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From djen...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r821961 [20/30] - in /geronimo/sandbox/djencks/osgi/framework: ./ buildsupport/ buildsupport/car-maven-plugin/ buildsupport/car-maven-plugin/src/main/java/org/apache/geronimo/mavenplugins/car/ buildsupport/geronimo-maven-plugin/src/main/jav...
Date Mon, 05 Oct 2009 18:54:56 GMT
Added: geronimo/sandbox/djencks/osgi/framework/modules/geronimo-plugin/src/main/java/org/apache/geronimo/system/plugin/plexus/util/StringUtils.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/geronimo/sandbox/djencks/osgi/framework/modules/geronimo-plugin/src/main/java/org/apache/geronimo/system/plugin/plexus/util/StringUtils.java?rev=821961&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- geronimo/sandbox/djencks/osgi/framework/modules/geronimo-plugin/src/main/java/org/apache/geronimo/system/plugin/plexus/util/StringUtils.java (added)
+++ geronimo/sandbox/djencks/osgi/framework/modules/geronimo-plugin/src/main/java/org/apache/geronimo/system/plugin/plexus/util/StringUtils.java Mon Oct  5 18:54:50 2009
@@ -0,0 +1,2515 @@
+/* ====================================================================
+ * The Apache Software License, Version 1.1
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2002 The Apache Software Foundation.  All rights
+ * reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ *
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ *
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
+ *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
+ *    distribution.
+ *
+ * 3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution, if
+ *    any, must include the following acknowlegement:
+ *       "This product includes software developed by the
+ *        Apache Software Foundation (http://www.codehaus.org/)."
+ *    Alternately, this acknowlegement may appear in the software itself,
+ *    if and wherever such third-party acknowlegements normally appear.
+ *
+ * 4. The names "The Jakarta Project", "Commons", and "Apache Software
+ *    Foundation" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived
+ *    from this software without prior written permission. For written
+ *    permission, please contact codehaus@codehaus.org.
+ *
+ * 5. Products derived from this software may not be called "Apache"
+ *    nor may "Apache" appear in their names without prior written
+ *    permission of the Apache Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
+ * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
+ * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
+ * DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE APACHE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION OR
+ * ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
+ * SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+ * LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
+ * USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
+ * ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
+ * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT
+ * OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ * ====================================================================
+ *
+ * This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many
+ * individuals on behalf of the Apache Software Foundation.  For more
+ * information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see
+ * <http://www.codehaus.org/>.
+ */
+package org.apache.geronimo.system.plugin.plexus.util;
+
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.Locale;
+import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.StringTokenizer;
+import java.util.regex.Matcher;
+import java.util.regex.Pattern;
+
+/**
+ * <p>Common <code>String</code> manipulation routines.</p>
+ *
+ * <p>Originally from
+ * <a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/turbine/">Turbine</a> and the
+ * GenerationJavaCore library.</p>
+ *
+ * @author <a href="mailto:jon@latchkey.com">Jon S. Stevens</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:dlr@finemaltcoding.com">Daniel Rall</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:gcoladonato@yahoo.com">Greg Coladonato</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:bayard@generationjava.com">Henri Yandell</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:ed@codehaus.org">Ed Korthof</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:rand_mcneely@yahoo.com">Rand McNeely</a>
+ * @author Stephen Colebourne
+ * @author <a href="mailto:fredrik@westermarck.com">Fredrik Westermarck</a>
+ * @author Holger Krauth
+ * @author <a href="mailto:alex@purpletech.com">Alexander Day Chaffee</a>
+ * @author <a href="mailto:vincent.siveton@gmail.com">Vincent Siveton</a>
+ * @since 1.0
+ * @version $Id: StringUtils.java 8001 2009-01-03 13:17:09Z vsiveton $
+ */
+public class StringUtils
+{
+    /**
+     * <p><code>StringUtils</code> instances should NOT be constructed in
+     * standard programming. Instead, the class should be used as
+     * <code>StringUtils.trim(" foo ");</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>This constructor is public to permit tools that require a JavaBean
+     * manager to operate.</p>
+     */
+    public StringUtils()
+    {
+    }
+
+    // Empty
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Removes control characters, including whitespace, from both
+     * ends of this String, handling <code>null</code> by returning
+     * an empty String.</p>
+     *
+     * @see java.lang.String#trim()
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return the trimmed text (never <code>null</code>)
+     */
+    public static String clean( String str )
+    {
+        return ( str == null ? "" : str.trim() );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Removes control characters, including whitespace, from both
+     * ends of this String, handling <code>null</code> by returning
+     * <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @see java.lang.String#trim()
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return the trimmed text (or <code>null</code>)
+     */
+    public static String trim( String str )
+    {
+        return ( str == null ? null : str.trim() );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Deletes all whitespaces from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>Whitespace is defined by
+     * {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String target to delete whitespace from
+     * @return the String without whitespaces
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     */
+    public static String deleteWhitespace( String str )
+    {
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( !Character.isWhitespace( str.charAt( i ) ) )
+            {
+                buffer.append( str.charAt( i ) );
+            }
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if a String is non <code>null</code> and is
+     * not empty (<code>length > 0</code>).</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return true if the String is non-null, and not length zero
+     */
+    public static boolean isNotEmpty( String str )
+    {
+        return ( ( str != null ) && ( str.length() > 0 ) );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if a (trimmed) String is <code>null</code> or empty.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><strong>Note:</strong> In future releases, this method will no longer trim the input string such that it works
+     * complementary to {@link #isNotEmpty(String)}. Code that wants to test for whitespace-only strings should be
+     * migrated to use {@link #isBlank(String)} instead.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is <code>null</code>, or
+     *  length zero once trimmed
+     */
+    public static boolean isEmpty( String str )
+    {
+        return ( ( str == null ) || ( str.trim().length() == 0 ) );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>
+     * Checks if a String is whitespace, empty ("") or null.
+     * </p>
+     *
+     * <pre>
+     * StringUtils.isBlank(null)      = true
+     * StringUtils.isBlank("")        = true
+     * StringUtils.isBlank(" ")       = true
+     * StringUtils.isBlank("bob")     = false
+     * StringUtils.isBlank("  bob  ") = false
+     * </pre>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check, may be null
+     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is null, empty or whitespace
+     * @since 1.5.2
+     */
+    public static boolean isBlank( String str )
+    {
+        int strLen;
+        if ( str == null || ( strLen = str.length() ) == 0 )
+        {
+            return true;
+        }
+        for ( int i = 0; i < strLen; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( !Character.isWhitespace( str.charAt( i ) ) )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>
+     * Checks if a String is not empty (""), not null and not whitespace only.
+     * </p>
+     *
+     * <pre>
+     * StringUtils.isNotBlank(null)      = false
+     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("")        = false
+     * StringUtils.isNotBlank(" ")       = false
+     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("bob")     = true
+     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("  bob  ") = true
+     * </pre>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check, may be null
+     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is not empty and not null and not whitespace
+     * @since 1.5.2
+     */
+    public static boolean isNotBlank( String str )
+    {
+        return !StringUtils.isBlank( str );
+    }
+
+    // Equals and IndexOf
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Compares two Strings, returning <code>true</code> if they are equal.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code>s are handled without exceptions. Two <code>null</code>
+     * references are considered to be equal. The comparison is case sensitive.</p>
+     *
+     * @see java.lang.String#equals(Object)
+     * @param str1 the first string
+     * @param str2 the second string
+     * @return <code>true</code> if the Strings are equal, case sensitive, or
+     *  both <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static boolean equals( String str1, String str2 )
+    {
+        return ( str1 == null ? str2 == null : str1.equals( str2 ) );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Compares two Strings, returning <code>true</code> if they are equal ignoring
+     * the case.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>Nulls</code> are handled without exceptions. Two <code>null</code>
+     * references are considered equal. Comparison is case insensitive.</p>
+     *
+     * @see java.lang.String#equalsIgnoreCase(String)
+     * @param str1  the first string
+     * @param str2  the second string
+     * @return <code>true</code> if the Strings are equal, case insensitive, or
+     *  both <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static boolean equalsIgnoreCase( String str1, String str2 )
+    {
+        return ( str1 == null ? str2 == null : str1.equalsIgnoreCase( str2 ) );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Find the first index of any of a set of potential substrings.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @param searchStrs the Strings to search for
+     * @return the first index of any of the searchStrs in str
+     * @throws NullPointerException if any of searchStrs[i] is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static int indexOfAny( String str, String[] searchStrs )
+    {
+        if ( ( str == null ) || ( searchStrs == null ) )
+        {
+            return -1;
+        }
+        int sz = searchStrs.length;
+
+        // String's can't have a MAX_VALUEth index.
+        int ret = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
+
+        int tmp = 0;
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            tmp = str.indexOf( searchStrs[i] );
+            if ( tmp == -1 )
+            {
+                continue;
+            }
+
+            if ( tmp < ret )
+            {
+                ret = tmp;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return ( ret == Integer.MAX_VALUE ) ? -1 : ret;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Find the latest index of any of a set of potential substrings.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> string will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str  the String to check
+     * @param searchStrs  the Strings to search for
+     * @return the last index of any of the Strings
+     * @throws NullPointerException if any of searchStrs[i] is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static int lastIndexOfAny( String str, String[] searchStrs )
+    {
+        if ( ( str == null ) || ( searchStrs == null ) )
+        {
+            return -1;
+        }
+        int sz = searchStrs.length;
+        int ret = -1;
+        int tmp = 0;
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            tmp = str.lastIndexOf( searchStrs[i] );
+            if ( tmp > ret )
+            {
+                ret = tmp;
+            }
+        }
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    // Substring
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Gets a substring from the specified string avoiding exceptions.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A negative start position can be used to start <code>n</code>
+     * characters from the end of the String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to get the substring from
+     * @param start the position to start from, negative means
+     *  count back from the end of the String by this many characters
+     * @return substring from start position
+     */
+    public static String substring( String str, int start )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        // handle negatives, which means last n characters
+        if ( start < 0 )
+        {
+            start = str.length() + start; // remember start is negative
+        }
+
+        if ( start < 0 )
+        {
+            start = 0;
+        }
+        if ( start > str.length() )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+
+        return str.substring( start );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Gets a substring from the specified String avoiding exceptions.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A negative start position can be used to start/end <code>n</code>
+     * characters from the end of the String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to get the substring from
+     * @param start the position to start from, negative means
+     *  count back from the end of the string by this many characters
+     * @param end the position to end at (exclusive), negative means
+     *  count back from the end of the String by this many characters
+     * @return substring from start position to end positon
+     */
+    public static String substring( String str, int start, int end )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        // handle negatives
+        if ( end < 0 )
+        {
+            end = str.length() + end; // remember end is negative
+        }
+        if ( start < 0 )
+        {
+            start = str.length() + start; // remember start is negative
+        }
+
+        // check length next
+        if ( end > str.length() )
+        {
+            // check this works.
+            end = str.length();
+        }
+
+        // if start is greater than end, return ""
+        if ( start > end )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+
+        if ( start < 0 )
+        {
+            start = 0;
+        }
+        if ( end < 0 )
+        {
+            end = 0;
+        }
+
+        return str.substring( start, end );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Gets the leftmost <code>n</code> characters of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If <code>n</code> characters are not available, or the
+     * String is <code>null</code>, the String will be returned without
+     * an exception.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to get the leftmost characters from
+     * @param len the length of the required String
+     * @return the leftmost characters
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if len is less than zero
+     */
+    public static String left( String str, int len )
+    {
+        if ( len < 0 )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Requested String length " + len + " is less than zero" );
+        }
+        if ( ( str == null ) || ( str.length() <= len ) )
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str.substring( 0, len );
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Gets the rightmost <code>n</code> characters of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If <code>n</code> characters are not available, or the String
+     * is <code>null</code>, the String will be returned without an
+     * exception.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to get the rightmost characters from
+     * @param len the length of the required String
+     * @return the leftmost characters
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if len is less than zero
+     */
+    public static String right( String str, int len )
+    {
+        if ( len < 0 )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Requested String length " + len + " is less than zero" );
+        }
+        if ( ( str == null ) || ( str.length() <= len ) )
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str.substring( str.length() - len );
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Gets <code>n</code> characters from the middle of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If <code>n</code> characters are not available, the remainder
+     * of the String will be returned without an exception. If the
+     * String is <code>null</code>, <code>null</code> will be returned.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to get the characters from
+     * @param pos the position to start from
+     * @param len the length of the required String
+     * @return the leftmost characters
+     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if pos is out of bounds
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if len is less than zero
+     */
+    public static String mid( String str, int pos, int len )
+    {
+        if ( ( pos < 0 ) ||
+            ( ( str != null ) && ( pos > str.length() ) ) )
+        {
+            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException( "String index " + pos + " is out of bounds" );
+        }
+        if ( len < 0 )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Requested String length " + len + " is less than zero" );
+        }
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        if ( str.length() <= ( pos + len ) )
+        {
+            return str.substring( pos );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str.substring( pos, pos + len );
+        }
+    }
+
+    // Splitting
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Splits the provided text into a array, using whitespace as the
+     * separator.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to parse
+     * @return an array of parsed Strings
+     */
+    public static String[] split( String str )
+    {
+        return split( str, null, -1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @see #split(String, String, int)
+     */
+    public static String[] split( String text, String separator )
+    {
+        return split( text, separator, -1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Splits the provided text into a array, based on a given separator.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array. The
+     * maximum number of splits to perfom can be controlled. A <code>null</code>
+     * separator will cause parsing to be on whitespace.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>This is useful for quickly splitting a String directly into
+     * an array of tokens, instead of an enumeration of tokens (as
+     * <code>StringTokenizer</code> does).</p>
+     *
+     * @param str The string to parse.
+     * @param separator Characters used as the delimiters. If
+     *  <code>null</code>, splits on whitespace.
+     * @param max The maximum number of elements to include in the
+     *  array.  A zero or negative value implies no limit.
+     * @return an array of parsed Strings
+     */
+    public static String[] split( String str, String separator, int max )
+    {
+        StringTokenizer tok = null;
+        if ( separator == null )
+        {
+            // Null separator means we're using StringTokenizer's default
+            // delimiter, which comprises all whitespace characters.
+            tok = new StringTokenizer( str );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            tok = new StringTokenizer( str, separator );
+        }
+
+        int listSize = tok.countTokens();
+        if ( ( max > 0 ) && ( listSize > max ) )
+        {
+            listSize = max;
+        }
+
+        String[] list = new String[listSize];
+        int i = 0;
+        int lastTokenBegin = 0;
+        int lastTokenEnd = 0;
+        while ( tok.hasMoreTokens() )
+        {
+            if ( ( max > 0 ) && ( i == listSize - 1 ) )
+            {
+                // In the situation where we hit the max yet have
+                // tokens left over in our input, the last list
+                // element gets all remaining text.
+                String endToken = tok.nextToken();
+                lastTokenBegin = str.indexOf( endToken, lastTokenEnd );
+                list[i] = str.substring( lastTokenBegin );
+                break;
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                list[i] = tok.nextToken();
+                lastTokenBegin = str.indexOf( list[i], lastTokenEnd );
+                lastTokenEnd = lastTokenBegin + list[i].length();
+            }
+            i++;
+        }
+        return list;
+    }
+
+    // Joining
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+    /**
+     * <p>Concatenates elements of an array into a single String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The difference from join is that concatenate has no delimiter.</p>
+     *
+     * @param array the array of values to concatenate.
+     * @return the concatenated string.
+     */
+    public static String concatenate( Object[] array )
+    {
+        return join( array, "" );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided array into a single String
+     * containing the provided list of elements.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list. A
+     * <code>null</code> separator is the same as a blank String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param array the array of values to join together
+     * @param separator the separator character to use
+     * @return the joined String
+     */
+    public static String join( Object[] array, String separator )
+    {
+        if ( separator == null )
+        {
+            separator = "";
+        }
+        int arraySize = array.length;
+        int bufSize = ( arraySize == 0 ? 0 : ( array[0].toString().length() +
+            separator.length() ) * arraySize );
+        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer( bufSize );
+
+        for ( int i = 0; i < arraySize; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( i > 0 )
+            {
+                buf.append( separator );
+            }
+            buf.append( array[i] );
+        }
+        return buf.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided <code>Iterator</code> into
+     * a single String containing the provided elements.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list. A
+     * <code>null</code> separator is the same as a blank String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param iterator the <code>Iterator</code> of values to join together
+     * @param separator  the separator character to use
+     * @return the joined String
+     */
+    public static String join( Iterator iterator, String separator )
+    {
+        if ( separator == null )
+        {
+            separator = "";
+        }
+        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer( 256 );  // Java default is 16, probably too small
+        while ( iterator.hasNext() )
+        {
+            buf.append( iterator.next() );
+            if ( iterator.hasNext() )
+            {
+                buf.append( separator );
+            }
+        }
+        return buf.toString();
+    }
+
+
+
+    // Replacing
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace a char with another char inside a larger String, once.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @see #replace(String text, char repl, char with, int max)
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl char to search for
+     * @param with char to replace with
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replaceOnce( String text, char repl, char with )
+    {
+        return replace( text, repl, with, 1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace all occurances of a char within another char.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @see #replace(String text, char repl, char with, int max)
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl char to search for
+     * @param with char to replace with
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replace( String text, char repl, char with )
+    {
+        return replace( text, repl, with, -1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace a char with another char inside a larger String,
+     * for the first <code>max</code> values of the search char.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl char to search for
+     * @param with char to replace with
+     * @param max maximum number of values to replace, or <code>-1</code> if no maximum
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replace( String text, char repl, char with, int max )
+    {
+        return replace( text, String.valueOf( repl ), String.valueOf( with ), max );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace a String with another String inside a larger String, once.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @see #replace(String text, String repl, String with, int max)
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl String to search for
+     * @param with String to replace with
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replaceOnce( String text, String repl, String with )
+    {
+        return replace( text, repl, with, 1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace all occurances of a String within another String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @see #replace(String text, String repl, String with, int max)
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl String to search for
+     * @param with String to replace with
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replace( String text, String repl, String with )
+    {
+        return replace( text, repl, with, -1 );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Replace a String with another String inside a larger String,
+     * for the first <code>max</code> values of the search String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
+     *
+     * @param text text to search and replace in
+     * @param repl String to search for
+     * @param with String to replace with
+     * @param max maximum number of values to replace, or <code>-1</code> if no maximum
+     * @return the text with any replacements processed
+     */
+    public static String replace( String text, String repl, String with, int max )
+    {
+        if ( ( text == null ) || ( repl == null ) || ( with == null ) || ( repl.length() == 0 ) )
+        {
+            return text;
+        }
+
+        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer( text.length() );
+        int start = 0, end = 0;
+        while ( ( end = text.indexOf( repl, start ) ) != -1 )
+        {
+            buf.append( text.substring( start, end ) ).append( with );
+            start = end + repl.length();
+
+            if ( --max == 0 )
+            {
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+        buf.append( text.substring( start ) );
+        return buf.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Overlay a part of a String with another String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param text String to do overlaying in
+     * @param overlay String to overlay
+     * @param start int to start overlaying at
+     * @param end int to stop overlaying before
+     * @return String with overlayed text
+     * @throws NullPointerException if text or overlay is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String overlayString( String text, String overlay, int start, int end )
+    {
+        return new StringBuffer( start + overlay.length() + text.length() - end + 1 )
+            .append( text.substring( 0, start ) )
+            .append( overlay )
+            .append( text.substring( end ) )
+            .toString();
+    }
+
+    // Centering
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Center a String in a larger String of size <code>n</code>.<p>
+     *
+     * <p>Uses spaces as the value to buffer the String with.
+     * Equivalent to <code>center(str, size, " ")</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to center
+     * @param size int size of new String
+     * @return String containing centered String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String center( String str, int size )
+    {
+        return center( str, size, " " );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Center a String in a larger String of size <code>n</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>Uses a supplied String as the value to buffer the String with.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to center
+     * @param size int size of new String
+     * @param delim String to buffer the new String with
+     * @return String containing centered String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or delim is <code>null</code>
+     * @throws ArithmeticException if delim is the empty String
+     */
+    public static String center( String str, int size, String delim )
+    {
+        int sz = str.length();
+        int p = size - sz;
+        if ( p < 1 )
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+        str = leftPad( str, sz + p / 2, delim );
+        str = rightPad( str, size, delim );
+        return str;
+    }
+
+    // Chomping
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove the last newline, and everything after it from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp the newline from
+     * @return String without chomped newline
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chomp( String str )
+    {
+        return chomp( str, "\n" );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove the last value of a supplied String, and everything after
+     * it from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @param sep String to chomp
+     * @return String without chomped ending
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chomp( String str, String sep )
+    {
+        int idx = str.lastIndexOf( sep );
+        if ( idx != -1 )
+        {
+            return str.substring( 0, idx );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove a newline if and only if it is at the end
+     * of the supplied String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @return String without chomped ending
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chompLast( String str )
+    {
+        return chompLast( str, "\n" );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove a value if and only if the String ends with that value.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @param sep String to chomp
+     * @return String without chomped ending
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chompLast( String str, String sep )
+    {
+        if ( str.length() == 0 )
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+        String sub = str.substring( str.length() - sep.length() );
+        if ( sep.equals( sub ) )
+        {
+            return str.substring( 0, str.length() - sep.length() );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove everything and return the last value of a supplied String, and
+     * everything after it from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @param sep String to chomp
+     * @return String chomped
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String getChomp( String str, String sep )
+    {
+        int idx = str.lastIndexOf( sep );
+        if ( idx == str.length() - sep.length() )
+        {
+            return sep;
+        }
+        else if ( idx != -1 )
+        {
+            return str.substring( idx );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove the first value of a supplied String, and everything before it
+     * from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @param sep String to chomp
+     * @return String without chomped beginning
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String prechomp( String str, String sep )
+    {
+        int idx = str.indexOf( sep );
+        if ( idx != -1 )
+        {
+            return str.substring( idx + sep.length() );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return str;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove and return everything before the first value of a
+     * supplied String from another String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chomp from
+     * @param sep String to chomp
+     * @return String prechomped
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String getPrechomp( String str, String sep )
+    {
+        int idx = str.indexOf( sep );
+        if ( idx != -1 )
+        {
+            return str.substring( 0, idx + sep.length() );
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+    }
+
+    // Chopping
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove the last character from a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If the String ends in <code>\r\n</code>, then remove both
+     * of them.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chop last character from
+     * @return String without last character
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chop( String str )
+    {
+        if ( "".equals( str ) )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+        if ( str.length() == 1 )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+        int lastIdx = str.length() - 1;
+        String ret = str.substring( 0, lastIdx );
+        char last = str.charAt( lastIdx );
+        if ( last == '\n' )
+        {
+            if ( ret.charAt( lastIdx - 1 ) == '\r' )
+            {
+                return ret.substring( 0, lastIdx - 1 );
+            }
+        }
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove <code>\n</code> from end of a String if it's there.
+     * If a <code>\r</code> precedes it, then remove that too.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to chop a newline from
+     * @return String without newline
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String chopNewline( String str )
+    {
+        int lastIdx = str.length() - 1;
+        char last = str.charAt( lastIdx );
+        if ( last == '\n' )
+        {
+            if ( str.charAt( lastIdx - 1 ) == '\r' )
+            {
+                lastIdx--;
+            }
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            lastIdx++;
+        }
+        return str.substring( 0, lastIdx );
+    }
+
+
+    // Conversion
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    // spec 3.10.6
+    /**
+     * <p>Escapes any values it finds into their String form.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>So a tab becomes the characters <code>'\\'</code> and
+     * <code>'t'</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to escape values in
+     * @return String with escaped values
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String escape( String str )
+    {
+        // improved with code from  cybertiger@cyberiantiger.org
+        // unicode from him, and defaul for < 32's.
+        int sz = str.length();
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( 2 * sz );
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            char ch = str.charAt( i );
+
+            // handle unicode
+            if ( ch > 0xfff )
+            {
+                buffer.append( "\\u" + Integer.toHexString( ch ) );
+            }
+            else if ( ch > 0xff )
+            {
+                buffer.append( "\\u0" + Integer.toHexString( ch ) );
+            }
+            else if ( ch > 0x7f )
+            {
+                buffer.append( "\\u00" + Integer.toHexString( ch ) );
+            }
+            else if ( ch < 32 )
+            {
+                switch ( ch )
+                {
+                    case '\b':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( 'b' );
+                        break;
+                    case '\n':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( 'n' );
+                        break;
+                    case '\t':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( 't' );
+                        break;
+                    case '\f':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( 'f' );
+                        break;
+                    case '\r':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( 'r' );
+                        break;
+                    default :
+                        if ( ch > 0xf )
+                        {
+                            buffer.append( "\\u00" + Integer.toHexString( ch ) );
+                        }
+                        else
+                        {
+                            buffer.append( "\\u000" + Integer.toHexString( ch ) );
+                        }
+                        break;
+                }
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                switch ( ch )
+                {
+                    case '\'':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( '\'' );
+                        break;
+                    case '"':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( '"' );
+                        break;
+                    case '\\':
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        buffer.append( '\\' );
+                        break;
+                    default :
+                        buffer.append( ch );
+                        break;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    // Padding
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Repeat a String <code>n</code> times to form a
+     * new string.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to repeat
+     * @param repeat number of times to repeat str
+     * @return String with repeated String
+     * @throws NegativeArraySizeException if <code>repeat < 0</code>
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String repeat( String str, int repeat )
+    {
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( repeat * str.length() );
+        for ( int i = 0; i < repeat; i++ )
+        {
+            buffer.append( str );
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Right pad a String with spaces.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>n</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to repeat
+     * @param size number of times to repeat str
+     * @return right padded String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String rightPad( String str, int size )
+    {
+        return rightPad( str, size, " " );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Right pad a String with a specified string.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>n</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to pad out
+     * @param size size to pad to
+     * @param delim String to pad with
+     * @return right padded String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or delim is <code>null</code>
+     * @throws ArithmeticException if delim is the empty String
+     */
+    public static String rightPad( String str, int size, String delim )
+    {
+        size = ( size - str.length() ) / delim.length();
+        if ( size > 0 )
+        {
+            str += repeat( delim, size );
+        }
+        return str;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Left pad a String with spaces.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>n</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str String to pad out
+     * @param size size to pad to
+     * @return left padded String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or delim is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String leftPad( String str, int size )
+    {
+        return leftPad( str, size, " " );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Left pad a String with a specified string. Pad to a size of n.
+     *
+     * @param str String to pad out
+     * @param size size to pad to
+     * @param delim String to pad with
+     * @return left padded String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if str or delim is null
+     * @throws ArithmeticException if delim is the empty string
+     */
+    public static String leftPad( String str, int size, String delim )
+    {
+        size = ( size - str.length() ) / delim.length();
+        if ( size > 0 )
+        {
+            str = repeat( delim, size ) + str;
+        }
+        return str;
+    }
+
+    // Stripping
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove whitespace from the front and back of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to remove whitespace from
+     * @return the stripped String
+     */
+    public static String strip( String str )
+    {
+        return strip( str, null );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Remove a specified String from the front and back of a
+     * String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If whitespace is wanted to be removed, used the
+     * {@link #strip(java.lang.String)} method.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to remove a string from
+     * @param delim the String to remove at start and end
+     * @return the stripped String
+     */
+    public static String strip( String str, String delim )
+    {
+        str = stripStart( str, delim );
+        return stripEnd( str, delim );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Strip whitespace from the front and back of every String
+     * in the array.</p>
+     *
+     * @param strs the Strings to remove whitespace from
+     * @return the stripped Strings
+     */
+    public static String[] stripAll( String[] strs )
+    {
+        return stripAll( strs, null );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Strip the specified delimiter from the front and back of
+     * every String in the array.</p>
+     *
+     * @param strs the Strings to remove a String from
+     * @param delimiter the String to remove at start and end
+     * @return the stripped Strings
+     */
+    public static String[] stripAll( String[] strs, String delimiter )
+    {
+        if ( ( strs == null ) || ( strs.length == 0 ) )
+        {
+            return strs;
+        }
+        int sz = strs.length;
+        String[] newArr = new String[sz];
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            newArr[i] = strip( strs[i], delimiter );
+        }
+        return newArr;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Strip any of a supplied String from the end of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If the strip String is <code>null</code>, whitespace is
+     * stripped.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to remove characters from
+     * @param strip the String to remove
+     * @return the stripped String
+     */
+    public static String stripEnd( String str, String strip )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        int end = str.length();
+
+        if ( strip == null )
+        {
+            while ( ( end != 0 ) && Character.isWhitespace( str.charAt( end - 1 ) ) )
+            {
+                end--;
+            }
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            while ( ( end != 0 ) && ( strip.indexOf( str.charAt( end - 1 ) ) != -1 ) )
+            {
+                end--;
+            }
+        }
+        return str.substring( 0, end );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Strip any of a supplied String from the start of a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If the strip String is <code>null</code>, whitespace is
+     * stripped.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to remove characters from
+     * @param strip the String to remove
+     * @return the stripped String
+     */
+    public static String stripStart( String str, String strip )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        int start = 0;
+
+        int sz = str.length();
+
+        if ( strip == null )
+        {
+            while ( ( start != sz ) && Character.isWhitespace( str.charAt( start ) ) )
+            {
+                start++;
+            }
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            while ( ( start != sz ) && ( strip.indexOf( str.charAt( start ) ) != -1 ) )
+            {
+                start++;
+            }
+        }
+        return str.substring( start );
+    }
+
+    // Case conversion
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Convert a String to upper case, <code>null</code> String
+     * returns <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to uppercase
+     * @return the upper cased String
+     */
+    public static String upperCase( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        return str.toUpperCase();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Convert a String to lower case, <code>null</code> String
+     * returns <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the string to lowercase
+     * @return the lower cased String
+     */
+    public static String lowerCase( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        return str.toLowerCase();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Uncapitalise a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>That is, convert the first character into lower-case.
+     * <code>null</code> is returned as <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to uncapitalise
+     * @return uncapitalised String
+     */
+    public static String uncapitalise( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        else if ( str.length() == 0 )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return new StringBuffer( str.length() )
+                .append( Character.toLowerCase( str.charAt( 0 ) ) )
+                .append( str.substring( 1 ) )
+                .toString();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Capitalise a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>That is, convert the first character into title-case.
+     * <code>null</code> is returned as <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to capitalise
+     * @return capitalised String
+     */
+    public static String capitalise( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        else if ( str.length() == 0 )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            return new StringBuffer( str.length() )
+                .append( Character.toTitleCase( str.charAt( 0 ) ) )
+                .append( str.substring( 1 ) )
+                .toString();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Swaps the case of String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>Properly looks after making sure the start of words
+     * are Titlecase and not Uppercase.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> is returned as <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to swap the case of
+     * @return the modified String
+     */
+    public static String swapCase( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( sz );
+
+        boolean whitespace = false;
+        char ch = 0;
+        char tmp = 0;
+
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            ch = str.charAt( i );
+            if ( Character.isUpperCase( ch ) )
+            {
+                tmp = Character.toLowerCase( ch );
+            }
+            else if ( Character.isTitleCase( ch ) )
+            {
+                tmp = Character.toLowerCase( ch );
+            }
+            else if ( Character.isLowerCase( ch ) )
+            {
+                if ( whitespace )
+                {
+                    tmp = Character.toTitleCase( ch );
+                }
+                else
+                {
+                    tmp = Character.toUpperCase( ch );
+                }
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                tmp = ch;
+            }
+            buffer.append( tmp );
+            whitespace = Character.isWhitespace( ch );
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Capitalise all the words in a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>Uses {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)} as a
+     * separator between words.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to capitalise
+     * @return capitalised String
+     */
+    public static String capitaliseAllWords( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( sz );
+        boolean space = true;
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            char ch = str.charAt( i );
+            if ( Character.isWhitespace( ch ) )
+            {
+                buffer.append( ch );
+                space = true;
+            }
+            else if ( space )
+            {
+                buffer.append( Character.toTitleCase( ch ) );
+                space = false;
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                buffer.append( ch );
+            }
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Uncapitalise all the words in a string.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>Uses {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)} as a
+     * separator between words.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str  the string to uncapitalise
+     * @return uncapitalised string
+     */
+    public static String uncapitaliseAllWords( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( sz );
+        boolean space = true;
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            char ch = str.charAt( i );
+            if ( Character.isWhitespace( ch ) )
+            {
+                buffer.append( ch );
+                space = true;
+            }
+            else if ( space )
+            {
+                buffer.append( Character.toLowerCase( ch ) );
+                space = false;
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                buffer.append( ch );
+            }
+        }
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    // Nested extraction
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Get the String that is nested in between two instances of the
+     * same String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>If <code>str</code> is <code>null</code>, will
+     * return <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String containing nested-string
+     * @param tag the String before and after nested-string
+     * @return the String that was nested, or <code>null</code>
+     * @throws NullPointerException if tag is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String getNestedString( String str, String tag )
+    {
+        return getNestedString( str, tag, tag );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Get the String that is nested in between two Strings.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String containing nested-string
+     * @param open the String before nested-string
+     * @param close the String after nested-string
+     * @return the String that was nested, or <code>null</code>
+     * @throws NullPointerException if open or close is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String getNestedString( String str, String open, String close )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        int start = str.indexOf( open );
+        if ( start != -1 )
+        {
+            int end = str.indexOf( close, start + open.length() );
+            if ( end != -1 )
+            {
+                return str.substring( start + open.length(), end );
+            }
+        }
+        return null;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>How many times is the substring in the larger String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> returns <code>0</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @param sub the substring to count
+     * @return the number of occurances, 0 if the String is <code>null</code>
+     * @throws NullPointerException if sub is <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static int countMatches( String str, String sub )
+    {
+        if ( sub.equals( "" ) )
+        {
+            return 0;
+        }
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return 0;
+        }
+        int count = 0;
+        int idx = 0;
+        while ( ( idx = str.indexOf( sub, idx ) ) != -1 )
+        {
+            count++;
+            idx += sub.length();
+        }
+        return count;
+    }
+
+    // Character Tests
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
+     * An empty String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters, and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isAlpha( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( Character.isLetter( str.charAt( i ) ) == false )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only whitespace.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>. An
+     * empty String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains whitespace, and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isWhitespace( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( ( Character.isWhitespace( str.charAt( i ) ) == false ) )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters and
+     * space (<code>' '</code>).</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>. An
+     * empty String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters and space,
+     *  and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isAlphaSpace( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( ( Character.isLetter( str.charAt( i ) ) == false ) &&
+                ( str.charAt( i ) != ' ' ) )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters or digits.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>. An empty
+     * String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters or digits,
+     *  and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isAlphanumeric( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( Character.isLetterOrDigit( str.charAt( i ) ) == false )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters, digits
+     * or space (<code>' '</code>).</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>. An empty
+     * String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters, digits or space,
+     *  and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isAlphanumericSpace( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( ( Character.isLetterOrDigit( str.charAt( i ) ) == false ) &&
+                ( str.charAt( i ) != ' ' ) )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode digits.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
+     * An empty String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains digits, and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isNumeric( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( Character.isDigit( str.charAt( i ) ) == false )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode digits or space
+     * (<code>' '</code>).</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>. An empty
+     * String will return <code>true</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to check
+     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains digits or space,
+     *  and is non-null
+     */
+    public static boolean isNumericSpace( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        int sz = str.length();
+        for ( int i = 0; i < sz; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( ( Character.isDigit( str.charAt( i ) ) == false ) &&
+                ( str.charAt( i ) != ' ' ) )
+            {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    // Defaults
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Returns either the passed in <code>Object</code> as a String,
+     * or, if the <code>Object</code> is <code>null</code>, an empty
+     * String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param obj the Object to check
+     * @return the passed in Object's toString, or blank if it was
+     *  <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String defaultString( Object obj )
+    {
+        return defaultString( obj, "" );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Returns either the passed in <code>Object</code> as a String,
+     * or, if the <code>Object</code> is <code>null</code>, a passed
+     * in default String.</p>
+     *
+     * @param obj the Object to check
+     * @param defaultString  the default String to return if str is
+     *  <code>null</code>
+     * @return the passed in string, or the default if it was
+     *  <code>null</code>
+     */
+    public static String defaultString( Object obj, String defaultString )
+    {
+        return ( obj == null ) ? defaultString : obj.toString();
+    }
+
+    // Reversing
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Reverse a String.</p>
+     *
+     * <p><code>null</code> String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to reverse
+     * @return the reversed String
+     */
+    public static String reverse( String str )
+    {
+        if ( str == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+        return new StringBuffer( str ).reverse().toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Reverses a String that is delimited by a specific character.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>The Strings between the delimiters are not reversed.
+     * Thus java.lang.String becomes String.lang.java (if the delimiter
+     * is <code>'.'</code>).</p>
+     *
+     * @param str the String to reverse
+     * @param delimiter the delimiter to use
+     * @return the reversed String
+     */
+    public static String reverseDelimitedString( String str, String delimiter )
+    {
+        // could implement manually, but simple way is to reuse other,
+        // probably slower, methods.
+        String[] strs = split( str, delimiter );
+        reverseArray( strs );
+        return join( strs, delimiter );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Reverses an array.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>TAKEN FROM CollectionsUtils.</p>
+     *
+     * @param array  the array to reverse
+     */
+    private static void reverseArray( Object[] array )
+    {
+        int i = 0;
+        int j = array.length - 1;
+        Object tmp;
+
+        while ( j > i )
+        {
+            tmp = array[j];
+            array[j] = array[i];
+            array[i] = tmp;
+            j--;
+            i++;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // Abbreviating
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * Turn "Now is the time for all good men" into "Now is the time for..."
+     * <p>
+     * Specifically:
+     * <p>
+     * If str is less than max characters long, return it.
+     * Else abbreviate it to (substring(str, 0, max-3) + "...").
+     * If maxWidth is less than 3, throw an IllegalArgumentException.
+     * In no case will it return a string of length greater than maxWidth.
+     *
+     * @param maxWidth maximum length of result string
+     **/
+    public static String abbreviate( String s, int maxWidth )
+    {
+        return abbreviate( s, 0, maxWidth );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Turn "Now is the time for all good men" into "...is the time for..."
+     * <p>
+     * Works like abbreviate(String, int), but allows you to specify a "left edge"
+     * offset.  Note that this left edge is not necessarily going to be the leftmost
+     * character in the result, or the first
+     * character following the ellipses, but it will appear somewhere in the result.
+     * In no case will it return a string of length greater than maxWidth.
+     *
+     * @param offset left edge of source string
+     * @param maxWidth maximum length of result string
+     **/
+    public static String abbreviate( String s, int offset, int maxWidth )
+    {
+        if ( maxWidth < 4 )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Minimum abbreviation width is 4" );
+        }
+        if ( s.length() <= maxWidth )
+        {
+            return s;
+        }
+        if ( offset > s.length() )
+        {
+            offset = s.length();
+        }
+        if ( ( s.length() - offset ) < ( maxWidth - 3 ) )
+        {
+            offset = s.length() - ( maxWidth - 3 );
+        }
+        if ( offset <= 4 )
+        {
+            return s.substring( 0, maxWidth - 3 ) + "...";
+        }
+        if ( maxWidth < 7 )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Minimum abbreviation width with offset is 7" );
+        }
+        if ( ( offset + ( maxWidth - 3 ) ) < s.length() )
+        {
+            return "..." + abbreviate( s.substring( offset ), maxWidth - 3 );
+        }
+        return "..." + s.substring( s.length() - ( maxWidth - 3 ) );
+    }
+
+    // Difference
+    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    /**
+     * Compare two strings, and return the portion where they differ.
+     * (More precisely, return the remainder of the second string,
+     * starting from where it's different from the first.)
+     * <p>
+     * E.g. strdiff("i am a machine", "i am a robot") -> "robot"
+     *
+     * @return the portion of s2 where it differs from s1; returns the empty string ("") if they are equal
+     **/
+    public static String difference( String s1, String s2 )
+    {
+        int at = differenceAt( s1, s2 );
+        if ( at == -1 )
+        {
+            return "";
+        }
+        return s2.substring( at );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compare two strings, and return the index at which the strings begin to differ.
+     * <p>
+     * E.g. strdiff("i am a machine", "i am a robot") -> 7
+     * </p>
+     *
+     * @return the index where s2 and s1 begin to differ; -1 if they are equal
+     **/
+    public static int differenceAt( String s1, String s2 )
+    {
+        int i;
+        for ( i = 0; ( i < s1.length() ) && ( i < s2.length() ); ++i )
+        {
+            if ( s1.charAt( i ) != s2.charAt( i ) )
+            {
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+        if ( ( i < s2.length() ) || ( i < s1.length() ) )
+        {
+            return i;
+        }
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    public static String interpolate( String text, Map namespace )
+    {
+        Iterator keys = namespace.keySet().iterator();
+
+        while ( keys.hasNext() )
+        {
+            String key = keys.next().toString();
+
+            Object obj = namespace.get( key );
+
+            if ( obj == null )
+            {
+                throw new NullPointerException( "The value of the key '" + key + "' is null." );
+            }
+
+            String value = obj.toString();
+
+            text = StringUtils.replace( text, "${" + key + "}", value );
+
+            if ( key.indexOf( " " ) == -1 )
+            {
+                text = StringUtils.replace( text, "$" + key, value );
+            }
+        }
+        return text;
+    }
+
+    public static String removeAndHump( String data, String replaceThis )
+    {
+        String temp;
+
+        StringBuffer out = new StringBuffer();
+
+        temp = data;
+
+        StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer( temp, replaceThis );
+
+        while ( st.hasMoreTokens() )
+        {
+            String element = (String) st.nextElement();
+
+            out.append( capitalizeFirstLetter( element ) );
+        }
+
+        return out.toString();
+    }
+
+    public static String capitalizeFirstLetter( String data )
+    {
+        char firstLetter = Character.toTitleCase( data.substring( 0, 1 ).charAt( 0 ) );
+
+        String restLetters = data.substring( 1 );
+
+        return firstLetter + restLetters;
+    }
+
+    public static String lowercaseFirstLetter( String data )
+    {
+        char firstLetter = Character.toLowerCase( data.substring( 0, 1 ).charAt( 0 ) );
+
+        String restLetters = data.substring( 1 );
+
+        return firstLetter + restLetters;
+    }
+
+    public static String addAndDeHump( String view )
+    {
+        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
+
+        for ( int i = 0; i < view.length(); i++ )
+        {
+            if ( ( i != 0 ) && Character.isUpperCase( view.charAt( i ) ) )
+            {
+                sb.append( '-' );
+            }
+
+            sb.append( view.charAt( i ) );
+        }
+
+        return sb.toString().trim().toLowerCase( Locale.ENGLISH );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Quote and escape a String with the given character, handling <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * <pre>
+     * StringUtils.quoteAndEscape(null, *)    = null
+     * StringUtils.quoteAndEscape("", *)      = ""
+     * StringUtils.quoteAndEscape("abc", '"') = abc
+     * StringUtils.quoteAndEscape("a\"bc", '"') = "a\"bc"
+     * StringUtils.quoteAndEscape("a\"bc", '\'') = 'a\"bc'
+     * </pre>
+     *
+     * @param source
+     * @param quoteChar
+     * @return the String quoted and escaped
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     * @see #quoteAndEscape(String, char, char[], char[], char, boolean)
+     */
+    public static String quoteAndEscape( String source,
+                                char quoteChar )
+    {
+        return quoteAndEscape( source, quoteChar, new char[]{ quoteChar }, new char[]{ ' ' }, '\\', false );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Quote and escape a String with the given character, handling <code>null</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * @param source
+     * @param quoteChar
+     * @param quotingTriggers
+     * @return the String quoted and escaped
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     * @see #quoteAndEscape(String, char, char[], char[], char, boolean)
+     */
+    public static String quoteAndEscape( String source,
+                                         char quoteChar,
+                                         char[] quotingTriggers )
+    {
+        return quoteAndEscape( source, quoteChar, new char[]{ quoteChar }, quotingTriggers, '\\', false );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param source
+     * @param quoteChar
+     * @param escapedChars
+     * @param escapeChar
+     * @param force
+     * @return the String quoted and escaped
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     * @see #quoteAndEscape(String, char, char[], char[], char, boolean)
+     */
+    public static String quoteAndEscape( String source,
+                                char quoteChar,
+                                final char[] escapedChars,
+                                char escapeChar,
+                                boolean force )
+    {
+        return quoteAndEscape( source, quoteChar, escapedChars, new char[]{ ' ' }, escapeChar, force );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param source
+     * @param quoteChar
+     * @param escapedChars
+     * @param quotingTriggers
+     * @param escapeChar
+     * @param force
+     * @return the String quoted and escaped
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     */
+    public static String quoteAndEscape( String source,
+                                char quoteChar,
+                                final char[] escapedChars,
+                                final char[] quotingTriggers,
+                                char escapeChar,
+                                boolean force )
+    {
+        if ( source == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        if ( !force && source.startsWith( Character.toString( quoteChar ) )
+             && source.endsWith( Character.toString( quoteChar ) ) )
+        {
+            return source;
+        }
+
+        String escaped = escape( source, escapedChars, escapeChar );
+
+        boolean quote = false;
+        if ( force )
+        {
+            quote = true;
+        }
+        else if ( !escaped.equals( source ) )
+        {
+            quote = true;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            for ( int i = 0; i < quotingTriggers.length; i++ )
+            {
+                if ( escaped.indexOf( quotingTriggers[i] ) > -1 )
+                {
+                    quote = true;
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        if ( quote )
+        {
+            return quoteChar + escaped + quoteChar;
+        }
+
+        return escaped;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param source
+     * @param escapedChars
+     * @param escapeChar
+     * @return the String escaped
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     */
+    public static String escape( String source, final char[] escapedChars, char escapeChar )
+    {
+        if ( source == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        char[] eqc = new char[ escapedChars.length ];
+        System.arraycopy( escapedChars, 0, eqc, 0, escapedChars.length );
+        Arrays.sort( eqc );
+
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( source.length() );
+
+        int escapeCount = 0;
+        for ( int i = 0; i < source.length(); i++ )
+        {
+            final char c = source.charAt( i );
+            int result = Arrays.binarySearch( eqc, c );
+
+            if ( result > -1 )
+            {
+                buffer.append( escapeChar );
+                escapeCount++;
+            }
+
+            buffer.append( c );
+        }
+
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Remove all duplicate whitespace characters and line terminators are replaced with a single
+     * space.
+     *
+     * @param s a not null String
+     * @return a string with unique whitespace.
+     * @since 1.5.7
+     */
+    public static String removeDuplicateWhitespace( String s )
+    {
+        String patternStr = "\\s+";
+        String replaceStr = " ";
+        Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile( patternStr );
+        Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher( s );
+        return matcher.replaceAll( replaceStr );
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Parses the given String and replaces all occurrences of
+     * '\n', '\r' and '\r\n' with the system line separator.
+     *
+     * @param s a not null String
+     * @return a String that contains only System line separators.
+     * @see #unifyLineSeparators(String, String)
+     * @since 1.5.7
+     */
+     public static String unifyLineSeparators( String s )
+     {
+         return unifyLineSeparators( s, System.getProperty( "line.separator" ) );
+     }
+
+    /**
+     * Parses the given String and replaces all occurrences of
+     * '\n', '\r' and '\r\n' with the system line separator.
+     *
+     * @param s a not null String
+     * @param ls the wanted line separator ("\n" on UNIX), if null using the System line separator.
+     * @return a String that contains only System line separators.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if ls is not '\n', '\r' and '\r\n' characters.
+     * @since 1.5.7
+     */
+     public static String unifyLineSeparators( String s, String ls )
+     {
+        if ( s == null )
+        {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        if ( ls == null )
+        {
+            ls = System.getProperty( "line.separator" );
+        }
+
+        if ( !( ls.equals( "\n" ) || ls.equals( "\r" ) || ls.equals( "\r\n" ) ) )
+        {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Requested line separator is invalid." );
+        }
+
+        int length = s.length();
+
+        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer( length );
+        for ( int i = 0; i < length; i++ )
+        {
+            if ( s.charAt( i ) == '\r' )
+            {
+                if ( ( i + 1 ) < length && s.charAt( i + 1 ) == '\n' )
+                {
+                    i++;
+                }
+
+                buffer.append( ls );
+            }
+            else if ( s.charAt( i ) == '\n' )
+            {
+                buffer.append( ls );
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                buffer.append( s.charAt( i ) );
+            }
+        }
+
+        return buffer.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if String contains a search character, handling <code>null</code>.
+     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int)}.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>false</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * <pre>
+     * StringUtils.contains(null, *)    = false
+     * StringUtils.contains("", *)      = false
+     * StringUtils.contains("abc", 'a') = true
+     * StringUtils.contains("abc", 'z') = false
+     * </pre>
+     *
+     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
+     * @param searchChar  the character to find
+     * @return true if the String contains the search character,
+     *  false if not or <code>null</code> string input
+     * @since 1.5.7
+     */
+    public static boolean contains( String str, char searchChar )
+    {
+        if ( isEmpty( str ) )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        return str.indexOf( searchChar ) >= 0;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * <p>Checks if String contains a search String, handling <code>null</code>.
+     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int)}.</p>
+     *
+     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>false</code>.</p>
+     *
+     * <pre>
+     * StringUtils.contains(null, *)     = false
+     * StringUtils.contains(*, null)     = false
+     * StringUtils.contains("", "")      = true
+     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "")   = true
+     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "a")  = true
+     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "z")  = false
+     * </pre>
+     *
+     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
+     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
+     * @return true if the String contains the search String,
+     *  false if not or <code>null</code> string input
+     * @since 1.5.7
+     */
+    public static boolean contains( String str, String searchStr )
+    {
+        if ( str == null || searchStr == null )
+        {
+            return false;
+        }
+        return str.indexOf( searchStr ) >= 0;
+    }
+}

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