) {
+      encode3to4(source, d + off, len - d, outBuff, e, options);
+      e += 4;
+    } // end if: some padding needed
+
+    // Return value according to relevant encoding.
+    try {
+      return new String(outBuff, 0, e, PREFERRED_ENCODING);
+
+    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uue) {
+      return new String(outBuff, 0, e);
+    }
+  } // end encodeBytes
+
+  /* ******** D E C O D I N G   M E T H O D S ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * Decodes four bytes from array <var>source</var> and writes the resulting
+   * bytes (up to three of them) to <var>destination</var>. The source and
+   * destination arrays can be manipulated anywhere along their length by
+   * specifying <var>srcOffset</var> and <var>destOffset</var>. This method
+   * does not check to make sure your arrays are large enough to accomodate
+   * <var>srcOffset</var> + 4 for the <var>source</var> array or
+   * <var>destOffset</var> + 3 for the <var>destination</var> array. This
+   * method returns the actual number of bytes that were converted from the
+   * Base64 encoding.
+   * <p>
+   * This is the lowest level of the decoding methods with all possible
+   * parameters.
+   * </p>
+   * 
+   * @param source the array to convert
+   * @param srcOffset the index where conversion begins
+   * @param destination the array to hold the conversion
+   * @param destOffset the index where output will be put
+   * @param options
+   * @see Base64#URL_SAFE
+   * @see Base64#ORDERED
+   * @return the number of decoded bytes converted
+   * @since 1.3
+   */
+  protected static int decode4to3(byte[] source, int srcOffset,
+      byte[] destination, int destOffset, int options) {
+    byte[] DECODABET = getDecodabet(options);
+
+    if (source[srcOffset + 2] == EQUALS_SIGN) {                 // Example: Dk==
+      // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+      // int outBuff = ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset ] ] << 24 ) >>> 6 )
+      // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 );
+      int outBuff =
+          ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset]] & 0xFF) << 18)
+              | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12);
+
+      destination[destOffset] = (byte) (outBuff >>> 16);
+      return 1;
+      
+    } else if (source[srcOffset + 3] == EQUALS_SIGN) {          // Example: DkL=
+      // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+      // int outBuff = ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset ] ] << 24 ) >>> 6 )
+      // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 )
+      // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 18 );
+      int outBuff =
+          ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset]] & 0xFF) << 18)
+              | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12)
+              | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 2]] & 0xFF) << 6);
+
+      destination[destOffset] = (byte) (outBuff >>> 16);
+      destination[destOffset + 1] = (byte) (outBuff >>> 8);
+      return 2;
+
+    } else {                                                    // Example: DkLE
+      try {
+        // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+        // int outBuff = ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset ] ] << 24 ) >>> 6 )
+        // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 )
+        // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 18 )
+        // | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 3 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 24 );
+        int outBuff =
+            ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset]] & 0xFF) << 18)
+                | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 1]] & 0xFF) << 12)
+                | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 2]] & 0xFF) << 6)
+                | ((DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 3]] & 0xFF));
+
+        destination[destOffset] = (byte) (outBuff >> 16);
+        destination[destOffset + 1] = (byte) (outBuff >> 8);
+        destination[destOffset + 2] = (byte) (outBuff);
+
+        return 3;
+        
+      } catch (Exception e) {
+        LOG.error("error decoding bytes at " + source[srcOffset] + ": " + 
+            (DECODABET[source[srcOffset]]) + ", " + source[srcOffset + 1] +
+            ": " + (DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 1]]) + ", " +
+            source[srcOffset + 2] + ": " + (DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 2]]) +
+            ", " + source[srcOffset + 3] + ": " +
+            (DECODABET[source[srcOffset + 3]]), e);
+        return -1;
+      } // end catch
+    }
+  } // end decodeToBytes
+
+  /**
+   * Very low-level access to decoding ASCII characters in the form of a byte
+   * array. Does not support automatically gunzipping or any other "fancy"
+   * features.
+   * 
+   * @param source The Base64 encoded data
+   * @param off The offset of where to begin decoding
+   * @param len The length of characters to decode
+   * @param options 
+   * @see Base64#URL_SAFE
+   * @see Base64#ORDERED
+   * @return decoded data
+   * @since 1.3
+   */
+  public static byte[] decode(byte[] source, int off, int len, int options) {
+    byte[] DECODABET = getDecodabet(options);
+
+    int len34 = len * 3 / 4;
+    byte[] outBuff = new byte[len34];           // Upper limit on size of output
+    int outBuffPosn = 0;
+
+    byte[] b4 = new byte[4];
+    int b4Posn = 0;
+    int i = 0;
+    byte sbiCrop = 0;
+    byte sbiDecode = 0;
+    for (i = off; i < off + len; i++) {
+      sbiCrop = (byte) (source[i] & 0x7f);      // Only the low seven bits
+      sbiDecode = DECODABET[sbiCrop];
+
+      if (sbiDecode >= WHITE_SPACE_ENC) {       // Whitespace, Equals or better
+        if (sbiDecode >= EQUALS_SIGN_ENC) {     // Equals or better
+          b4[b4Posn++] = sbiCrop;
+          if (b4Posn > 3) {
+            outBuffPosn += decode4to3(b4, 0, outBuff, outBuffPosn, options);
+            b4Posn = 0;
+
+            // If that was the equals sign, break out of 'for' loop
+            if (sbiCrop == EQUALS_SIGN)
+              break;
+          } // end if: quartet built
+        } // end if: equals sign or better
+      } else {
+        LOG.error("Bad Base64 input character at " + i + ": " + source[i] +
+            "(decimal)");
+        return null;
+      } // end else:
+    } // each input character
+
+    byte[] out = new byte[outBuffPosn];
+    System.arraycopy(outBuff, 0, out, 0, outBuffPosn);
+    return out;
+  } // end decode
+
+  /**
+   * Decodes data from Base64 notation, automatically detecting gzip-compressed
+   * data and decompressing it.
+   * 
+   * @param s the string to decode
+   * @return the decoded data
+   * @since 1.4
+   */
+  public static byte[] decode(String s) {
+    return decode(s, NO_OPTIONS);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Decodes data from Base64 notation, automatically detecting gzip-compressed
+   * data and decompressing it.
+   * 
+   * @param s the string to decode
+   * @param options
+   * @see Base64#URL_SAFE
+   * @see Base64#ORDERED
+   * @return the decoded data
+   * @since 1.4
+   */
+  public static byte[] decode(String s, int options) {
+    byte[] bytes = null;
+    try {
+      bytes = s.getBytes(PREFERRED_ENCODING);
+
+    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uee) {
+      bytes = s.getBytes();
+    } // end catch
+
+    // Decode
+
+    bytes = decode(bytes, 0, bytes.length, options);
+
+    // Check to see if it's gzip-compressed
+    // GZIP Magic Two-Byte Number: 0x8b1f (35615)
+
+    if (bytes != null && bytes.length >= 4) {
+      int head = (bytes[0] & 0xff) | ((bytes[1] << 8) & 0xff00);
+      if (GZIPInputStream.GZIP_MAGIC == head) {
+        GZIPInputStream gzis = null;
+        ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
+        try {
+          gzis = new GZIPInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes));
+
+          byte[] buffer = new byte[2048];
+          for (int length = 0; (length = gzis.read(buffer)) >= 0; ) {
+            baos.write(buffer, 0, length);
+          } // end while: reading input
+
+          // No error? Get new bytes.
+          bytes = baos.toByteArray();
+
+        } catch (IOException e) {
+          // Just return originally-decoded bytes
+
+        } finally {
+          try {
+            baos.close();
+          } catch (Exception e) {
+            LOG.error("error closing ByteArrayOutputStream", e);
+          }
+          if (gzis != null) {
+            try {
+              gzis.close();
+            } catch (Exception e) {
+              LOG.error("error closing GZIPInputStream", e);
+            }
+          }
+        } // end finally
+      } // end if: gzipped
+    } // end if: bytes.length >= 2
+
+    return bytes;
+  } // end decode
+
+  /**
+   * Attempts to decode Base64 data and deserialize a Java Object within.
+   * Returns <tt>null</tt> if there was an error.
+   * 
+   * @param encodedObject The Base64 data to decode
+   * @return The decoded and deserialized object
+   * @since 1.5
+   */
+  public static Object decodeToObject(String encodedObject) {
+    // Decode and gunzip if necessary
+    byte[] objBytes = decode(encodedObject);
+
+    Object obj = null;
+    ObjectInputStream ois = null;
+    try {
+      ois = new ObjectInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(objBytes));
+      obj = ois.readObject();
+
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error decoding object", e);
+
+    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
+      LOG.error("error decoding object", e);
+
+    } finally {
+      if (ois != null) {
+        try {
+          ois.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing ObjectInputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+
+    return obj;
+  } // end decodeObject
+
+  /**
+   * Convenience method for encoding data to a file.
+   * 
+   * @param dataToEncode byte array of data to encode in base64 form
+   * @param filename Filename for saving encoded data
+   * @return <tt>true</tt> if successful, <tt>false</tt> otherwise
+   * 
+   * @since 2.1
+   */
+  public static boolean encodeToFile(byte[] dataToEncode, String filename) {
+    boolean success = false;
+    Base64OutputStream bos = null;
+    try {
+      bos = new Base64OutputStream(new FileOutputStream(filename), ENCODE);
+      bos.write(dataToEncode);
+      success = true;
+
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error encoding file: " + filename, e);
+      success = false;
+      
+    } finally {
+      if (bos != null) {
+        try {
+          bos.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing Base64OutputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+
+    return success;
+  } // end encodeToFile
+
+  /**
+   * Convenience method for decoding data to a file.
+   * 
+   * @param dataToDecode Base64-encoded data as a string
+   * @param filename Filename for saving decoded data
+   * @return <tt>true</tt> if successful, <tt>false</tt> otherwise
+   * 
+   * @since 2.1
+   */
+  public static boolean decodeToFile(String dataToDecode, String filename) {
+    boolean success = false;
+    Base64OutputStream bos = null;
+    try {
+      bos = new Base64OutputStream(new FileOutputStream(filename), DECODE);
+      bos.write(dataToDecode.getBytes(PREFERRED_ENCODING));
+      success = true;
+      
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error decoding to file: " + filename, e);
+      success = false;
+
+    } finally {
+      if (bos != null) {
+        try {
+          bos.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing Base64OutputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+
+    return success;
+  } // end decodeToFile
+
+  /**
+   * Convenience method for reading a base64-encoded file and decoding it.
+   * 
+   * @param filename Filename for reading encoded data
+   * @return decoded byte array or null if unsuccessful
+   * 
+   * @since 2.1
+   */
+  public static byte[] decodeFromFile(String filename) {
+    byte[] decodedData = null;
+    Base64InputStream bis = null;
+    try {
+      File file = new File(filename);
+      byte[] buffer = null;
+
+      // Check the size of file
+      if (file.length() > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
+        LOG.fatal("File is too big for this convenience method (" + 
+            file.length() + " bytes).");
+        return null;
+      } // end if: file too big for int index
+      
+      buffer = new byte[(int) file.length()];
+
+      // Open a stream
+      
+      bis = new Base64InputStream(new BufferedInputStream(
+          new FileInputStream(file)), DECODE);
+
+      // Read until done
+      
+      int length = 0;
+      for (int numBytes = 0; (numBytes = bis.read(buffer, length, 4096)) >= 0; ) {
+        length += numBytes;
+      }
+      
+      // Save in a variable to return
+      
+      decodedData = new byte[length];
+      System.arraycopy(buffer, 0, decodedData, 0, length);
+
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("Error decoding from file " + filename, e);
+    
+    } finally {
+      if (bis != null) {
+        try {
+          bis.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing Base64InputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+
+    return decodedData;
+  } // end decodeFromFile
+
+  /**
+   * Convenience method for reading a binary file and base64-encoding it.
+   * 
+   * @param filename Filename for reading binary data
+   * @return base64-encoded string or null if unsuccessful
+   * 
+   * @since 2.1
+   */
+  public static String encodeFromFile(String filename) {
+    String encodedData = null;
+    Base64InputStream bis = null;
+    try {
+      File file = new File(filename);
+      
+      // Need max() for math on small files (v2.2.1)
+      
+      byte[] buffer = new byte[Math.max((int) (file.length() * 1.4), 40)];
+
+      // Open a stream
+
+      bis = new Base64InputStream(new BufferedInputStream(
+              new FileInputStream(file)), ENCODE);
+
+      // Read until done
+      int length = 0;
+      for (int numBytes = 0; (numBytes = bis.read(buffer, length, 4096)) >= 0; ) {
+        length += numBytes;
+      }
+
+      // Save in a variable to return
+      
+      encodedData = new String(buffer, 0, length, PREFERRED_ENCODING);
+
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("Error encoding from file " + filename, e);
+      
+    } finally {
+      if (bis != null) {
+        try {
+          bis.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing Base64InputStream", e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+
+    return encodedData;
+  } // end encodeFromFile
+
+  /**
+   * Reads <tt>infile</tt> and encodes it to <tt>outfile</tt>.
+   * 
+   * @param infile Input file
+   * @param outfile Output file
+   * @since 2.2
+   */
+  public static void encodeFileToFile(String infile, String outfile) {
+    String encoded = encodeFromFile(infile);
+    OutputStream out = null;
+    try {
+      out = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(outfile));
+      out.write(encoded.getBytes("US-ASCII")); // Strict, 7-bit output.
+    
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error encoding from file " + infile + " to " + outfile, e);
+
+    } finally {
+      if (out != null) {
+        try {
+          out.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing " + outfile, e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+  } // end encodeFileToFile
+
+  /**
+   * Reads <tt>infile</tt> and decodes it to <tt>outfile</tt>.
+   * 
+   * @param infile Input file
+   * @param outfile Output file
+   * @since 2.2
+   */
+  public static void decodeFileToFile(String infile, String outfile) {
+    byte[] decoded = decodeFromFile(infile);
+    OutputStream out = null;
+    try {
+      out = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(outfile));
+      out.write(decoded);
+      
+    } catch (IOException e) {
+      LOG.error("error decoding from file " + infile + " to " + outfile, e);
+
+    } finally {
+      if (out != null) {
+        try {
+          out.close();
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+          LOG.error("error closing " + outfile, e);
+        }
+      }
+    } // end finally
+  } // end decodeFileToFile
+
+  /* ******** I N N E R   C L A S S   I N P U T S T R E A M ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link Base64.Base64InputStream} will read data from another
+   * <tt>InputStream</tt>, given in the constructor, and
+   * encode/decode to/from Base64 notation on the fly.
+   * 
+   * @see Base64
+   * @since 1.3
+   */
+  public static class Base64InputStream extends FilterInputStream {
+    private boolean encode;                     // Encoding or decoding
+    private int position;                       // Current position in the buffer
+    private byte[] buffer;                      // Buffer holding converted data
+    private int bufferLength;                   // Length of buffer (3 or 4)
+    private int numSigBytes;                    // Meaningful bytes in the buffer
+    private int lineLength;
+    private boolean breakLines;                 // Break lines at < 80 characters
+    private int options;                        // Record options
+    private byte[] decodabet;                   // Local copy avoids method calls
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@link Base64InputStream} in DECODE mode.
+     * 
+     * @param in the <tt>InputStream</tt> from which to read data.
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    public Base64InputStream(InputStream in) {
+      this(in, DECODE);
+    } // end constructor
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@link Base64.Base64InputStream} in either ENCODE or DECODE mode.
+     * <p>
+     * Valid options:
+     * 
+     * <pre>
+     *   ENCODE or DECODE: Encode or Decode as data is read.
+     *   DONT_BREAK_LINES: don't break lines at 76 characters
+     *     (only meaningful when encoding)
+     *     &lt;i&gt;Note: Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.&lt;/i&gt;
+     * </pre>
+     * 
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>new Base64.Base64InputStream( in, Base64.DECODE )</code>
+     * 
+     * 
+     * @param in the <tt>InputStream</tt> from which to read data.
+     * @param options Specified options
+     * @see Base64#ENCODE
+     * @see Base64#DECODE
+     * @see Base64#DONT_BREAK_LINES
+     * @since 2.0
+     */
+    public Base64InputStream(InputStream in, int options) {
+      super(in);
+      this.breakLines = (options & DONT_BREAK_LINES) != DONT_BREAK_LINES;
+      this.encode = (options & ENCODE) == ENCODE;
+      this.bufferLength = encode ? 4 : 3;
+      this.buffer = new byte[bufferLength];
+      this.position = -1;
+      this.lineLength = 0;
+      this.options = options; // Record for later, mostly to determine which
+                              // alphabet to use
+      this.decodabet = getDecodabet(options);
+    } // end constructor
+
+    /**
+     * Reads enough of the input stream to convert to/from Base64 and returns
+     * the next byte.
+     * 
+     * @return next byte
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    @Override
+    public int read() throws IOException {
+      // Do we need to get data?
+      if (position < 0) {
+        if (encode) {
+          byte[] b3 = new byte[3];
+          int numBinaryBytes = 0;
+          for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
+            try {
+              int b = in.read();
+
+              // If end of stream, b is -1.
+              if (b >= 0) {
+                b3[i] = (byte) b;
+                numBinaryBytes++;
+              } // end if: not end of stream
+
+            } catch (IOException e) {
+              // Only a problem if we got no data at all.
+              if (i == 0)
+                throw e;
+
+            } // end catch
+          } // end for: each needed input byte
+
+          if (numBinaryBytes > 0) {
+            encode3to4(b3, 0, numBinaryBytes, buffer, 0, options);
+            position = 0;
+            numSigBytes = 4;
+
+          } else {
+            return -1;
+          } // end else
+
+        } else {
+          byte[] b4 = new byte[4];
+          int i = 0;
+          for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
+            // Read four "meaningful" bytes:
+            int b = 0;
+            do {
+              b = in.read();
+            } while (b >= 0 && decodabet[b & 0x7f] <= WHITE_SPACE_ENC);
+
+            if (b < 0) {
+              break; // Reads a -1 if end of stream
+            }
+
+            b4[i] = (byte) b;
+          } // end for: each needed input byte
+
+          if (i == 4) {
+            numSigBytes = decode4to3(b4, 0, buffer, 0, options);
+            position = 0;
+            
+          } else if (i == 0) {
+            return -1;
+          
+          } else {
+            // Must have broken out from above.
+            throw new IOException("Improperly padded Base64 input.");
+          } // end
+        } // end else: decode
+      } // end else: get data
+
+      // Got data?
+      if (position >= 0) {
+        // End of relevant data?
+        if ( /* !encode && */position >= numSigBytes) {
+          return -1;
+        }
+
+        if (encode && breakLines && lineLength >= MAX_LINE_LENGTH) {
+          lineLength = 0;
+          return '\n';
+
+        }
+        lineLength++;                   // This isn't important when decoding
+                                        // but throwing an extra "if" seems
+                                        // just as wasteful.
+
+        int b = buffer[position++];
+
+        if (position >= bufferLength)
+          position = -1;
+
+        return b & 0xFF;                // This is how you "cast" a byte that's
+                                        // intended to be unsigned.
+
+      }
+
+      // When JDK1.4 is more accepted, use an assertion here.
+      throw new IOException("Error in Base64 code reading stream.");
+
+    } // end read
+
+    /**
+     * Calls {@link #read()} repeatedly until the end of stream is reached or
+     * <var>len</var> bytes are read. Returns number of bytes read into array
+     * or -1 if end of stream is encountered.
+     * 
+     * @param dest array to hold values
+     * @param off offset for array
+     * @param len max number of bytes to read into array
+     * @return bytes read into array or -1 if end of stream is encountered.
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    @Override
+    public int read(byte[] dest, int off, int len) throws IOException {
+      int i;
+      int b;
+      for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+        b = read();
+        if (b >= 0) {
+          dest[off + i] = (byte) b;
+        } else if (i == 0) {
+          return -1;
+        } else {
+          break; // Out of 'for' loop
+        }
+      } // end for: each byte read
+      return i;
+    } // end read
+
+  } // end inner class InputStream
+
+  /* ******** I N N E R   C L A S S   O U T P U T S T R E A M ******** */
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link Base64.Base64OutputStream} will write data to another
+   * <tt>OutputStream</tt>, given in the constructor, and
+   * encode/decode to/from Base64 notation on the fly.
+   * 
+   * @see Base64
+   * @since 1.3
+   */
+  public static class Base64OutputStream extends FilterOutputStream {
+    private boolean encode;
+    private int position;
+    private byte[] buffer;
+    private int bufferLength;
+    private int lineLength;
+    private boolean breakLines;
+    private byte[] b4;                          // Scratch used in a few places
+    private boolean suspendEncoding;
+    private int options;                        // Record for later
+    private byte[] decodabet;                   // Local copy avoids method calls
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@link Base64OutputStream} in ENCODE mode.
+     * 
+     * @param out the <tt>OutputStream</tt> to which data will be written.
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    public Base64OutputStream(OutputStream out) {
+      this(out, ENCODE);
+    } // end constructor
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@link Base64OutputStream} in either ENCODE or DECODE mode.
+     * <p>
+     * Valid options:
+     * 
+     * <ul>
+     *   <li>ENCODE or DECODE: Encode or Decode as data is read.</li>
+     *   <li>DONT_BREAK_LINES: don't break lines at 76 characters (only
+     *     meaningful when encoding) <i>Note: Technically, this makes your
+     *     encoding non-compliant.</i></li>
+     * </ul>
+     * 
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>new Base64.Base64OutputStream( out, Base64.ENCODE )</code>
+     * 
+     * @param out the <tt>OutputStream</tt> to which data will be written.
+     * @param options Specified options.
+     * @see Base64#ENCODE
+     * @see Base64#DECODE
+     * @see Base64#DONT_BREAK_LINES
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    public Base64OutputStream(OutputStream out, int options) {
+      super(out);
+      this.breakLines = (options & DONT_BREAK_LINES) != DONT_BREAK_LINES;
+      this.encode = (options & ENCODE) == ENCODE;
+      this.bufferLength = encode ? 3 : 4;
+      this.buffer = new byte[bufferLength];
+      this.position = 0;
+      this.lineLength = 0;
+      this.suspendEncoding = false;
+      this.b4 = new byte[4];
+      this.options = options;
+      this.decodabet = getDecodabet(options);
+    } // end constructor
+
+    /**
+     * Writes the byte to the output stream after converting to/from Base64
+     * notation. When encoding, bytes are buffered three at a time before the
+     * output stream actually gets a write() call. When decoding, bytes are
+     * buffered four at a time.
+     * 
+     * @param theByte the byte to write
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void write(int theByte) throws IOException {
+      // Encoding suspended?
+      if (suspendEncoding) {
+        super.out.write(theByte);
+        return;
+      } // end if: supsended
+
+      // Encode?
+      if (encode) {
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) theByte;
+        if (position >= bufferLength) {                 // Enough to encode.
+          out.write(encode3to4(b4, buffer, bufferLength, options));
+          lineLength += 4;
+          if (breakLines && lineLength >= MAX_LINE_LENGTH) {
+            out.write(NEW_LINE);
+            lineLength = 0;
+          } // end if: end of line
+
+          position = 0;
+        } // end if: enough to output
+      
+      } else {
+        // Meaningful Base64 character?
+        if (decodabet[theByte & 0x7f] > WHITE_SPACE_ENC) {
+          buffer[position++] = (byte) theByte;
+          if (position >= bufferLength) {               // Enough to output.
+            int len = decode4to3(buffer, 0, b4, 0, options);
+            out.write(b4, 0, len);
+            position = 0;
+          } // end if: enough to output
+        
+        } else if (decodabet[theByte & 0x7f] != WHITE_SPACE_ENC) {
+          throw new IOException("Invalid character in Base64 data.");
+        } // end else: not white space either
+      } // end else: decoding
+    } // end write
+
+    /**
+     * Calls {@link #write(int)} repeatedly until <var>len</var> bytes are
+     * written.
+     * 
+     * @param theBytes array from which to read bytes
+     * @param off offset for array
+     * @param len max number of bytes to read into array
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void write(byte[] theBytes, int off, int len) throws IOException {
+      // Encoding suspended?
+      if (suspendEncoding) {
+        super.out.write(theBytes, off, len);
+        return;
+      } // end if: supsended
+
+      for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+        write(theBytes[off + i]);
+      } // end for: each byte written
+
+    } // end write
+
+    /**
+     * Method added by PHIL. [Thanks, PHIL. -Rob] This pads the buffer without
+     * closing the stream.
+     * 
+     * @throws IOException
+     */
+    public void flushBase64() throws IOException {
+      if (position > 0) {
+        if (encode) {
+          out.write(encode3to4(b4, buffer, position, options));
+          position = 0;
+
+        } else {
+          throw new IOException("Base64 input not properly padded.");
+        } // end else: decoding
+      } // end if: buffer partially full
+
+    } // end flush
+
+    /**
+     * Flushes and closes (I think, in the superclass) the stream.
+     * 
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void close() throws IOException {
+      // 1. Ensure that pending characters are written
+      flushBase64();
+
+      // 2. Actually close the stream
+      // Base class both flushes and closes.
+      super.close();
+
+      buffer = null;
+      out = null;
+    } // end close
+
+    /**
+     * Suspends encoding of the stream. May be helpful if you need to embed a
+     * piece of base640-encoded data in a stream.
+     *
+     * @throws IOException
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     */
+    public void suspendEncoding() throws IOException {
+      flushBase64();
+      this.suspendEncoding = true;
+    } // end suspendEncoding
+
+    /**
+     * Resumes encoding of the stream. May be helpful if you need to embed a
+     * piece of base640-encoded data in a stream.
+     * 
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     */
+    public void resumeEncoding() {
+      this.suspendEncoding = false;
+    } // end resumeEncoding
+
+  } // end inner class OutputStream
+
+} // end class Base64

Added: lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java?rev=585219&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java (added)
+++ lucene/hadoop/trunk/src/contrib/hbase/src/test/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util/TestBase64.java Tue Oct 16 11:56:28 2007
@@ -0,0 +1,67 @@
+/**
+ * Copyright 2007 The Apache Software Foundation
+ *
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util;
+
+import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
+import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.TreeMap;
+
+import junit.framework.TestCase;
+
+/**
+ * Test order preservation characteristics of ordered Base64 dialect
+ */
+public class TestBase64 extends TestCase {
+  // Note: uris is sorted. We need to prove that the ordered Base64
+  // preserves that ordering
+  private String[] uris = {
+      "dns://dns.powerset.com/www.powerset.com",
+      "dns:www.powerset.com",
+      "file:///usr/bin/java",
+      "filename",
+      "ftp://one.two.three/index.html",
+      "http://one.two.three/index.html",
+      "https://one.two.three:9443/index.html",
+      "r:dns://com.powerset.dns/www.powerset.com",
+      "r:ftp://three.two.one/index.html",
+      "r:http://three.two.one/index.html",
+      "r:https://three.two.one:9443/index.html"
+  };
+
+  /**
+   * the test
+   * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException
+   */
+  public void testBase64() throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
+    TreeMap<String, String> sorted = new TreeMap<String, String>();
+    
+    for (int i = 0; i < uris.length; i++) {
+      byte[] bytes = uris[i].getBytes("UTF-8");
+      sorted.put(Base64.encodeBytes(bytes, Base64.ORDERED), uris[i]);
+    }
+    System.out.println();
+
+    int i = 0;
+    for (Map.Entry<String, String> e: sorted.entrySet()) {
+      assertTrue(uris[i++].compareTo(e.getValue()) == 0);
+    }
+  }
+}



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