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From ddek...@apache.org
Subject [3/4] incubator-freemarker git commit: Made TemplateConfiguration immutable, added a TemplateConfiguration.Builder. (This is not the final version of TemplateConfiguration; it will be become cleaner as Template also becomes immutable.)
Date Wed, 05 Apr 2017 19:55:49 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateBooleanFormat.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateBooleanFormat.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateBooleanFormat.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..52f753d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateBooleanFormat.java
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.freemarker.core;
+
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util._StringUtil;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.valueformat.TemplateValueFormat;
+
+// TODO Should be public and moved over to core.valueformat?
+final class TemplateBooleanFormat extends TemplateValueFormat {
+
+    static final String C_TRUE_FALSE = "true,false";
+    static final TemplateBooleanFormat C_TRUE_FALSE_FORMAT = new TemplateBooleanFormat();
+
+    static TemplateBooleanFormat getInstance(String format) {
+        return format.equals(C_TRUE_FALSE) ? C_TRUE_FALSE_FORMAT : new TemplateBooleanFormat(format);
+    }
+
+    private final String formatString;
+    private final String trueStringValue;  // deduced from booleanFormat
+    private final String falseStringValue;  // deduced from booleanFormat
+
+    /**
+     * Use for {@link #C_TRUE_FALSE} only!
+     */
+    private TemplateBooleanFormat() {
+        formatString = C_TRUE_FALSE;
+        trueStringValue = null;
+        falseStringValue = null;
+    }
+
+    private TemplateBooleanFormat(String formatString) {
+        int commaIdx = formatString.indexOf(',');
+        if (commaIdx == -1) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
+                    "Setting value must be string that contains two comma-separated values for true and false, " +
+                            "respectively.");
+        }
+
+        this.formatString = formatString;
+        trueStringValue = formatString.substring(0, commaIdx);
+        falseStringValue = formatString.substring(commaIdx + 1);
+    }
+
+    public String getFormatString() {
+        return formatString;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the string to which {@code true} is converted to for human audience, or {@code null} if automatic
+     * coercion to string is not allowed. The default value is {@code null}.
+     *
+     * <p>This value is deduced from the {@code "boolean_format"} setting.
+     * Confusingly, for backward compatibility (at least until 2.4) that defaults to {@code "true,false"}, yet this
+     * defaults to {@code null}. That's so because {@code "true,false"} is treated exceptionally, as that default is a
+     * historical mistake in FreeMarker, since it targets computer language output, not human writing. Thus it's
+     * ignored.
+     */
+    public String getTrueStringValue() {
+        return trueStringValue;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Same as {@link #getTrueStringValue()} but with {@code false}.
+     */
+    public String getFalseStringValue() {
+        return falseStringValue;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public String getDescription() {
+        return _StringUtil.jQuote(formatString);
+    }
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateConfiguration.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateConfiguration.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateConfiguration.java
index 54b524e..6d1ff13 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateConfiguration.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/TemplateConfiguration.java
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@ import org.apache.freemarker.core.arithmetic.ArithmeticEngine;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.ObjectWrapper;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.outputformat.OutputFormat;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.templateresolver.impl.DefaultTemplateResolver;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.CommonBuilder;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util._NullArgumentException;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.valueformat.TemplateDateFormatFactory;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.valueformat.TemplateNumberFormatFactory;
@@ -48,7 +49,7 @@ import org.apache.freemarker.core.valueformat.TemplateNumberFormatFactory;
  * already found.
  * 
  * <p>
- * Note on the sourceEncoding setting {@code sourceEncoding}: See {@link #setSourceEncoding(Charset)}.
+ * Note on the sourceEncoding setting {@code sourceEncoding}: See {@link Builder#setSourceEncoding(Charset)}.
  * 
  * <p>
  * Note that the result value of the reader methods (getter and "is" methods) is usually not useful unless the value of
@@ -70,208 +71,134 @@ import org.apache.freemarker.core.valueformat.TemplateNumberFormatFactory;
  * from the {@link Configuration}). This is primarily because if the template configures itself via the {@code #ftl}
  * header, those values should have precedence. A consequence of this is that if you want to configure the same
  * {@link Template} with multiple {@link TemplateConfiguration}-s, you either should merge them to a single one before
- * that (with {@link #merge(TemplateConfiguration)}), or you have to apply them in reverse order of their intended
- * precedence.
+ * that (with {@link Builder#merge(ParserAndProcessingConfiguration)}), or you have to apply them in reverse order of
+ * their intended precedence.
  * </ul>
  * 
  * @see Template#Template(String, String, Reader, Configuration, ParserConfiguration, Charset)
  * 
  * @since 2.3.24
  */
-public final class TemplateConfiguration extends MutableProcessingConfiguration<TemplateConfiguration>
-        implements ParserConfiguration {
-
-    private TemplateLanguage templateLanguage;
-    private Integer tagSyntax;
-    private Integer namingConvention;
-    private Boolean whitespaceStripping;
-    private Integer autoEscapingPolicy;
-    private Boolean recognizeStandardFileExtensions;
-    private OutputFormat outputFormat;
-    private Charset sourceEncoding;
-    private Integer tabSize;
-
-    /**
-     * Creates a new instance. The parent will be {@code null} initially, but it will
-     * be changed to the real parent {@link Configuration} when this object is added to the {@link Configuration}. (It's
-     * not allowed to add the same instance to multiple {@link Configuration}-s).
-     */
-    public TemplateConfiguration() {
-        super((Configuration) null);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Same as {@link #setParentConfiguration(Configuration)}.
-     */
-    @Override
-    void setParent(MutableProcessingConfiguration cfg) {
-        _NullArgumentException.check("cfg", cfg);
-        if (!(cfg instanceof Configuration)) {
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException("The parent of a TemplateConfiguration can only be a Configuration");
-        }
-        
-        MutableProcessingConfiguration parent = getParent();
-        if (parent != null) {
-            if (parent != cfg) {
-                throw new IllegalStateException(
-                        "This TemplateConfiguration is already associated with a different Configuration instance.");
-            }
-            return;
-        }
-        
-        super.setParent(cfg);
+public final class TemplateConfiguration implements ParserAndProcessingConfiguration {
+    private Configuration configuration;
+
+    private final Locale locale;
+    private final String numberFormat;
+    private final String timeFormat;
+    private final String dateFormat;
+    private final String dateTimeFormat;
+    private final TimeZone timeZone;
+    private final TimeZone sqlDateAndTimeTimeZone;
+    private final boolean sqlDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet;
+    private final String booleanFormat;
+    private final TemplateExceptionHandler templateExceptionHandler;
+    private final ArithmeticEngine arithmeticEngine;
+    private final ObjectWrapper objectWrapper;
+    private final Charset outputEncoding;
+    private final boolean outputEncodingSet;
+    private final Charset urlEscapingCharset;
+    private final boolean urlEscapingCharsetSet;
+    private final Boolean autoFlush;
+    private final TemplateClassResolver newBuiltinClassResolver;
+    private final Boolean showErrorTips;
+    private final Boolean apiBuiltinEnabled;
+    private final Boolean logTemplateExceptions;
+    private final Map<String, TemplateDateFormatFactory> customDateFormats;
+    private final Map<String, TemplateNumberFormatFactory> customNumberFormats;
+    private final Map<String, String> autoImports;
+    private final List<String> autoIncludes;
+    private final Boolean lazyImports;
+    private final Boolean lazyAutoImports;
+    private final boolean lazyAutoImportsSet;
+    private final Map<Object, Object> customAttributes;
+    
+    private final TemplateLanguage templateLanguage;
+    private final Integer tagSyntax;
+    private final Integer namingConvention;
+    private final Boolean whitespaceStripping;
+    private final Integer autoEscapingPolicy;
+    private final Boolean recognizeStandardFileExtensions;
+    private final OutputFormat outputFormat;
+    private final Charset sourceEncoding;
+    private final Integer tabSize;
+
+    private TemplateConfiguration(Builder builder) {
+        locale = builder.isLocaleSet() ? builder.getLocale() : null;
+        numberFormat = builder.isNumberFormatSet() ? builder.getNumberFormat() : null;
+        timeFormat = builder.isTimeFormatSet() ? builder.getTimeFormat() : null;
+        dateFormat = builder.isDateFormatSet() ? builder.getDateFormat() : null;
+        dateTimeFormat = builder.isDateTimeFormatSet() ? builder.getDateTimeFormat() : null;
+        timeZone = builder.isTimeZoneSet() ? builder.getTimeZone() : null;
+        sqlDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet = builder.isSQLDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet();
+        sqlDateAndTimeTimeZone = sqlDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet ? builder.getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone() : null;
+        booleanFormat = builder.isBooleanFormatSet() ? builder.getBooleanFormat() : null;
+        templateExceptionHandler = builder.isTemplateExceptionHandlerSet() ? builder.getTemplateExceptionHandler() : null;
+        arithmeticEngine = builder.isArithmeticEngineSet() ? builder.getArithmeticEngine() : null;
+        objectWrapper = builder.isObjectWrapperSet() ? builder.getObjectWrapper() : null;
+        outputEncodingSet = builder.isOutputEncodingSet();
+        outputEncoding = outputEncodingSet ? builder.getOutputEncoding() : null;
+        urlEscapingCharsetSet = builder.isURLEscapingCharsetSet();
+        urlEscapingCharset = urlEscapingCharsetSet ? builder.getURLEscapingCharset() : null;
+        autoFlush = builder.isAutoFlushSet() ? builder.getAutoFlush() : null;
+        newBuiltinClassResolver = builder.isNewBuiltinClassResolverSet() ? builder.getNewBuiltinClassResolver() : null;
+        showErrorTips = builder.isShowErrorTipsSet() ? builder.getShowErrorTips() : null;
+        apiBuiltinEnabled = builder.isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet() ? builder.getAPIBuiltinEnabled() : null;
+        logTemplateExceptions = builder.isLogTemplateExceptionsSet() ? builder.getLogTemplateExceptions() : null;
+        customDateFormats = builder.isCustomDateFormatsSet() ? builder.getCustomDateFormats() : null;
+        customNumberFormats = builder.isCustomNumberFormatsSet() ? builder.getCustomNumberFormats() : null;
+        autoImports = builder.isAutoImportsSet() ? builder.getAutoImports() : null;
+        autoIncludes = builder.isAutoIncludesSet() ? builder.getAutoIncludes() : null;
+        lazyImports = builder.isLazyImportsSet() ? builder.getLazyImports() : null;
+        lazyAutoImportsSet = builder.isLazyAutoImportsSet();
+        lazyAutoImports = lazyAutoImportsSet ? builder.getLazyAutoImports() : null;
+        customAttributes = builder.isCustomAttributesSet() ? builder.getCustomAttributes() : null;
+
+        templateLanguage = builder.isTemplateLanguageSet() ? builder.getTemplateLanguage() : null;
+        tagSyntax = builder.isTagSyntaxSet() ? builder.getTagSyntax() : null;
+        namingConvention = builder.isNamingConventionSet() ? builder.getNamingConvention() : null;
+        whitespaceStripping = builder.isWhitespaceStrippingSet() ? builder.getWhitespaceStripping() : null;
+        autoEscapingPolicy = builder.isAutoEscapingPolicySet() ? builder.getAutoEscapingPolicy() : null;
+        recognizeStandardFileExtensions = builder.isRecognizeStandardFileExtensionsSet() ? builder.getRecognizeStandardFileExtensions() : null;
+        outputFormat = builder.isOutputFormatSet() ? builder.getOutputFormat() : null;
+        sourceEncoding = builder.isSourceEncodingSet() ? builder.getSourceEncoding() : null;
+        tabSize = builder.isTabSizeSet() ? builder.getTabSize() : null;
     }
 
     /**
      * Associates this instance with a {@link Configuration}; usually you don't call this, as it's called internally
      * when this instance is added to a {@link Configuration}. This method can be called only once (except with the same
      * {@link Configuration} parameter again, as that changes nothing anyway).
-     * 
+     *
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException
      *             if the argument is {@code null} or not a {@link Configuration}
      * @throws IllegalStateException
      *             if this object is already associated to a different {@link Configuration} object,
      *             or if the {@code Configuration} has {@code #getIncompatibleImprovements()} less than 2.3.22 and
-     *             this object tries to change any non-parser settings  
+     *             this object tries to change any non-parser settings
      */
-    public void setParentConfiguration(Configuration cfg) {
-        setParent(cfg);
+    public void setParentConfiguration(Configuration configuration) {
+        _NullArgumentException.check(configuration);
+        synchronized (this) {
+            if (this.configuration != null && this.configuration != configuration) {
+                throw new IllegalStateException(
+                        "This TemplateConfiguration was already associated to another Configuration");
+            }
+            this.configuration = configuration;
+        }
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns the parent {@link Configuration}, or {@code null} if none was associated yet.
      */
     public Configuration getParentConfiguration() {
-        return (Configuration) getParent();
+        return configuration;
     }
 
     private Configuration getNonNullParentConfiguration() {
-        MutableProcessingConfiguration parent = getParent();
-        if (parent == null) {
+        if (configuration == null) {
             throw new IllegalStateException("The TemplateConfiguration wasn't associated with a Configuration yet.");
         }
-        return (Configuration) parent;
-    }
-    
-    /**
-     * Set all settings in this {@link TemplateConfiguration} that were set in the parameter
-     * {@link TemplateConfiguration}, possibly overwriting the earlier value in this object. (A setting is said to be
-     * set in a {@link TemplateConfiguration} if it was explicitly set via a setter method, as opposed to be inherited.)
-     */
-    public void merge(TemplateConfiguration tc) {
-        if (tc.isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet()) {
-            setAPIBuiltinEnabled(tc.isAPIBuiltinEnabled());
-        }
-        if (tc.isArithmeticEngineSet()) {
-            setArithmeticEngine(tc.getArithmeticEngine());
-        }
-        if (tc.isAutoEscapingPolicySet()) {
-            setAutoEscapingPolicy(tc.getAutoEscapingPolicy());
-        }
-        if (tc.isAutoFlushSet()) {
-            setAutoFlush(tc.getAutoFlush());
-        }
-        if (tc.isBooleanFormatSet()) {
-            setBooleanFormat(tc.getBooleanFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isCustomDateFormatsSet()) {
-            setCustomDateFormats(mergeMaps(
-                    isCustomDateFormatsSet() ? getCustomDateFormats() : null, tc.getCustomDateFormats(), false));
-        }
-        if (tc.isCustomNumberFormatsSet()) {
-            setCustomNumberFormats(mergeMaps(
-                    isCustomNumberFormatsSet() ? getCustomNumberFormats() : null, tc.getCustomNumberFormats(), false));
-        }
-        if (tc.isDateFormatSet()) {
-            setDateFormat(tc.getDateFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isDateTimeFormatSet()) {
-            setDateTimeFormat(tc.getDateTimeFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isSourceEncodingSet()) {
-            setSourceEncoding(tc.getSourceEncoding());
-        }
-        if (tc.isLocaleSet()) {
-            setLocale(tc.getLocale());
-        }
-        if (tc.isLogTemplateExceptionsSet()) {
-            setLogTemplateExceptions(tc.getLogTemplateExceptions());
-        }
-        if (tc.isNamingConventionSet()) {
-            setNamingConvention(tc.getNamingConvention());
-        }
-        if (tc.isNewBuiltinClassResolverSet()) {
-            setNewBuiltinClassResolver(tc.getNewBuiltinClassResolver());
-        }
-        if (tc.isNumberFormatSet()) {
-            setNumberFormat(tc.getNumberFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isObjectWrapperSet()) {
-            setObjectWrapper(tc.getObjectWrapper());
-        }
-        if (tc.isOutputEncodingSet()) {
-            setOutputEncoding(tc.getOutputEncoding());
-        }
-        if (tc.isOutputFormatSet()) {
-            setOutputFormat(tc.getOutputFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isRecognizeStandardFileExtensionsSet()) {
-            setRecognizeStandardFileExtensions(tc.getRecognizeStandardFileExtensions());
-        }
-        if (tc.isShowErrorTipsSet()) {
-            setShowErrorTips(tc.getShowErrorTips());
-        }
-        if (tc.isSQLDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet()) {
-            setSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone(tc.getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTagSyntaxSet()) {
-            setTagSyntax(tc.getTagSyntax());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTemplateLanguageSet()) {
-            setTemplateLanguage(tc.getTemplateLanguage());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTemplateExceptionHandlerSet()) {
-            setTemplateExceptionHandler(tc.getTemplateExceptionHandler());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTimeFormatSet()) {
-            setTimeFormat(tc.getTimeFormat());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTimeZoneSet()) {
-            setTimeZone(tc.getTimeZone());
-        }
-        if (tc.isURLEscapingCharsetSet()) {
-            setURLEscapingCharset(tc.getURLEscapingCharset());
-        }
-        if (tc.isWhitespaceStrippingSet()) {
-            setWhitespaceStripping(tc.getWhitespaceStripping());
-        }
-        if (tc.isTabSizeSet()) {
-            setTabSize(tc.getTabSize());
-        }
-        if (tc.isLazyImportsSet()) {
-            setLazyImports(tc.getLazyImports());
-        }
-        if (tc.isLazyAutoImportsSet()) {
-            setLazyAutoImports(tc.getLazyAutoImports());
-        }
-        if (tc.isAutoImportsSet()) {
-            setAutoImports(mergeMaps(
-                    isAutoImportsSet() ? getAutoImports() : null,
-                    tc.isAutoImportsSet() ? tc.getAutoImports() : null,
-                    true));
-        }
-        if (tc.isAutoIncludesSet()) {
-            setAutoIncludes(mergeLists(
-                    isAutoIncludesSet() ? getAutoIncludes() : null,
-                    tc.isAutoIncludesSet() ? tc.getAutoIncludes() : null));
-        }
-
-        if (tc.isCustomAttributesSet()) {
-            setCustomAttributes(mergeMaps(
-                    isCustomAttributesSet() ? getCustomAttributes() : null,
-                    tc.isCustomAttributesSet() ? tc.getCustomAttributes() : null,
-                    true));
-        }
+        return configuration;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -300,7 +227,7 @@ public final class TemplateConfiguration extends MutableProcessingConfiguration<
         }
 
         if (isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet() && !template.isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet()) {
-            template.setAPIBuiltinEnabled(isAPIBuiltinEnabled());
+            template.setAPIBuiltinEnabled(getAPIBuiltinEnabled());
         }
         if (isArithmeticEngineSet() && !template.isArithmeticEngineSet()) {
             template.setArithmeticEngine(getArithmeticEngine());
@@ -393,19 +320,58 @@ public final class TemplateConfiguration extends MutableProcessingConfiguration<
         }
         
         copyDirectCustomAttributes(template, false);
+
     }
 
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setTagSyntax(int)}.
-     */
-    public void setTagSyntax(int tagSyntax) {
-        Configuration.valideTagSyntaxValue(tagSyntax);
-        this.tagSyntax = tagSyntax;
+    private static <K,V> Map<K,V> mergeMaps(Map<K,V> m1, Map<K,V> m2, boolean overwriteUpdatesOrder) {
+        if (m1 == null) return m2;
+        if (m2 == null) return m1;
+        if (m1.isEmpty()) return m2;
+        if (m2.isEmpty()) return m1;
+
+        LinkedHashMap<K, V> mergedM = new LinkedHashMap<>((m1.size() + m2.size()) * 4 / 3 + 1, 0.75f);
+        mergedM.putAll(m1);
+        if (overwriteUpdatesOrder) {
+            for (K m2Key : m2.keySet()) {
+                mergedM.remove(m2Key); // So that duplicate keys are moved after m1 keys
+            }
+        }
+        mergedM.putAll(m2);
+        return mergedM;
+    }
+
+    private static List<String> mergeLists(List<String> list1, List<String> list2) {
+        if (list1 == null) return list2;
+        if (list2 == null) return list1;
+        if (list1.isEmpty()) return list2;
+        if (list2.isEmpty()) return list1;
+
+        ArrayList<String> mergedList = new ArrayList<>(list1.size() + list2.size());
+        mergedList.addAll(list1);
+        mergedList.addAll(list2);
+        return mergedList;
     }
 
     /**
-     * The getter pair of {@link #setTagSyntax(int)}.
+     * For internal usage only, copies the custom attributes set directly on this objects into another
+     * {@link MutableProcessingConfiguration}. The target {@link MutableProcessingConfiguration} is assumed to be not seen be other thread than the current
+     * one yet. (That is, the operation is not synchronized on the target {@link MutableProcessingConfiguration}, only on the source
+     * {@link MutableProcessingConfiguration})
+     *
+     * @since 2.3.24
      */
+    private void copyDirectCustomAttributes(MutableProcessingConfiguration<?> target, boolean overwriteExisting) {
+        if (customAttributes == null) {
+            return;
+        }
+        for (Map.Entry<?, ?> custAttrEnt : customAttributes.entrySet()) {
+            Object custAttrKey = custAttrEnt.getKey();
+            if (overwriteExisting || !target.isCustomAttributeSet(custAttrKey)) {
+                target.setCustomAttribute(custAttrKey, custAttrEnt.getValue());
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
     @Override
     public int getTagSyntax() {
         return tagSyntax != null ? tagSyntax : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTagSyntax();
@@ -416,196 +382,96 @@ public final class TemplateConfiguration extends MutableProcessingConfiguration<
         return tagSyntax != null;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#getTemplateLanguage()}
-     */
     @Override
     public TemplateLanguage getTemplateLanguage() {
         return templateLanguage != null ? templateLanguage : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTemplateLanguage();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setTemplateLanguage(TemplateLanguage)}
-     */
-    public void setTemplateLanguage(TemplateLanguage templateLanguage) {
-        _NullArgumentException.check("templateLanguage", templateLanguage);
-        this.templateLanguage = templateLanguage;
-    }
-
+    @Override
     public boolean isTemplateLanguageSet() {
         return templateLanguage != null;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setNamingConvention(int)}.
-     */
-    public void setNamingConvention(int namingConvention) {
-        Configuration.validateNamingConventionValue(namingConvention);
-        this.namingConvention = namingConvention;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * The getter pair of {@link #setNamingConvention(int)}.
-     */
     @Override
     public int getNamingConvention() {
         return namingConvention != null ? namingConvention
                 : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getNamingConvention();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean isNamingConventionSet() {
         return namingConvention != null;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setWhitespaceStripping(boolean)}.
-     */
-    public void setWhitespaceStripping(boolean whitespaceStripping) {
-        this.whitespaceStripping = Boolean.valueOf(whitespaceStripping);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * The getter pair of {@link #getWhitespaceStripping()}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean getWhitespaceStripping() {
-        return whitespaceStripping != null ? whitespaceStripping.booleanValue()
+        return whitespaceStripping != null ? whitespaceStripping
                 : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getWhitespaceStripping();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean isWhitespaceStrippingSet() {
         return whitespaceStripping != null;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Sets the output format of the template; see {@link Configuration#setAutoEscapingPolicy(int)} for more.
-     */
-    public void setAutoEscapingPolicy(int autoEscapingPolicy) {
-        Configuration.validateAutoEscapingPolicyValue(autoEscapingPolicy);
-
-        this.autoEscapingPolicy = Integer.valueOf(autoEscapingPolicy);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * The getter pair of {@link #setAutoEscapingPolicy(int)}.
-     */
     @Override
     public int getAutoEscapingPolicy() {
-        return autoEscapingPolicy != null ? autoEscapingPolicy.intValue()
+        return autoEscapingPolicy != null ? autoEscapingPolicy
                 : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getAutoEscapingPolicy();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean isAutoEscapingPolicySet() {
         return autoEscapingPolicy != null;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Sets the output format of the template; see {@link Configuration#setOutputFormat(OutputFormat)} for more.
-     */
-    public void setOutputFormat(OutputFormat outputFormat) {
-        _NullArgumentException.check("outputFormat", outputFormat);
-        this.outputFormat = outputFormat;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * The getter pair of {@link #setOutputFormat(OutputFormat)}.
-     */
     @Override
     public OutputFormat getOutputFormat() {
         return outputFormat != null ? outputFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getOutputFormat();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     */
+    @Override
+    public ArithmeticEngine getArithmeticEngine() {
+        return isArithmeticEngineSet() ? arithmeticEngine : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getArithmeticEngine();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isArithmeticEngineSet() {
+        return arithmeticEngine != null;
+    }
+
     @Override
     public boolean isOutputFormatSet() {
         return outputFormat != null;
     }
     
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setRecognizeStandardFileExtensions(boolean)}. 
-     */
-    public void setRecognizeStandardFileExtensions(boolean recognizeStandardFileExtensions) {
-        this.recognizeStandardFileExtensions = Boolean.valueOf(recognizeStandardFileExtensions);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Getter pair of {@link #setRecognizeStandardFileExtensions(boolean)}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean getRecognizeStandardFileExtensions() {
-        return recognizeStandardFileExtensions != null ? recognizeStandardFileExtensions.booleanValue()
+        return isRecognizeStandardFileExtensionsSet() ? recognizeStandardFileExtensions
                 : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getRecognizeStandardFileExtensions();
     }
     
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean isRecognizeStandardFileExtensionsSet() {
         return recognizeStandardFileExtensions != null;
     }
 
+    @Override
     public Charset getSourceEncoding() {
-        return sourceEncoding != null ? sourceEncoding : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getSourceEncoding();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * When the standard template loading/caching mechanism is used, this forces the charset used for reading the
-     * template "file", overriding everything but the encoding coming from the {@code #ftl} header.
-     * 
-     * <p>
-     * If you are developing your own template loading/caching mechanism instead of the standard one, note that the
-     * above behavior is not guaranteed by this class alone; you have to ensure it. Also, read the note on
-     * {@code sourceEncoding} in the documentation of {@link #apply(Template)}.
-     */
-    public void setSourceEncoding(Charset sourceEncoding) {
-        _NullArgumentException.check("sourceEncoding", sourceEncoding);
-        this.sourceEncoding = sourceEncoding;
+        return isSourceEncodingSet() ? sourceEncoding : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getSourceEncoding();
     }
 
+    @Override
     public boolean isSourceEncodingSet() {
         return sourceEncoding != null;
     }
     
-    /**
-     * See {@link Configuration#setTabSize(int)}. 
-     * 
-     * @since 2.3.25
-     */
-    public void setTabSize(int tabSize) {
-        this.tabSize = Integer.valueOf(tabSize);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Getter pair of {@link #setTabSize(int)}.
-     * 
-     * @since 2.3.25
-     */
     @Override
     public int getTabSize() {
-        return tabSize != null ? tabSize.intValue()
+        return isTabSizeSet() ? tabSize
                 : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTabSize();
     }
     
-    /**
-     * Tells if this setting is set directly in this object or its value is coming from the {@link #getParent() parent}.
-     * 
-     * @since 2.3.25
-     */
     @Override
     public boolean isTabSizeSet() {
         return tabSize != null;
@@ -622,322 +488,617 @@ public final class TemplateConfiguration extends MutableProcessingConfiguration<
     public Version getIncompatibleImprovements() {
         return getNonNullParentConfiguration().getIncompatibleImprovements();
     }
-    
+
     @Override
     public Locale getLocale() {
-        try {
-            return super.getLocale();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isLocaleSet() ? locale : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getLocale();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isLocaleSet() {
+        return locale != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public TimeZone getTimeZone() {
-        try {
-            return super.getTimeZone();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isTimeZoneSet() ? timeZone : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTimeZone();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isTimeZoneSet() {
+        return timeZone != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public TimeZone getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone() {
-        try {
-            return super.getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isSQLDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet() ? sqlDateAndTimeTimeZone : getNonNullParentConfiguration()
+                .getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isSQLDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet() {
+        return sqlDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet;
     }
 
     @Override
     public String getNumberFormat() {
-        try {
-            return super.getNumberFormat();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isNumberFormatSet() ? numberFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getNumberFormat();
     }
 
     @Override
-    public Map<String, ? extends TemplateNumberFormatFactory> getCustomNumberFormats() {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomNumberFormats();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+    public boolean isNumberFormatSet() {
+        return numberFormat != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Map<String, TemplateNumberFormatFactory> getCustomNumberFormats() {
+        return isCustomNumberFormatsSet() ? customNumberFormats : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomNumberFormats();
     }
 
     @Override
     public TemplateNumberFormatFactory getCustomNumberFormat(String name) {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomNumberFormat(name);
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
+        if (isCustomNumberFormatsSet()) {
+            TemplateNumberFormatFactory format = customNumberFormats.get(name);
+            if (format != null) {
+                return  format;
+            }
         }
+        return getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomNumberFormat(name);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isCustomNumberFormatsSet() {
+        return customNumberFormats != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public boolean hasCustomFormats() {
-        try {
-            return super.hasCustomFormats();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isCustomNumberFormatsSet() ? !customNumberFormats.isEmpty()
+                : getNonNullParentConfiguration().hasCustomFormats();
     }
 
     @Override
     public String getBooleanFormat() {
-        try {
-            return super.getBooleanFormat();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isBooleanFormatSet() ? booleanFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getBooleanFormat();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isBooleanFormatSet() {
+        return booleanFormat != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public String getTimeFormat() {
-        try {
-            return super.getTimeFormat();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isTimeFormatSet() ? timeFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTimeFormat();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isTimeFormatSet() {
+        return timeFormat != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public String getDateFormat() {
-        try {
-            return super.getDateFormat();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isDateFormatSet() ? dateFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getDateFormat();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isDateFormatSet() {
+        return dateFormat != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public String getDateTimeFormat() {
-        try {
-            return super.getDateTimeFormat();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isDateTimeFormatSet() ? dateTimeFormat : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getDateTimeFormat();
     }
 
     @Override
-    public Map<String, ? extends TemplateDateFormatFactory> getCustomDateFormats() {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomDateFormats();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+    public boolean isDateTimeFormatSet() {
+        return dateTimeFormat != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Map<String, TemplateDateFormatFactory> getCustomDateFormats() {
+        return isCustomDateFormatsSet() ? customDateFormats : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomDateFormats();
     }
 
     @Override
     public TemplateDateFormatFactory getCustomDateFormat(String name) {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomDateFormat(name);
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
+        if (isCustomDateFormatsSet()) {
+            TemplateDateFormatFactory format = customDateFormats.get(name);
+            if (format != null) {
+                return  format;
+            }
         }
+        return getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomDateFormat(name);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isCustomDateFormatsSet() {
+        return customDateFormats != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public TemplateExceptionHandler getTemplateExceptionHandler() {
-        try {
-            return super.getTemplateExceptionHandler();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isTemplateExceptionHandlerSet() ? templateExceptionHandler : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getTemplateExceptionHandler();
     }
 
     @Override
-    public ArithmeticEngine getArithmeticEngine() {
-        try {
-            return super.getArithmeticEngine();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+    public boolean isTemplateExceptionHandlerSet() {
+        return templateExceptionHandler != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public ObjectWrapper getObjectWrapper() {
-        try {
-            return super.getObjectWrapper();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isObjectWrapperSet() ? objectWrapper : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getObjectWrapper();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isObjectWrapperSet() {
+        return objectWrapper != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public Charset getOutputEncoding() {
-        try {
-            return super.getOutputEncoding();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isOutputEncodingSet() ? outputEncoding : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getOutputEncoding();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isOutputEncodingSet() {
+        return outputEncodingSet;
     }
 
     @Override
     public Charset getURLEscapingCharset() {
-        try {
-            return super.getURLEscapingCharset();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isURLEscapingCharsetSet() ? urlEscapingCharset : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getURLEscapingCharset();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isURLEscapingCharsetSet() {
+        return urlEscapingCharsetSet;
     }
 
     @Override
     public TemplateClassResolver getNewBuiltinClassResolver() {
-        try {
-            return super.getNewBuiltinClassResolver();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isNewBuiltinClassResolverSet() ? newBuiltinClassResolver : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getNewBuiltinClassResolver();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isNewBuiltinClassResolverSet() {
+        return newBuiltinClassResolver != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean getAPIBuiltinEnabled() {
+        return isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet() ? apiBuiltinEnabled : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getAPIBuiltinEnabled();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet() {
+        return apiBuiltinEnabled != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public boolean getAutoFlush() {
-        try {
-            return super.getAutoFlush();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isAutoFlushSet() ? autoFlush : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getAutoFlush();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isAutoFlushSet() {
+        return autoFlush != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public boolean getShowErrorTips() {
-        try {
-            return super.getShowErrorTips();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isShowErrorTipsSet() ? showErrorTips : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getShowErrorTips();
     }
 
     @Override
-    public boolean isAPIBuiltinEnabled() {
-        try {
-            return super.isAPIBuiltinEnabled();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+    public boolean isShowErrorTipsSet() {
+        return showErrorTips != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public boolean getLogTemplateExceptions() {
-        try {
-            return super.getLogTemplateExceptions();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isLogTemplateExceptionsSet() ? logTemplateExceptions : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getLogTemplateExceptions();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isLogTemplateExceptionsSet() {
+        return logTemplateExceptions != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public boolean getLazyImports() {
-        try {
-            return super.getLazyImports();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isLazyImportsSet() ? lazyImports : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getLazyImports();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isLazyImportsSet() {
+        return lazyImports != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public Boolean getLazyAutoImports() {
-        try {
-            return super.getLazyAutoImports();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isLazyAutoImportsSet() ? lazyAutoImports : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getLazyAutoImports();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isLazyAutoImportsSet() {
+        return lazyAutoImportsSet;
     }
 
     @Override
     public Map<String, String> getAutoImports() {
-        try {
-            return super.getAutoImports();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isAutoImportsSet() ? autoImports : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getAutoImports();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isAutoImportsSet() {
+        return autoImports != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public List<String> getAutoIncludes() {
-        try {
-            return super.getAutoIncludes();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+        return isAutoIncludesSet() ? autoIncludes : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getAutoIncludes();
     }
 
     @Override
-    public String[] getCustomAttributeNames() {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomAttributeNames();
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
-        }
+    public boolean isAutoIncludesSet() {
+        return autoIncludes != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Map<Object, Object> getCustomAttributes() {
+        return isCustomAttributesSet() ? customAttributes : getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomAttributes();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean isCustomAttributesSet() {
+        return customAttributes != null;
     }
 
     @Override
     public Object getCustomAttribute(Object name) {
-        try {
-            return super.getCustomAttribute(name);
-        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-            getNonNullParentConfiguration();
-            throw e;
+        Object attValue;
+        if (isCustomAttributesSet()) {
+            attValue = customAttributes.get(name);
+            if (attValue != null || customAttributes.containsKey(name)) {
+                return attValue;
+            }
         }
+        return getNonNullParentConfiguration().getCustomAttribute(name);
     }
 
-    private Map mergeMaps(Map m1, Map m2, boolean overwriteUpdatesOrder) {
-        if (m1 == null) return m2;
-        if (m2 == null) return m1;
-        if (m1.isEmpty()) return m2 != null ? m2 : m1;
-        if (m2.isEmpty()) return m1 != null ? m1 : m2;
-        
-        LinkedHashMap mergedM = new LinkedHashMap((m1.size() + m2.size()) * 4 / 3 + 1, 0.75f);
-        mergedM.putAll(m1);
-        for (Object m2Key : m2.keySet()) {
-            mergedM.remove(m2Key); // So that duplicate keys are moved after m1 keys
+    public static final class Builder extends MutableProcessingAndParseConfiguration<Builder>
+            implements CommonBuilder<TemplateConfiguration> {
+
+        public Builder() {
+            super((Configuration) null);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public TemplateConfiguration build() {
+            return new TemplateConfiguration(this);
+        }
+
+        // TODO This will be removed
+        @Override
+        void setParent(ProcessingConfiguration cfg) {
+            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Locale getInheritedLocale() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("locale");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TimeZone getInheritedTimeZone() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("timeZone");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TimeZone getInheritedSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("SQLDateAndTimeTimeZone");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected String getInheritedNumberFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("numberFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Map<String, TemplateNumberFormatFactory> getInheritedCustomNumberFormats() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("customNumberFormats");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TemplateNumberFormatFactory getInheritedCustomNumberFormat(String name) {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedHasCustomFormats() {
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected String getInheritedBooleanFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("booleanFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected String getInheritedTimeFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("timeFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected String getInheritedDateFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("dateFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected String getInheritedDateTimeFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("dateTimeFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Map<String, TemplateDateFormatFactory> getInheritedCustomDateFormats() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("customDateFormats");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TemplateDateFormatFactory getInheritedCustomDateFormat(String name) {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("customDateFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TemplateExceptionHandler getInheritedTemplateExceptionHandler() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("templateExceptionHandler");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected ArithmeticEngine getInheritedArithmeticEngine() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("arithmeticEngine");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected ObjectWrapper getInheritedObjectWrapper() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("objectWrapper");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Charset getInheritedOutputEncoding() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("outputEncoding");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Charset getInheritedURLEscapingCharset() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("URLEscapingCharset");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TemplateClassResolver getInheritedNewBuiltinClassResolver() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("newBuiltinClassResolver");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedAutoFlush() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("autoFlush");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedShowErrorTips() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("showErrorTips");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedAPIBuiltinEnabled() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("APIBuiltinEnabled");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedLogTemplateExceptions() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("logTemplateExceptions");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedLazyImports() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("lazyImports");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Boolean getInheritedLazyAutoImports() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("lazyAutoImports");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Map<String, String> getInheritedAutoImports() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("autoImports");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected List<String> getInheritedAutoIncludes() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("autoIncludes");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Object getInheritedCustomAttribute(Object name) {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        /**
+         * Set all settings in this {@link Builder} that were set in the parameter
+         * {@link TemplateConfiguration}, possibly overwriting the earlier value in this object. (A setting is said to be
+         * set in a {@link TemplateConfiguration} if it was explicitly set via a setter method, as opposed to be inherited.)
+         */
+        public void merge(ParserAndProcessingConfiguration tc) {
+            if (tc.isAPIBuiltinEnabledSet()) {
+                setAPIBuiltinEnabled(tc.getAPIBuiltinEnabled());
+            }
+            if (tc.isArithmeticEngineSet()) {
+                setArithmeticEngine(tc.getArithmeticEngine());
+            }
+            if (tc.isAutoEscapingPolicySet()) {
+                setAutoEscapingPolicy(tc.getAutoEscapingPolicy());
+            }
+            if (tc.isAutoFlushSet()) {
+                setAutoFlush(tc.getAutoFlush());
+            }
+            if (tc.isBooleanFormatSet()) {
+                setBooleanFormat(tc.getBooleanFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isCustomDateFormatsSet()) {
+                setCustomDateFormats(mergeMaps(
+                        isCustomDateFormatsSet() ? getCustomDateFormats() : null, tc.getCustomDateFormats(), false));
+            }
+            if (tc.isCustomNumberFormatsSet()) {
+                setCustomNumberFormats(mergeMaps(
+                        isCustomNumberFormatsSet() ? getCustomNumberFormats() : null, tc.getCustomNumberFormats(), false));
+            }
+            if (tc.isDateFormatSet()) {
+                setDateFormat(tc.getDateFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isDateTimeFormatSet()) {
+                setDateTimeFormat(tc.getDateTimeFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isSourceEncodingSet()) {
+                setSourceEncoding(tc.getSourceEncoding());
+            }
+            if (tc.isLocaleSet()) {
+                setLocale(tc.getLocale());
+            }
+            if (tc.isLogTemplateExceptionsSet()) {
+                setLogTemplateExceptions(tc.getLogTemplateExceptions());
+            }
+            if (tc.isNamingConventionSet()) {
+                setNamingConvention(tc.getNamingConvention());
+            }
+            if (tc.isNewBuiltinClassResolverSet()) {
+                setNewBuiltinClassResolver(tc.getNewBuiltinClassResolver());
+            }
+            if (tc.isNumberFormatSet()) {
+                setNumberFormat(tc.getNumberFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isObjectWrapperSet()) {
+                setObjectWrapper(tc.getObjectWrapper());
+            }
+            if (tc.isOutputEncodingSet()) {
+                setOutputEncoding(tc.getOutputEncoding());
+            }
+            if (tc.isOutputFormatSet()) {
+                setOutputFormat(tc.getOutputFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isRecognizeStandardFileExtensionsSet()) {
+                setRecognizeStandardFileExtensions(tc.getRecognizeStandardFileExtensions());
+            }
+            if (tc.isShowErrorTipsSet()) {
+                setShowErrorTips(tc.getShowErrorTips());
+            }
+            if (tc.isSQLDateAndTimeTimeZoneSet()) {
+                setSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone(tc.getSQLDateAndTimeTimeZone());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTagSyntaxSet()) {
+                setTagSyntax(tc.getTagSyntax());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTemplateLanguageSet()) {
+                setTemplateLanguage(tc.getTemplateLanguage());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTemplateExceptionHandlerSet()) {
+                setTemplateExceptionHandler(tc.getTemplateExceptionHandler());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTimeFormatSet()) {
+                setTimeFormat(tc.getTimeFormat());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTimeZoneSet()) {
+                setTimeZone(tc.getTimeZone());
+            }
+            if (tc.isURLEscapingCharsetSet()) {
+                setURLEscapingCharset(tc.getURLEscapingCharset());
+            }
+            if (tc.isWhitespaceStrippingSet()) {
+                setWhitespaceStripping(tc.getWhitespaceStripping());
+            }
+            if (tc.isTabSizeSet()) {
+                setTabSize(tc.getTabSize());
+            }
+            if (tc.isLazyImportsSet()) {
+                setLazyImports(tc.getLazyImports());
+            }
+            if (tc.isLazyAutoImportsSet()) {
+                setLazyAutoImports(tc.getLazyAutoImports());
+            }
+            if (tc.isAutoImportsSet()) {
+                setAutoImports(mergeMaps(
+                        isAutoImportsSet() ? getAutoImports() : null,
+                        tc.isAutoImportsSet() ? tc.getAutoImports() : null,
+                        true));
+            }
+            if (tc.isAutoIncludesSet()) {
+                setAutoIncludes(mergeLists(
+                        isAutoIncludesSet() ? getAutoIncludes() : null,
+                        tc.isAutoIncludesSet() ? tc.getAutoIncludes() : null));
+            }
+
+            if (tc.isCustomAttributesSet()) {
+                setCustomAttributes(mergeMaps(
+                        isCustomAttributesSet() ? getCustomAttributes() : null,
+                        tc.isCustomAttributesSet() ? tc.getCustomAttributes() : null,
+                        true));
+            }
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public Version getIncompatibleImprovements() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("incompatibleImprovements");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected int getInheritedTagSyntax() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("tagSyntax");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected TemplateLanguage getInheritedTemplateLanguage() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("templateLanguage");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected int getInheritedNamingConvention() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("namingConvention");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedWhitespaceStripping() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("whitespaceStripping");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected int getInheritedAutoEscapingPolicy() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("autoEscapingPolicy");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected OutputFormat getInheritedOutputFormat() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("outputFormat");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected boolean getInheritedRecognizeStandardFileExtensions() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("recognizeStandardFileExtensions");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected Charset getInheritedSourceEncoding() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("sourceEncoding");
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        protected int getInheritedTabSize() {
+            throw new SettingValueNotSetException("tabSize");
         }
-        mergedM.putAll(m2);
-        return mergedM;
-    }
 
-    private List<String> mergeLists(List<String> list1, List<String> list2) {
-        if (list1 == null) return list2;
-        if (list2 == null) return list1;
-        if (list1.isEmpty()) return list2 != null ? list2 : list1;
-        if (list2.isEmpty()) return list1 != null ? list1 : list2;
-        
-        ArrayList<String> mergedList = new ArrayList<>(list1.size() + list2.size());
-        mergedList.addAll(list1);
-        mergedList.addAll(list2);
-        return mergedList;
     }
-    
+
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/_ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/_ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/_ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat.java
index bfaf93f..c9c7380 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/_ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/_ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat.java
@@ -65,6 +65,11 @@ public final class _ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat implements ParserConf
     }
 
     @Override
+    public boolean isTemplateLanguageSet() {
+        return wrappedPCfg.isTemplateLanguageSet();
+    }
+
+    @Override
     public OutputFormat getOutputFormat() {
         return outputFormat != null ? outputFormat : wrappedPCfg.getOutputFormat();
     }
@@ -101,7 +106,7 @@ public final class _ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat implements ParserConf
 
     @Override
     public int getAutoEscapingPolicy() {
-        return autoEscapingPolicy != null ? autoEscapingPolicy.intValue() : wrappedPCfg.getAutoEscapingPolicy();
+        return autoEscapingPolicy != null ? autoEscapingPolicy : wrappedPCfg.getAutoEscapingPolicy();
     }
 
     @Override
@@ -129,8 +134,14 @@ public final class _ParserConfigurationWithInheritedFormat implements ParserConf
         return wrappedPCfg.isTabSizeSet();
     }
 
+    @Override
     public Charset getSourceEncoding() {
         return wrappedPCfg.getSourceEncoding();
     }
 
+    @Override
+    public boolean isSourceEncodingSet() {
+        return wrappedPCfg.isSourceEncodingSet();
+    }
+
 }
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/ClassIntrospector.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/ClassIntrospector.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/ClassIntrospector.java
index c7f9963..2a54618 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/ClassIntrospector.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/ClassIntrospector.java
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.Version;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core._CoreLogs;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.BugException;
-import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.BuilderBase;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.FluentBuilder;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util._JavaVersions;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util._NullArgumentException;
 import org.slf4j.Logger;
@@ -1073,7 +1073,7 @@ class ClassIntrospector {
         }
     }
 
-    static final class Builder extends BuilderBase<ClassIntrospector, Builder> implements Cloneable {
+    static final class Builder extends FluentBuilder<ClassIntrospector, Builder> implements Cloneable {
 
         private static final Map/*<PropertyAssignments, Reference<ClassIntrospector>>*/ INSTANCE_CACHE = new HashMap();
         private static final ReferenceQueue INSTANCE_CACHE_REF_QUEUE = new ReferenceQueue();

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapper.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapper.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapper.java
index 6cde3ee..d01c902 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapper.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapper.java
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateScalarModel;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateSequenceModel;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.WrapperTemplateModel;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.BugException;
-import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.BuilderBase;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.FluentBuilder;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.util._ClassUtil;
 import org.apache.freemarker.dom.NodeModel;
 import org.slf4j.Logger;
@@ -1326,7 +1326,7 @@ public class DefaultObjectWrapper implements RichObjectWrapper {
      */
     protected abstract static class ExtendableBuilder<
             ProductT extends DefaultObjectWrapper, SelfT extends ExtendableBuilder<ProductT, SelfT>>
-            extends BuilderBase<ProductT, SelfT> implements Cloneable {
+            extends FluentBuilder<ProductT, SelfT> implements Cloneable {
 
         private final Version incompatibleImprovements;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil.java
index 3945770..231c20a 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/model/impl/DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil.java
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ import java.util.HashMap;
 import java.util.Iterator;
 import java.util.Map;
 
-import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.BuilderBase;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.FluentBuilder;
 
 /**
  * Utility method for caching {@link DefaultObjectWrapper} (and subclasses) sigletons per Thread Context Class
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@ final class DefaultObjectWrapperTCCLSingletonUtil {
     /**
      * For internal use only; don't depend on this, there's no backward compatibility guarantee at all!
      * Used when the builder delegates the product creation to something else (typically, an instance cache). Calling
-     * {@link BuilderBase#build()} would be infinite recursion in such cases.
+     * {@link FluentBuilder#build()} would be infinite recursion in such cases.
      */
     public interface _ConstructorInvoker<ProductT, BuilderT> {
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory.java
index b83b69c..5e9c37b 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory.java
@@ -41,31 +41,37 @@ public class MergingTemplateConfigurationFactory extends TemplateConfigurationFa
     @Override
     public TemplateConfiguration get(String sourceName, TemplateLoadingSource templateLoadingSource)
             throws IOException, TemplateConfigurationFactoryException {
-        TemplateConfiguration mergedTC = null;
-        TemplateConfiguration resultTC = null;
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder mergedTCBuilder = null;
+        TemplateConfiguration firstResultTC = null;
         for (TemplateConfigurationFactory tcf : templateConfigurationFactories) {
             TemplateConfiguration tc = tcf.get(sourceName, templateLoadingSource);
             if (tc != null) {
-                if (resultTC == null) {
-                    resultTC = tc;
+                if (firstResultTC == null) {
+                    firstResultTC = tc;
                 } else {
-                    if (mergedTC == null) {
-                        Configuration cfg = getConfiguration();
-                        if (cfg == null) {
-                            throw new IllegalStateException(
-                                    "The TemplateConfigurationFactory wasn't associated to a Configuration yet.");
-                        }
-                        
-                        mergedTC = new TemplateConfiguration();
-                        mergedTC.setParentConfiguration(cfg);
-                        mergedTC.merge(resultTC);
-                        resultTC = mergedTC;
+                    if (mergedTCBuilder == null) {
+                        mergedTCBuilder = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+                        mergedTCBuilder.merge(firstResultTC);
                     }
-                    mergedTC.merge(tc);
+                    mergedTCBuilder.merge(tc);
                 }
             }
         }
-        return resultTC;
+
+        if (mergedTCBuilder == null) {
+            return firstResultTC; // Maybe null
+        } else {
+            TemplateConfiguration mergedTC = mergedTCBuilder.build();
+
+            Configuration cfg = getConfiguration();
+            if (cfg == null) {
+                throw new IllegalStateException(
+                        "The TemplateConfigurationFactory wasn't associated to a Configuration yet.");
+            }
+            mergedTC.setParentConfiguration(cfg);
+
+            return mergedTC;
+        }
     }
     
     @Override

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/TemplateLoadingResult.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/TemplateLoadingResult.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/TemplateLoadingResult.java
index e1a9490..857b15d 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/TemplateLoadingResult.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/TemplateLoadingResult.java
@@ -95,8 +95,9 @@ public final class TemplateLoadingResult {
      * @param templateConfiguration
      *            Usually {@code null}, as usually the backing storage mechanism doesn't store such information; see
      *            {@link #getTemplateConfiguration()}. The most probable application is supplying the charset (encoding)
-     *            used by the {@link InputStream} (via {@link TemplateConfiguration#setSourceEncoding(Charset)}), but
-     *            only do that if the storage mechanism really knows what the charset is.
+     *            used by the {@link InputStream} (via
+     *            {@link TemplateConfiguration.Builder#setSourceEncoding(Charset)}), but only do that if the storage
+     *            mechanism really knows what the charset is.
      */
     public TemplateLoadingResult(TemplateLoadingSource source, Serializable version, InputStream inputStream,
             TemplateConfiguration templateConfiguration) {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/impl/DefaultTemplateResolver.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/impl/DefaultTemplateResolver.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/impl/DefaultTemplateResolver.java
index 537b4eb..e06eba1 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/impl/DefaultTemplateResolver.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/templateresolver/impl/DefaultTemplateResolver.java
@@ -534,16 +534,14 @@ public class DefaultTemplateResolver extends TemplateResolver {
             }
             TemplateConfiguration resultTC = templateLoaderResult.getTemplateConfiguration();
             if (resultTC != null) {
-                TemplateConfiguration mergedTC = new TemplateConfiguration();
+                TemplateConfiguration.Builder mergedTCBuilder = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
                 if (cfgTC != null) {
-                    mergedTC.merge(cfgTC);
+                    mergedTCBuilder.merge(cfgTC);
                 }
-                if (resultTC != null) {
-                    mergedTC.merge(resultTC);
-                }
-                mergedTC.setParentConfiguration(config);
-                
-                tc = mergedTC;
+                mergedTCBuilder.merge(resultTC);
+
+                tc = mergedTCBuilder.build();
+                tc.setParentConfiguration(config);
             } else {
                 tc = cfgTC;
             }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/BuilderBase.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/BuilderBase.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/BuilderBase.java
deleted file mode 100644
index c8eb12c..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/BuilderBase.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,34 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
- * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
- * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
- * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
- * specific language governing permissions and limitations
- * under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.freemarker.core.util;
-
-/**
- * Common superclass of builders (used for implementing the builder pattern).
- */
-public abstract class BuilderBase<ProductT, SelfT extends BuilderBase<ProductT, SelfT>> {
-
-    public abstract ProductT build();
-
-    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-    protected SelfT self() {
-        return (SelfT) this;
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/CommonBuilder.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/CommonBuilder.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/CommonBuilder.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8939121
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/CommonBuilder.java
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.freemarker.core.util;
+
+/**
+ * Interface of builders (used for implementing the builder pattern).
+ */
+public interface CommonBuilder<ProductT> {
+
+    ProductT build();
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/FluentBuilder.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/FluentBuilder.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/FluentBuilder.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a5e1e5a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/FluentBuilder.java
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.freemarker.core.util;
+
+/**
+ * Common superclass for implementing {@link CommonBuilder}; adds helper method to implement a fluent API.
+ */
+public abstract class FluentBuilder<ProductT, SelfT extends FluentBuilder<ProductT, SelfT>>
+        implements CommonBuilder<ProductT> {
+
+    @Override
+    public abstract ProductT build();
+
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    protected SelfT self() {
+        return (SelfT) this;
+    }
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/ProductWrappingBuilder.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/ProductWrappingBuilder.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/ProductWrappingBuilder.java
index 7c100bb..7bd98f4 100644
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/ProductWrappingBuilder.java
+++ b/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/ProductWrappingBuilder.java
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ package org.apache.freemarker.core.util;
  * A builder that encloses an already built product. {@link #build()} will always return the same product object.
  */
 public class ProductWrappingBuilder<ProductT, SelfT extends ProductWrappingBuilder<ProductT, SelfT>>
-        extends BuilderBase<ProductT, SelfT> {
+        extends FluentBuilder<ProductT, SelfT> {
 
     private final ProductT product;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/manual/en_US/FM3-CHANGE-LOG.txt
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/manual/en_US/FM3-CHANGE-LOG.txt b/src/manual/en_US/FM3-CHANGE-LOG.txt
index 2e10077..ccf69b1 100644
--- a/src/manual/en_US/FM3-CHANGE-LOG.txt
+++ b/src/manual/en_US/FM3-CHANGE-LOG.txt
@@ -187,6 +187,7 @@ the FreeMarer 3 changelog here:
   - Renamed Configuration.defaultEncoding to sourceEncoding, also added sourceEncoding to ParserConfiguration, and renamed
     TemplateConfiguration.encoding and Template.encoding to sourceEncoding. (Before this, defaultEncoding was exclusive
     to Configuration, but now it's like any other ParserConfiguration setting that can be overidden on the 3 levels.)
+  - Made TemplateConfiguration immutable, added a TemplateConfiguration.Builder.
 - Settings that have contained a charset name (sourceEncoding, outputEncoding, URLEscapingCharset) are now of type Charset,
   not String. For string based configuration sources (such as .properties files) this means that:
   - Unrecognized charset names are now errors

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/ConfigurationTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/ConfigurationTest.java b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/ConfigurationTest.java
index 55a40d0..ccfeca0 100644
--- a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/ConfigurationTest.java
+++ b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/ConfigurationTest.java
@@ -261,11 +261,11 @@ public class ConfigurationTest extends TestCase {
         cfg.setLocale(Locale.GERMAN);
         cfg.setSourceEncoding(StandardCharsets.ISO_8859_1);
 
-        TemplateConfiguration huTC = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        huTC.setSourceEncoding(ISO_8859_2);
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder huTCB = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        huTCB.setSourceEncoding(ISO_8859_2);
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
                 new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("*_hu.*"),
-                huTC));
+                huTCB.build()));
 
         ByteArrayTemplateLoader tl = new ByteArrayTemplateLoader();
         tl.putTemplate(tFtl, "${1}".getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8));

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/DateFormatTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/DateFormatTest.java b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/DateFormatTest.java
index f58e7fc..4fdb1c7 100644
--- a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/DateFormatTest.java
+++ b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/DateFormatTest.java
@@ -333,11 +333,12 @@ public class DateFormatTest extends TemplateTest {
                 "m", new AliasTemplateDateFormatFactory("yyyy-MMM"),
                 "epoch", EpochMillisTemplateDateFormatFactory.INSTANCE));
         
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.setCustomDateFormats(ImmutableMap.of(
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.setCustomDateFormats(ImmutableMap.of(
                 "m", new AliasTemplateDateFormatFactory("yyyy-MMMM"),
                 "i", new AliasTemplateDateFormatFactory("@epoch")));
-        cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("*2*"), tc));
+        cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(
+                new FileNameGlobMatcher("*2*"), tcb.build()));
         
         addToDataModel("d", TM);
         String commonFtl = "${d?string.@d} ${d?string.@m} "

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/88baea20/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest.java b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest.java
index a267645..baee63b 100644
--- a/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest.java
+++ b/src/test/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest.java
@@ -34,10 +34,10 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         Configuration cfg = getConfiguration();
         cfg.addAutoImport("t1", "t1.ftl");
 
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.addAutoImport("t2", "t2.ftl");
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.addAutoImport("t2", "t2.ftl");
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
-                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tc));
+                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tcb.build()));
 
         {
             Template t = cfg.getTemplate("main.ftl");
@@ -88,10 +88,10 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         cfg.addAutoImport("t2", "t2.ftl");
         cfg.addAutoImport("t3", "t3.ftl");
 
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.addAutoImport("t2", "t2b.ftl");
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.addAutoImport("t2", "t2b.ftl");
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
-                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tc));
+                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tcb.build()));
 
         {
             Template t = cfg.getTemplate("main.ftl");
@@ -128,10 +128,10 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         Configuration cfg = getConfiguration();
         cfg.addAutoInclude("t1.ftl");
 
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
-                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tc));
+                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tcb.build()));
 
         {
             Template t = cfg.getTemplate("main.ftl");
@@ -182,10 +182,10 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         cfg.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
         cfg.addAutoInclude("t3.ftl");
 
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
-                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tc));
+                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tcb.build()));
 
         {
             Template t = cfg.getTemplate("main.ftl");
@@ -233,11 +233,11 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         cfg.addAutoInclude("t1.ftl");
         cfg.addAutoInclude("t1.ftl");
 
-        TemplateConfiguration tc = new TemplateConfiguration();
-        tc.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
-        tc.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
+        TemplateConfiguration.Builder tcb = new TemplateConfiguration.Builder();
+        tcb.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
+        tcb.addAutoInclude("t2.ftl");
         cfg.setTemplateConfigurations(
-                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tc));
+                new ConditionalTemplateConfigurationFactory(new FileNameGlobMatcher("main.ftl"), tcb.build()));
 
         {
             Template t = cfg.getTemplate("main.ftl");
@@ -301,8 +301,9 @@ public class IncludeAndImportConfigurableLayersTest extends TemplateTest {
         assertEquals(expectedOutput, sw.toString());
     }
 
-    private void setLazynessOfConfigurable(MutableProcessingConfiguration cfg, Boolean lazyImports, Boolean lazyAutoImports,
-            boolean setLazyAutoImports) {
+    private void setLazynessOfConfigurable(
+            MutableProcessingConfiguration<?> cfg,
+            Boolean lazyImports, Boolean lazyAutoImports, boolean setLazyAutoImports) {
         if (lazyImports != null) {
             cfg.setLazyImports(lazyImports);
         }


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