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From ddek...@apache.org
Subject [48/51] [partial] incubator-freemarker-site git commit: 2.3.26-voting docs, removed nightly
Date Wed, 15 Mar 2017 21:19:45 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker-site/blob/a4004324/builds/2.3.26-nightly/app_faq.html
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-<h1 class="content-header header-chapter" id="app_faq" itemprop="headline">FAQ</h1>
-</div></div>  <div class="qandaset">
-
-  <ol>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_jsp_vs_freemarker">
-
-            JSP versus FreeMarker?
-
-            
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_picky_about_missing_vars">
-
-            Why is FreeMarker so picky about <code class="inline-code">null</code>-s
-            and missing variables, and what to do with it?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_number_grouping">
-
-            Why does FreeMarker print the numbers with strange
-            formatting (as 1,000,000 or 1 000 000 instead of 1000000)?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_number_decimal_point">
-
-            Why does FreeMarker print bad decimal and/or grouping
-            separator symbol (as 3.14 instead of 3,14)?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_number_boolean_formatting">
-
-            Why does FreeMarker give an error when I try to print a
-            boolean like <code class="inline-code">${aBoolean}</code>, and how to fix
-            it?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_template_not_found">
-
-            FreeMarker can&#39;t find my templates
-            (<code class="inline-code">TemplateNotFoundException</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">FileNotFoundException</code>, "Template not
-            found" error message)
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_check_version">
-
-            The documentation writes about feature
-            <em>X</em>, but it seems that FreeMarker doesn&#39;t
-            know that, or it behaves in a different way as documented, or a
-            bug that was supposedly fixed is still present.
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_alternative_syntax">
-
-            The <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code> of
-            FreeMarker tags confuses my editor or the XML parser. What to
-            do?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_legal_variable_names">
-
-            What are the legal variable names?
-
-            
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_strange_variable_name">
-
-            How can I use variable names (macro name, parameter name)
-            that contain minus sign (<code class="inline-code">-</code>), colon
-            (<code class="inline-code">:</code>), dot (<code class="inline-code">.</code>), or or other
-            special characters?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_jsp_custom_tag_syntax">
-
-            Why do I get &quot;java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: argument
-            type mismatch&quot; when I try to use <em>X</em> JSP
-            custom tag?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_servlet_include">
-
-            How to include other resources in a way as
-            <code class="inline-code">jsp:include</code> does it?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_parameter_unwrapping">
-
-            How can I get the parameters to my
-            plain-Java-method/<code class="inline-code">TemplateMethodModelEx</code>/<code class="inline-code">TemplateTransformModel</code>/<code class="inline-code">TemplateDirectiveModel</code>
-            implementation as plain
-            <code class="inline-code">java.lang.*</code>/<code class="inline-code">java.util.*</code>
-            objects?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_nonstring_keys">
-
-            Why I can&#39;t use non-string key in the
-            <code class="inline-code">myMap[myKey]</code> expression? And what to do
-            now?
-
-            
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_simple_map">
-
-            When I list the contents of a map (a hash) with
-            <code class="inline-code">?keys</code>/<code class="inline-code">?values</code>, I get the
-            <code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code> methods mixed with the real map
-            entries. Of course, I only want to get the map entries.
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_modify_seq_and_map">
-
-            How can I modify sequences (lists) and hashes (maps) in
-            FreeMarker templates?
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_null">
-
-            What about <code class="inline-code">null</code> and the FreeMarker
-            template language? 
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_capture">
-
-            How can I use the output of a directive (macro) in
-            expressions (as a parameter to another directive)?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_questionmark">
-
-            Why do I have "?"-s in the output instead of
-            character <em>X</em>?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_retrieve_calculated_values">
-
-            How to retrieve values calculated in templates after
-            template execution done?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_assign_to_dynamic_variable_name">
-
-            How to assign to (or <code class="inline-code">#import</code> into) a
-            dynamically constructed variable name (like to name that&#39;s stored
-            in another variable)?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_template_uploading_security">
-
-            
-
-            Can I allow users to upload templates and what are the
-            security implications?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_implement_function_or_macro_in_java">
-
-            How to implement a function or macro in Java Language
-            instead of in the template language?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_nice_error_page">
-
-             In my Servlet
-            based application, how do I show a nice error page instead of a
-            stack trace when error occurs during template processing?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-    <li>
-      <a href="#faq_html_editor_mangles">
-
-            I&#39;m using a visual HTML editor that mangles template tags.
-            Will you change the template language syntax to accommodate my
-            editor?
-                </a>
-    </li>
-  </ol>
-  <dl>
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_jsp_vs_freemarker">
-    1.&nbsp; 
-            JSP versus FreeMarker?
-
-            
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>We compare FreeMarker with the JSP 2.0 + JSTL combo
-            here.</p>
-
-            <p>FreeMarker Pros:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>FreeMarker is not tied to Servlets or networking/Web; it
-                is just a class library to generate text output by merging a
-                template with Java objects (the data-model). You can execute
-                templates anywhere and anytime; no HTTP request forwarding or
-                similar tricks needed, no Servlet environment needed at all.
-                Because of this you can easily integrate it into any
-                system.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Terser syntax. Consider this JSP (assuming
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;%@ taglib prefix=&quot;c&quot;
-                uri=&quot;http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core&quot;
-                %&gt;</code>):</p>
-
-                
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;c:if test=&quot;${t}&quot;&gt;
-  True
-&lt;/c:if&gt;
-
-&lt;c:choose&gt;
-  &lt;c:when test=&quot;${n == 123}&quot;&gt;
-      Do this
-  &lt;/c:when&gt;
-  &lt;c:otherwise&gt;
-      Do that
-  &lt;/c:otherwise&gt;
-&lt;/c:choose&gt;
-
-&lt;c:forEach var=&quot;i&quot; items=&quot;${ls}&quot;&gt;
-- ${i}
-&lt;/c:forEach&gt;</pre></div>
-
-                <p>and the equivalent FTL:</p>
-
-                
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#if t&gt;
-  True
-&lt;/#if&gt;
-
-&lt;#if n == 123&gt;
-  Do this
-&lt;#else&gt;
-  Do that
-&lt;/#if&gt;
-
-&lt;#list ls as i&gt;
-- ${i}
-&lt;/#list&gt;</pre></div>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>No servlet specific scopes and other highly technical
-                things in templates (unless, of course, you expose them into
-                the data-model deliberately). It was made for MVC from the
-                beginning, it focuses only on the presentation.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>You can load the templates from anywhere; from the class
-                path, from a data-base, etc.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Locale-sensitive number and date formatting by default.
-                When you output for a human audience, all you need to do is
-                just write <code class="inline-code">${x}</code> rather than
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;fmt:formatNumber value=&quot;${x}&quot;
-                /&gt;</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Easier to define ad-hoc macros and functions.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>No sweeping errors under the carpet. Missing variables
-                and <code class="inline-code">null</code>-s will not silently default to
-                <code class="inline-code">0</code>/<code class="inline-code">false</code>/empty-string,
-                but cause error. <a href="#faq_picky_about_missing_vars">See more about this
-                here...</a></p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>"Object wrapping". This lets you show the
-                objects to templates in a customized, presentation oriented
-                way (e.g. <a href="xgui_imperative_learn.html">see
-                here</a> how a W3C DOM nodes can be seen by templates using
-                this technology.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Macros and functions are just variables, so they can be
-                easily passed around as parameter values, put into the
-                data-model, etc., just like any other values.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Virtually unnoticeable delay when visiting a page for
-                the first time (or after it was changed), because no expensive
-                compilation happens.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>FreeMarker Cons:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Not a "standard". There are fewer tools and
-                IDE integrations, fewer developers knows it and there&#39;s much
-                less industry support in general. (However, most JSP tag
-                libraries can work in FreeMarker templates with the proper
-                setup, unless they are base on <code class="inline-code">.tag</code>
-                files.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Its syntax doesn&#39;t follow the HTML/XML rules apart from
-                some visual similarity, which is confusing for new users (it&#39;s
-                the price of the terseness). JSP doesn&#39;t follow it either, but
-                it&#39;s closer to it.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Since macros and functions are just variables, incorrect
-                directive and parameter names and missing required parameters
-                can be detected only on runtime.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Doesn&#39;t work with JSF. (It could work technically, but
-                nobody has implemented that yet.)</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>You may read this if you are considering replacing JSP with
-            FreeMarker in an existing application or in a legacy framework
-            that only supports JSP: <a href="pgui_misc_servlet.html#pgui_misc_servlet_model2">Programmer&#39;s Guide/Miscellaneous/Using FreeMarker with servlets/Using FreeMarker for "Model 2"</a></p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_picky_about_missing_vars">
-    2.&nbsp; 
-            Why is FreeMarker so picky about <code class="inline-code">null</code>-s
-            and missing variables, and what to do with it?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>To recapitulate what&#39;s this entry is about: FreeMarker by
-            default treats an attempt to access a non-existent variable or a
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> value (<a href="#faq_null">this two
-            is the same for FreeMarker</a>) as error, which aborts the
-            template execution.</p>
-
-            <p>First of all, you should understand the reason of being
-            picky. Most scripting languages and template languages are rather
-            forgiving with missing variables (and with
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code>-s), and they usually treat them as empty
-            string and/or 0 and/or logical false. This behavior has several
-            problems:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>It potentially hides accidental mistakes, like a typo in
-                a variable name, or when the template author refers to a
-                variable that the programmer doesn&#39;t put into the data-model
-                for that template, or for which the programmer uses a
-                different name. Humans are prone to do such mistakes, while
-                computers are not, so missing this opportunity that the
-                template engine can show these errors is a bad business. Even
-                if you very carefully check the output of the templates during
-                development, it is easy to look over mistakes like
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if hasWarnigs&gt;<em class="code-color">print warnings
-                here...</em>&lt;/#if&gt;</code>, which would then
-                silently never print the warnings, since you have mistyped the
-                variable name (have you noticed it?). Also think about
-                maintenance, when you later modify your application; probably
-                you will not re-check templates (many applications has
-                hundreds of them) that carefully each time, for all possible
-                scenarios. Unit tests typically doesn&#39;t cover web page content
-                very good either (if you have them at all...); they mostly
-                only check certain manually set patterns in the web page, so
-                they will often gloss though changes that are actually bugs.
-                But if the page fails with exception, that&#39;s something human
-                testers will notice and unit test will notice (as the whole
-                page will fail), and in production the maintainers will notice
-                (assuming somebody check error logs).</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Makes dangerous assumptions. The script language or
-                template engine knows nothing about the application domain, so
-                when it decides the value of something that it doesn&#39;t know to
-                be 0/false, it is a quite irresponsible and arbitrary thing.
-                Just because it&#39;s not know what&#39;s your current balance at your
-                bank, can we just say it&#39;s $0? Just because it is not known if
-                a patient has penicillin allergy, can we just say he/she
-                doesn&#39;t have it? Just consider the implications of such
-                mistakes. Showing an error page is often better than showing
-                incorrect information that looks good, leading to bad
-                decisions on the user side.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>Being not picky is mostly sweeping under the carpet in this
-            case (not facing the problems), which of course most people feels
-            more convenient, but still, we believe that in most cases being
-            strict will save your time and increase your software quality on
-            the long run.</p>
-
-            <p>On the other hand, we recognize that there are cases where
-            you don&#39;t want FreeMarker to be that picky for good reason, and
-            there is solution for them:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>It&#39;s often normal that your data-model contains
-                <code class="inline-code">null</code>-s or have optional variables. In such
-                cases use <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_missing">these
-                operators</a>. If you use them too often, try to rethink
-                your data-model, because depending on them too much won&#39;t just
-                make the templates too verbose, but increases the probability
-                of hiding errors and printing arbitrary incorrect output (for
-                the reasons described earlier).</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>In some application you may rather want to show an
-                incomplete/damaged page than an error page. In this case you
-                can <a href="pgui_config_errorhandling.html">use another
-                error handler</a> than the default one. A custom error
-                handler can skip the problematic part, or show an error
-                indicator there, instead of aborting the whole page rendering.
-                Note, however, that although the error handlers don&#39;t give
-                arbitrary default values to variables, for pages that show
-                critical information it&#39;s maybe still better to show an error
-                page.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>If the pages contain parts that aren&#39;t critically
-                important (like some side bars), another feature you may
-                interested in is <a href="ref_directive_attempt.html">the
-                <code>attempt</code>/<code>recover</code>
-                directives</a>.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_number_grouping">
-    3.&nbsp; 
-            Why does FreeMarker print the numbers with strange
-            formatting (as 1,000,000 or 1 000 000 instead of 1000000)?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>FreeMarker uses the locale-sensitive number formatting
-            capability of the Java platform. The default number format for
-            your locale may uses grouping or other formatting. If you don&#39;t
-            want that, you have to override the number format suggested by the
-            Java platform with the <code class="inline-code">number_format</code> <a href="pgui_config_settings.html">FreeMarker setting</a>. For
-            example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-unspecified">cfg.setNumberFormat(&quot;0.######&quot;);  // now it will print 1000000
-// where cfg is a freemarker.template.Configuration object</pre></div>
-
-            <p>Note however than humans often find it hard to read big
-            numbers without grouping separator. So in general it is
-            recommended to keep them, and in cases where the numbers are for
-            &#39;&#39;computer audience&#39;&#39; (which is confused on the grouping
-            separators), use the <a href="ref_builtins_number.html#ref_builtin_c"><code>c</code> built-in</a>. For
-            example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;a href=&quot;/shop/productdetails?id=${<strong>product.id?c</strong>}&quot;&gt;Details...&lt;/a&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>For computer audience you need <code class="inline-code">?c</code> anyway,
-            as the decimal separators can also wary depending on the
-            locale.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_number_decimal_point">
-    4.&nbsp; 
-            Why does FreeMarker print bad decimal and/or grouping
-            separator symbol (as 3.14 instead of 3,14)?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Different countries use different decimal/grouping separator
-            symbols. If you see incorrect symbols, then probably your locale
-            is not set properly. Set the default locale of the JVM or override
-            the default locale with the <code class="inline-code">locale</code> <a href="pgui_config_settings.html">FreeMarker setting</a>. For
-            example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-unspecified">cfg.setLocale(java.util.Locale.ITALY);
-// where cfg is a freemarker.template.Configuration object</pre></div>
-
-            <p>However, sometimes you want to output a number not for human
-            audience, but for "computer audience" (like you want
-            to print a size in CSS), in which case you must use dot as decimal
-            separator, regardless of the locale (language) of the page. For
-            that use the <a href="ref_builtins_number.html#ref_builtin_c"><code>c</code>
-            built-in</a>, for example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">font-size: ${<strong>fontSize?c</strong>}pt;</pre></div>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_number_boolean_formatting">
-    5.&nbsp; 
-            Why does FreeMarker give an error when I try to print a
-            boolean like <code class="inline-code">${aBoolean}</code>, and how to fix
-            it?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Unlike numbers, booleans has no commonly accepted format,
-            not even a common format within the same page. Like when you show
-            on a HTML page if a product is washable, you will hardly want to
-            show for the visitor &quot;Washable: true&quot;, but rather &quot;Washable: yes&quot;.
-            So we force the template author (by <code class="inline-code">${washable}</code>
-            causing error) to find out with his human knowledge how the
-            boolean value should be shown at the given place. The common way
-            of formatting a boolean is like <code class="inline-code">${washable?string(&quot;yes&quot;,
-            &quot;no&quot;)}</code>, <code class="inline-code">${caching?string(&quot;Enabled&quot;,
-            &quot;Disabled&quot;)}</code>, <code class="inline-code">${heating?string(&quot;on&quot;,
-            &quot;off&quot;)}</code>, etc.</p>
-
-            <p>However, there are two cases where this gets
-            impractical:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>When printing boolean to generate computer language
-                output, and hence you want
-                <code class="inline-code">true</code>/<code class="inline-code">false</code>, use
-                <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">someBoolean</em>?c}</code>.
-                (This requires at least FreeMarker 2.3.20. Before that, the
-                common practice was writing
-                <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">someBoolean</em>?string}</code>,
-                however that&#39;s dangerous because its output depends on the
-                current boolean format setting, whose default is
-                <code class="inline-code">&quot;true&quot;</code>/<code class="inline-code">&quot;false&quot;</code>.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>When you have format most of the booleans on the same
-                way. In this case you can set the
-                <code class="inline-code">boolean_format</code> setting
-                (<code class="inline-code">Configuration.setBooleanFormat</code>) to reflect
-                that, and then since FreeMarker 2.3.20 you can just write
-                <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">someBoolean</em>}</code>.
-                (Note that this doesn&#39;t work for
-                <code class="inline-code">true</code>/<code class="inline-code">false</code> though - you
-                have to use <code class="inline-code">?c</code> there.)</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_template_not_found">
-    6.&nbsp; 
-            FreeMarker can&#39;t find my templates
-            (<code class="inline-code">TemplateNotFoundException</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">FileNotFoundException</code>, "Template not
-            found" error message)
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>First of all, you should know that FreeMarker doesn&#39;t load
-            templates from file system paths directly. Instead, it uses a
-            simple virtual file system that might reads non-filesystem
-            resources (templates from inside jar-s, from inside a database
-            table, etc.). What that virtual file is decided by a configuration
-            setting,
-            <code class="inline-code">Configuration.setTemplateLoader(TemplateLoader)</code>.
-            Even if the <code class="inline-code">TemplateLoader</code> your are using maps
-            to the file system, it will have a base directory that contains
-            all the templates, and that will be the root of your virtual file
-            system that you can&#39;t reach out from (i.e., absolute paths will be
-            still relative to the virtual file system root).</p>
-
-            <p>Tips to solve the problem:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>If you are the one who configure FreeMarker, be sure
-                that you set a proper
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateLoader</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Otherwise see if the template-not-found error&#39;s message
-                contains the description of the
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateLoader</code> used. If it doesn&#39;t, you are
-                using an old FreeMarker version, so update it. Getting
-                <code class="inline-code">FileNotFoundException</code> instead of
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateNotFoundException</code> is also a sign of
-                that, and so you will get less helpful error messages. (If the
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateLoader</code> in the error message is like
-                <code class="inline-code">foo.SomeTemplateLoader@64f6106c</code> and so
-                doesn&#39;t show some relevant parameters, you may should ask the
-                author to define a nicer
-                <code class="inline-code">toString()</code>.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>A frequent mistake is using a
-                <code class="inline-code">FileTemplateLoader</code> for a Servlet-based web
-                application, instead of a
-                <code class="inline-code">WebappTemplateLoader</code>. It may works in one
-                environment, but not in another, as the Servlet specification
-                makes no promises about your resources being accessible as
-                plain files, not even when the <code class="inline-code">war</code> file is
-                extracted.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Know that when you are including/importing a template
-                from another template, if you don&#39;t start the template name
-                with <code class="inline-code">/</code>, it will be interpreted relatively
-                to the directory of the including template. The error message
-                contains the full (resolved) name, so you should notice this
-                there.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Check that you aren&#39;t using <code class="inline-code">\</code>
-                (backslash) instead of <code class="inline-code">/</code> (slash).
-                (FreeMarker 2.3.22 and later will warn you about that in the
-                error message.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>As a last resort, turn on debug level logging (in the
-                logging framework that you are using) for the category
-                <code class="inline-code">freemarker.cache</code>, to see more of what&#39;s
-                going on.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_check_version">
-    7.&nbsp; 
-            The documentation writes about feature
-            <em>X</em>, but it seems that FreeMarker doesn&#39;t
-            know that, or it behaves in a different way as documented, or a
-            bug that was supposedly fixed is still present.
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Are you sure that you are using the documentation written
-            for the same version of FreeMarker that you actually use?
-            Especially, note that our online documentation is for the latest
-            stable FreeMarker release. You may use an older release; update
-            it.</p>
-
-            <p>Are you sure that the Java class loader finds the same
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.jar</code> that you expect to use? Maybe
-            there is an older version of <code class="inline-code">freemarker.jar</code>
-            around, which shadows the never. To check this, try to print the
-            version number in a template with <code class="inline-code">${.version}</code>.
-            (If it dies with "Unknown built-in variable: version"
-            error message, then you use a very, very old release.).</p>
-
-            <p>If you suspect that the problem is that you have multiple
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.jar</code>-s, the typical culprit is that
-            some module has a Maven or Ivy dependency with the old
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker</code> group ID, as opposed to the more
-            modern <code class="inline-code">org.freemarker</code> group ID. Because of the
-            different group ID-s these aren&#39;t seen as conflicting artifacts by
-            Maven or Ivy, and so both version gets in. In this case you have
-            to exclude the <code class="inline-code">freemarker</code> dependency.</p>
-
-            <p>If you think that the documentation or FreeMarker is wrong,
-            please report it using the bug tracker, or the mailing list. Thank
-            you!</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_alternative_syntax">
-    8.&nbsp; 
-            The <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code> of
-            FreeMarker tags confuses my editor or the XML parser. What to
-            do?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Starting from FreeMarker 2.3.4 you can use
-            <code class="inline-code">[</code> and <code class="inline-code">]</code> instead of
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code>. For more
-            details <a href="dgui_misc_alternativesyntax.html">read
-            this...</a></p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_legal_variable_names">
-    9.&nbsp; 
-            What are the legal variable names?
-
-            
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>FreeMarker has no limitations regarding the characters used
-            in variable names, nor regarding the length of the variable names,
-            but for your convenience try to chose variable names that can be
-            used with the simple variable reference expressions (see it <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel">here</a>). If you have
-            to choose a more extreme variable name, that&#39;s not a big problem
-            either: <a href="#faq_strange_variable_name">see
-            here</a>.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_strange_variable_name">
-    10.&nbsp; 
-            How can I use variable names (macro name, parameter name)
-            that contain minus sign (<code class="inline-code">-</code>), colon
-            (<code class="inline-code">:</code>), dot (<code class="inline-code">.</code>), or or other
-            special characters?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>If you have a variable with strange name like
-            "foo-bar", FreeMarker will misunderstand what you
-            mean if you just use it like in <code class="inline-code">${foo-bar}</code>. In
-            this case, it will believe that you want to subtract the value of
-            <code class="inline-code">bar</code> from <code class="inline-code">foo</code>. This FAQ entry
-            explains how to handle situations like this.</p>
-
-            <p>First of all it should be clear that these are just
-            syntactical problems, as otherwise FreeMarker has no limitations
-            regarding the characters used in variable names, nor regarding the
-            length of them.</p>
-
-            <p>If the special character is one of minus sign
-            (<code class="inline-code">-</code>, UCS 0x2D) or dot (<code class="inline-code">.</code>, UCS
-            0x2E) or colon (<code class="inline-code">:</code>, UCS 0x3A), then all you have
-            to do is putting a backslash (<code class="inline-code">\</code>) before these
-            characters, like in <code class="inline-code">foo\-bar</code> (since FreeMarker
-            2.3.22). Then FreeMarker will know that you didn&#39;t mean the
-            operator with the same symbol. This works everywhere where you
-            specify unquoted identifiers, like for macro and function names,
-            parameter names, and all kind of variable references in general.
-            (Note that these escapes only work in identifiers, not in string
-            literals.)</p>
-
-            <p>When the special character is not one of minus sign, dot, or
-            colon, then it gets trickier. Let&#39;s say the problematic variable
-            name is "a+b". Then:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>If you want to read the variable: If it&#39;s a subvariable
-                of something, you can write
-                <code class="inline-code">something[&quot;a+b&quot;]</code> (remember,
-                <code class="inline-code">something.x</code> is equivalent to
-                <code class="inline-code">something[&quot;x&quot;])</code>. If it&#39;s a top-level
-                variable, those are accessible through the special hash
-                variable ,<code class="inline-code">.vars</code>, so you can write
-                <code class="inline-code">.vars[&quot;a+b&quot;]</code>. Naturally, this trick works
-                with macro and function invocations too:
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;@.vars[&quot;a+b&quot;]/&gt;</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">.vars[&quot;a+b&quot;](1, 2)</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>If you want to create or modify the variable: All
-                directives that let you create or modify a variable (such as
-                <code class="inline-code">assign</code>, <code class="inline-code">local</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">global</code>, <code class="inline-code">macro</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">function</code>, etc.) allows the quotation of the
-                destination variable name. For example, <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign
-                foo = 1&gt;</code> is the same as <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign
-                &quot;foo&quot; = 1&gt;</code>. So you can write things like
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign &quot;a+b&quot; = 1&gt;</code> and
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;#macro &quot;a+b&quot;&gt;</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Unfortunately, you can&#39;t use such a variable name (that
-                contains special characters other than <code class="inline-code">-</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">.</code> and <code class="inline-code">:</code>) as macro
-                parameter name.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_jsp_custom_tag_syntax">
-    11.&nbsp; 
-            Why do I get &quot;java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: argument
-            type mismatch&quot; when I try to use <em>X</em> JSP
-            custom tag?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Fist of all, update FreeMarker, because 2.3.22 and later
-            gives a much more helpful error message, that pretty much answers
-            the question. Anyway, the reason is as follows. On JSP pages you
-            quote all parameter (attribute) values, it does not mater if the
-            type of the parameter is string or boolean or number. But since
-            custom tags are accessible in FTL templates as plain user-defined
-            FTL directives, you have to use the FTL syntax rules inside the
-            custom tags, not the JSP rules. Thus, according to FTL rules, you
-            must not quote boolean and numerical parameter values, or they are
-            interpreted as string values, and this will cause a type mismatch
-            error when FreeMarker tries to pass the value to the custom tag
-            that expects non-string value.</p>
-
-            <p>For example, the <code class="inline-code">flush</code> parameter to
-            Struts Tiles <code class="inline-code">insert</code> tag is boolean. In JSP the
-            correct syntax was:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;tiles:insert page=&quot;/layout.jsp&quot; <strong>flush=&quot;true&quot;</strong>/&gt;
-<em>...</em></pre></div>
-
-            <p>but in FTL you should write:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;@tiles.insert page=&quot;/layout.ftl&quot; <strong>flush=true</strong>/&gt;
-<em>...</em></pre></div>
-
-            <p>Also, for similar reasons, this is wrong:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;tiles:insert page=&quot;/layout.jsp&quot; <strong>flush=&quot;${needFlushing}&quot;</strong>/&gt;
-<em>...</em></pre></div>
-
-            <p>and you should write:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;tiles:insert page=&quot;/layout.jsp&quot; <strong>flush=needFlushing</strong>/&gt;
-<em>...</em></pre></div>
-
-            <p>(Not <code class="inline-code">flush=${needFlushing}</code>!)</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_servlet_include">
-    12.&nbsp; 
-            How to include other resources in a way as
-            <code class="inline-code">jsp:include</code> does it?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Not with <code class="inline-code">&lt;#include ...&gt;</code>, as that
-            just includes another FreeMarker template without involving the
-            Servlet container.</p>
-
-            <p>Since the inclusion method you look for is Servlet-related,
-            and pure FreeMarker is unaware of Servlets or even HTTP, it&#39;s the
-            Web Application Framework that decides if you can do this and if
-            so how. For example, in Struts 2 you can do this like this:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;@s.include value=&quot;/WEB-INF/just-an-example.jspf&quot; /&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>If the FreeMarker support of the Web Application Framework
-            is based on
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.ext.servlet.FreemarkerServlet</code>, then
-            you can also do this (since FreeMarker 2.3.15):</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;@include_page path=&quot;/WEB-INF/just-an-example.jspf&quot; /&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>but if the Web Application Framework provides its own
-            solution, then you may prefer that, after all it may does
-            something special.</p>
-
-            <p>For more information about <code class="inline-code">include_page</code>
-            <a href="pgui_misc_servlet.html#pgui_misc_servlet_include">read
-            this...</a></p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_parameter_unwrapping">
-    13.&nbsp; 
-            How can I get the parameters to my
-            plain-Java-method/<code class="inline-code">TemplateMethodModelEx</code>/<code class="inline-code">TemplateTransformModel</code>/<code class="inline-code">TemplateDirectiveModel</code>
-            implementation as plain
-            <code class="inline-code">java.lang.*</code>/<code class="inline-code">java.util.*</code>
-            objects?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Unfortunately, there is no simple general-purpose solution
-            for this problem. The problem is that FreeMarker object wrapping
-            is very flexible, which is good when you access variables from
-            templates, but makes unwrapping on the Java side a tricky
-            question. For example, it is possible to wrap a
-            non-<code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code> object as
-            <code class="inline-code">TemplateHashModel</code> (FTL hash variable). But
-            then, it can&#39;t be unwrapped to <code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code>,
-            since there is no wrapped <code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code> around
-            at all.</p>
-
-            <p>So what to do then? Basically there are two cases:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Directives and methods that are written for presentation
-                purposes (like kind of "tools" for helping
-                FreeMarker templates) should declare their arguments as
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateModel</code>-s and the more specific sub
-                interfaces of that. After all, the object wrapping is about
-                transforming the data-model to something that serves the
-                purpose of the presentation layer, and these methods are part
-                of the presentation layer. If you still need a plain Java type
-                there, you may turn to the
-                <code class="inline-code">ObjectWrapperAndUnwrapper</code> interface of the
-                current <code class="inline-code">ObjectWrapper</code> (can be get with
-                <code class="inline-code">Environment.getObjectWrapper()</code>).</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Methods that are not for presentation related tasks (but
-                for business logic and like) should be implemented as plain
-                Java methods, and should not use any FreeMarker specific
-                classes at all, since according the MVC paradigm they must be
-                independent of the presentation technology (FreeMarker). If
-                such a method is called from a template, then it is the
-                responsibility of the <a href="pgui_datamodel_objectWrapper.html">object wrapper</a>
-                to ensure the conversion of the arguments to the proper type.
-                If you use the <a href="pgui_datamodel_objectWrapper.html#pgui_datamodel_defaultObjectWrapper"><code>DefaultObjectWrapper</code></a>
-                or the <a href="pgui_misc_beanwrapper.html"><code>BeansWrapper</code></a>
-                then this will happen automatically. For
-                <code class="inline-code">DefaultObjectWrapper</code>, this mechanism works
-                much better, if you <a href="pgui_datamodel_objectWrapper.html#topic.defaultObjectWrapperIcI">set its
-                <code>incompatibleImprovements</code> to
-                2.3.22</a>.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_nonstring_keys">
-    14.&nbsp; 
-            Why I can&#39;t use non-string key in the
-            <code class="inline-code">myMap[myKey]</code> expression? And what to do
-            now?
-
-            
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>The "hash" type of the FreeMarker Template
-            Language (FTL) is not the same as Java&#39;s <code class="inline-code">Map</code>.
-            FTL&#39;s hash is an associative array too, but it uses string keys
-            exclusively. This is because it was introduced for sub variables
-            (as <code class="inline-code">password</code> in
-            <code class="inline-code">user.password</code>, which is the same as
-            <code class="inline-code">user[&quot;password&quot;]</code>), and variable names are
-            strings.</p>
-
-            <p>If you only need to list the key-value pairs of a
-            <code class="inline-code">Map</code>, you can just write something like
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;#list myMap as k, v&gt;${k}:
-            ${v}&lt;/#list&gt;</code> (see more about <a href="ref_directive_list.html#ref.directive.list">the <code>list directive</code>
-            here</a>). This enumerates the <code class="inline-code">Map</code> entries,
-            and supports non-string keys. This requires FreeMarker 2.3.25 or
-            later. (If for some reason you can&#39;t upgrade to 2.3.25, you can
-            use the Java API of <code class="inline-code">Map</code> instead, like
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;#list myMap?api.entrySet() as kvp&gt;${kvp.key}:
-            ${kvp.value}&lt;/#list&gt;</code>.)</p>
-
-            <p>If you need to do more than listing, you will have to turn
-            to the Java API of the <code class="inline-code">Map</code>. You can do it like
-            this: <code class="inline-code">myMap?api.get(nonStringKey)</code>. However, for
-            <code class="inline-code">?api</code> to be enabled, you may need to configure
-            FreeMarker a bit (<a href="ref_builtins_expert.html#ref_buitin_api_and_has_api">see
-            more here</a>).</p>
-
-            <p>Note that as Java&#39;s <code class="inline-code">Map</code> is particular
-            about the exact class of the key, at least for numerical keys
-            calculated inside the templates you will have to cast them to the
-            proper Java type, otherwise the item will not be found. For
-            example if you use <code class="inline-code">Integer</code> keys in a Map, then
-            you should write <code class="inline-code">${myMap.get(numKey?int)}</code>. This
-            is because of FTL&#39;s deliberately simplified type system has only a
-            single numerical type, while Java distinguishes a lot of numerical
-            types. Note that the casting is not needed when the key value
-            comes directly from the data-model (i.e., you didn&#39;t modified its
-            value with arithmetical calculations in the template), including
-            the case when it&#39;s the return value of a method, and it was of the
-            proper class before wrapping, because then the result of the
-            unwrapping will be of the original type.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_simple_map">
-    15.&nbsp; 
-            When I list the contents of a map (a hash) with
-            <code class="inline-code">?keys</code>/<code class="inline-code">?values</code>, I get the
-            <code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code> methods mixed with the real map
-            entries. Of course, I only want to get the map entries.
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Certainly you are using pure <code class="inline-code">BeansWrapper</code>
-            as your object wrapper (instead of the default,
-            <code class="inline-code">DefaultObjectWrapper</code>), or a custom subclass of
-            it, and the <code class="inline-code">simpleMapWrapper</code> property of that
-            is left to <code class="inline-code">false</code>. Unfortunately, that&#39;s the
-            default of <code class="inline-code">BeansWrapper</code> (for backward
-            compatibility), so you have to explicitly set it to
-            <code class="inline-code">true</code> where you instantiate it. Also, at least
-            since 2.3.22, applications should just use
-            <code class="inline-code">DefaultObjectWrapper</code> (with <a href="pgui_datamodel_objectWrapper.html#topic.defaultObjectWrapperIcI">its
-            <code>incompatibleImprovements</code> set to at least
-            2.3.22</a> - that&#39;s especially important if you are switching
-            from pure <code class="inline-code">BeansWrapper</code>), which never had this
-            problem.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_modify_seq_and_map">
-    16.&nbsp; 
-            How can I modify sequences (lists) and hashes (maps) in
-            FreeMarker templates?
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>First of all, you may don&#39;t want to modify the
-            sequence/hash, just concatenate (add) two or more of them, which
-            results in a new sequence/hash, rather than modifying an existing
-            one. In this case use the <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">sequence
-            concatenation</a> and <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat">hash concatenation
-            operators</a>. Also, you may use the <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">subsequence
-            operator</a> instead of removing sequence items. However, be
-            aware of the performance implications: these operations are fast,
-            but the hashes/sequences that are the result of many subsequent
-            applications of these operations (i.e., when you use the result of
-            the operation as the input of yet another operation, and so on)
-            will be slow to read.</p>
-
-            <p>Now if you still want to modify sequences/hashes, then read
-            on...</p>
-
-            <p>The FreeMarkes Template Language doesn&#39;t support the
-            modification of sequences/hashes. It&#39;s for displaying already
-            calculated things, not for calculating data. Keep templates
-            simple. But don&#39;t give it up, you will see some advices and tricks
-            bellow.</p>
-
-            <p>The best is if you can divide the work between the
-            data-model builder program and the template so that the template
-            doesn&#39;t need to modify sequences/hashes. Maybe if you rethink your
-            data-model, you will realize this is possible. But, seldom there
-            are cases where you need to modify sequences/hashes for some
-            complex but purely presentation related algorithms. It seldom
-            happens, so think twice whether that calculation (or parts of it)
-            rather belongs to the data-model domain than to the presentation
-            domain. Let&#39;s assume you are sure it belongs to the presentation
-            domain. For example, you want to display a keyword index on some
-            very smart way, whose algorithm need you to create and write some
-            sequence variables. Then you should do something like this (ugly
-            situations has ugly solutions...):</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign caculatedResults =
-    &#39;com.example.foo.SmartKeywordIndexHelper&#39;?new().calculate(keywords)&gt;
-&lt;#-- some simple algorithms comes here, like: --&gt;
-&lt;ul&gt;
-  &lt;#list caculatedResults as kw&gt;
-    &lt;li&gt;&lt;a href=&quot;${kw.link}&quot;&gt;${kw.word}&lt;/a&gt;
-  &lt;/#list&gt;
-&lt;/ul&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>That is, you move out the complex part of the presentation
-            task from the template into Java code. Note that it doesn&#39;t affect
-            the data-model, so the presentation is still kept separated from
-            other the other application logic. Of course the drawback is that
-            for this the template author will need the help of a Java
-            programmer, but for complex algorithms that&#39;s probably needed
-            anyway.</p>
-
-            <p>Now, if you still say you need to modify sequences/hashes
-            directly with the FreeMarker template, here are some solutions,
-            but please read the warning after them:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>You can access the Java API of a
-                <code class="inline-code">java.util.Map</code> with the help of the
-                <code class="inline-code">api</code> built-in, like
-                <code class="inline-code">myMap?api.put(11, &quot;eleven&quot;)</code>. You will need
-                to get a <code class="inline-code">Map</code> from somewhere though (an FTL
-                hash literal like <code class="inline-code">{}</code> won&#39;t suffice, as it&#39;s
-                read only and doesn&#39;t support <code class="inline-code">api</code> either).
-                For example, you could expose a Java method or
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateMethodModelEx</code> to the template that
-                returns a <code class="inline-code">new LinkeHashMap()</code>, so you can do
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign myMap =
-                utils.newLinkedHashMap()&gt;</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>You can write a <code class="inline-code">TemplateMethodModelEx</code>
-                and <code class="inline-code">TemplateDirectiveModel</code> implementation
-                that can modify certain types of sequences/hashes. Just
-                certain types, because
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateSequenceModel</code> and
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateHashModel</code> doesn&#39;t have methods for
-                modification, so you will need the sequence or hash to
-                implement some additional methods. An example of this solution
-                can be seen in FMPP. It allows you to do things like this
-                (<code class="inline-code">pp</code> stores the services provided by FMPP
-                for templates):</p>
-
-                
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign a = pp.newWritableSequence()&gt;
-&lt;@pp.add seq=a value=&quot;red&quot; /&gt;</pre></div>
-
-                <p>The <code class="inline-code">pp.add</code> directive works only with
-                sequences that were created with
-                <code class="inline-code">pp.newWritableSequence()</code>. So for example
-                the template author can&#39;t modify a sequence that comes from
-                the data-model with this.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>A sequence can have some methods/directives if you use a
-                customized wrapper (so you can write something like
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;@myList.append foo /&gt;</code>).</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>But beware, these solutions have a problem: The <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">sequence
-            concatenation</a>, <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">sequence slice</a>
-            operator (like <code class="inline-code">seq[5..10]</code>) and
-            <code class="inline-code">?reverse</code> do not copy the original sequence,
-            just wraps it (for efficiency), so the resulting sequence will
-            change if the original sequence is changed later (an abnormal
-            aliasing effect). The same problem exists with the result of <a href="dgui_template_exp.html#dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat">hash concatenation</a>;
-            it just wraps the two hashes, so the resulting hash will magically
-            change if you modify the hashes you have added earlier. As a
-            work-around, after you did the above problematic operations,
-            either be sure you will not modify the objects that were used as
-            input, or create a copy of the result with a method provided by
-            the solution described in above two points (e.g. in FMPP you could
-            do <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign b =
-            pp.newWritableSequence(a[5..10])&gt;</code> and
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign c = pp.newWritableHash(hashA +
-            hashB)&gt;</code>). Of course this is easy to miss... so again,
-            rather try to build the data-model so you will not need to modify
-            collections, or use a presentation task helper class as was shown
-            earlier.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_null">
-    17.&nbsp; 
-            What about <code class="inline-code">null</code> and the FreeMarker
-            template language? 
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>The FreeMarker template language doesn&#39;t know the Java
-            language <code class="inline-code">null</code> at all. It doesn&#39;t have
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> keyword, and it can&#39;t test if something is
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> or not. When it technically faces with a
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code>, it treats it exactly as a missing
-            variable. For example, both if <code class="inline-code">x</code> is
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> in the data-model and if it&#39;s not present
-            at all, <code class="inline-code">${x!&#39;missing&#39;}</code> will print
-            "missing", you can&#39;t tell the difference. Also, if
-            for example you want to test if a Java method has returned
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code>, just write something like
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if foo.bar()??&gt;</code>.</p>
-
-            <p>You may interested in the rationale behind this. From the
-            viewpoint of the presentation layer a <code class="inline-code">null</code> and
-            non-existent thing is almost always the same. The difference
-            between this two is usually just a technical detail, which is
-            rather the result of implementation details than of the
-            application logic. That you can&#39;t compare something to
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> (unlike in Java); it doesn&#39;t make sense to
-            compare something with <code class="inline-code">null</code> in a template,
-            since the template language doesn&#39;t do identity comparison (like
-            the Java <code class="inline-code">==</code> operator when you compare two
-            objects) but the more common sense value comparison (like Java&#39;s
-            <code class="inline-code">Object.equals(Object)</code>; that doesn&#39;t work with
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> either). And how could FreeMarker tell if
-            something concrete equals with something that is missing and thus
-            unknown? Or if two missing (unknown) things are equal? Of course
-            these questions can&#39;t be answered.</p>
-
-            <p>There is at least one problem with this
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code>-unaware approach. When you call a Java
-            method from a template, you may want to pass a
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> value as argument (since the method was
-            designed to be used in Java language, where the concept of
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> is known). In this case you can exploit a
-            bug of FreeMarker (that we will not fix until we provide a correct
-            solution for passing <code class="inline-code">null</code> values to a method):
-            if you specify a missing variable as the argument, then it will
-            not cause an error, but a <code class="inline-code">null</code> will be passed
-            to the method instead. Like <code class="inline-code">foo.bar(nullArg)</code>
-            will call the <code class="inline-code">bar</code> method with
-            <code class="inline-code">null</code> as argument, assuming that there is no
-            variable exists with "nullArg" name.</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_capture">
-    18.&nbsp; 
-            How can I use the output of a directive (macro) in
-            expressions (as a parameter to another directive)?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>Capture the output into a variable with the
-            <code class="inline-code">assign</code> or <code class="inline-code">local</code> directive.
-            For example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign capturedOutput&gt;&lt;@outputSomething /&gt;&lt;/#assign&gt;
-&lt;@otherDirective someParam=capturedOutput /&gt;</pre></div>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_questionmark">
-    19.&nbsp; 
-            Why do I have "?"-s in the output instead of
-            character <em>X</em>?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>This is because the character that you want to print can&#39;t
-            be represented with the <a href="gloss.html#gloss.charset">charset</a> (encoding) used for the
-            output stream, so the Java platform (not FreeMarker) substitutes
-            the problematic character with question mark. In general you
-            should use the same charset for the output as for the template
-            (use the <code class="inline-code">getEncoding()</code> method of the template
-            object), or which is even safer, you should always use UTF-8
-            charset for the output. The charset used for the output stream is
-            not decided by FreeMarker, but by you, when you create the
-            <code class="inline-code">Writer</code> that you pass to the
-            <code class="inline-code">process</code> method of the template.</p>
-
-            <p>Example: Here I use UTF-8 charset in a servlet:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-unspecified">...
-resp.setContentType(&quot;text/html; charset=utf-8&quot;);
-Writer out = resp.getWriter();
-...
-t.process(root, out);
-...</pre></div>
-
-            <p>Note that the question marks (or other substitution
-            characters) may be produced outside FreeMarker, in which case the
-            above obviously will not help. For example a bad/missconfigured
-            database connection or JDBC driver may bring the text already with
-            substitution characters in it. HTML forms are another potential
-            source of encoding problems. It&#39;s a good idea to print the
-            numerical code of the characters of the string on various places,
-            to see where the problem occurs first.</p>
-
-            <p>You can read more about charsets and FreeMarker <a href="pgui_misc_charset.html">here...</a></p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_retrieve_calculated_values">
-    20.&nbsp; 
-            How to retrieve values calculated in templates after
-            template execution done?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>First of all, be sure your application is designed well:
-            templates should display data, and almost never calculate data. If
-            you are still sure you want to do it, read on...</p>
-
-            <p>When you use <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign x = &quot;foo&quot;&gt;</code>,
-            then you do not actually modify the data-model (since that is
-            read-only, see: <a href="pgui_misc_multithreading.html">Programmer&#39;s Guide/Miscellaneous/Multithreading</a>), but
-            create the <code class="inline-code">x</code> variable in the runtime <a href="gloss.html#gloss.environment">environment</a> of the processing
-            (see <a href="pgui_misc_var.html">Programmer&#39;s Guide/Miscellaneous/Variables, scopes</a>). The problem is that this
-            runtime environment will be discarded when
-            <code class="inline-code">Template.process</code> returns, as it was created for
-            a single <code class="inline-code">Template.process</code> call:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-unspecified">// internally an Environment will be created, and then discarded
-myTemplate.process(root, out);</pre></div>
-
-            <p>To prevent this, you can do the below, which is equivalent
-            with the above, except that you have chance to return the
-            variables created in the template:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-unspecified">Environment env = myTemplate.createProcessingEnvironment(root, out);
-env.process();  // process the template
-TemplateModel x = env.getVariable(&quot;x&quot;);  // get variable x</pre></div>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_assign_to_dynamic_variable_name">
-    21.&nbsp; 
-            How to assign to (or <code class="inline-code">#import</code> into) a
-            dynamically constructed variable name (like to name that&#39;s stored
-            in another variable)?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>If you really can&#39;t avoid doing that (you should, as it&#39;s
-            confusing), you can solve that with constructing the appropriate
-            FTL source code dynamically in a string, then using the <a href="ref_builtins_expert.html#ref_builtin_interpret"><code>interpret</code>
-            built-in</a>. For example, if you want to assign to the
-            variable whose name is stored in the <code class="inline-code">varName</code>
-            variable:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;@&quot;&lt;#assign ${varName}=&#39;example&#39;&gt;&quot;?interpret /&gt;</pre></div>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_template_uploading_security">
-    22.&nbsp; 
-            
-
-            Can I allow users to upload templates and what are the
-            security implications?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>In general you shouldn&#39;t allow that, unless those users are
-            system administrators or other trusted personnel. Consider
-            templates as part of the source code just like
-            <code class="inline-code">*.java</code> files are. If you still want to allow
-            users to upload templates, here are what to consider:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks: It&#39;s trivial to create
-                templates that run practically forever (with a loop), or
-                exhaust memory (by concatenating to a string in a loop).
-                FreeMarker can&#39;t enforce CPU or memory usage limits, so this
-                is something that has no solution on the
-                FreeMarker-level.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Data-model and wrapping
-                (<code class="inline-code">Configuration.setObjectWrapper</code>): The
-                data-model might gives access to the public Java API of some
-                objects that you have put into the data-model. By default, for
-                objects that aren&#39;t instances of a the bunch of specially
-                handler types (<code class="inline-code">String</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">Number</code>, <code class="inline-code">Boolean</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">Date</code>, <code class="inline-code">Map</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">List</code>, array, and a few others), their
-                public Java API will be exposed. To avoid that, you have to
-                construct the data-model so that it only exposes the things
-                that are really necessary for the template. For that, you may
-                want to use <code class="inline-code">SimpleObjectWrapper</code> (via
-                <code class="inline-code">Configuration.setObjectWrapper</code> or the
-                <code class="inline-code">object_wrapper</code> setting) and then create the
-                data-model purely from <code class="inline-code">Map</code>-s,
-                <code class="inline-code">List</code>-s, <code class="inline-code">Array</code>-s,
-                <code class="inline-code">String</code>-s, <code class="inline-code">Number</code>-s,
-                <code class="inline-code">Boolean</code>-s and <code class="inline-code">Date</code>-s.
-                Or, you can implement your own extremely restrictive
-                <code class="inline-code">ObjectWrapper</code>, which for example could
-                expose your POJO-s safely.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Template-loader
-                (<code class="inline-code">Configuration.setTemplateLoader</code>):
-                Templates may load other templates by name (by path), like
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;#include &quot;../secret.txt&quot;&gt;</code>. To avoid
-                loading sensitive data, you have to use a
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateLoader</code> that double-checks that the
-                file to load is something that should be exposed. FreeMarker
-                tries to prevent the loading of files outside the template
-                root directory regardless of template loader, but depending on
-                the underlying storage mechanism, exploits may exist that
-                FreeMarker can&#39;t consider (like, just as an example,
-                <code class="inline-code">~</code> jumps to the current user&#39;s home
-                directory). Note that
-                <code class="inline-code">freemarker.cache.FileTemplateLoader</code> checks
-                the canonical paths, so that&#39;s maybe a good candidate for this
-                task, yet, adding a file extension check (file must be
-                <code class="inline-code">*.ftl</code>) is maybe a good idea.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>The <code class="inline-code">new</code> built-in
-                (<code class="inline-code">Configuration.setNewBuiltinClassResolver</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">Environment.setNewBuiltinClassResolver</code>):
-                It&#39;s used in templates like
-                <code class="inline-code">&quot;com.example.SomeClass&quot;?new()</code>, and is
-                important for FTL libraries that are partially implemented in
-                Java, but shouldn&#39;t be needed in normal templates. While
-                <code class="inline-code">new</code> will not instantiate classes that are
-                not <code class="inline-code">TemplateModel</code>-s, FreeMarker contains a
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateModel</code> class that can be used to
-                create arbitrary Java objects. Other &quot;dangerous&quot;
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateModel</code>-s can exist in you
-                class-path. Plus, even if a class doesn&#39;t implement
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateModel</code>, its static initialization
-                will be run. To avoid these, you should use a
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateClassResolver</code> that restricts the
-                accessible classes (possibly based on which template asks for
-                them), such as
-                <code class="inline-code">TemplateClassResolver.ALLOWS_NOTHING_RESOLVER</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_implement_function_or_macro_in_java">
-    23.&nbsp; 
-            How to implement a function or macro in Java Language
-            instead of in the template language?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>It&#39;s not possible (yet), but something very similar is
-            possible if you write a class that implements
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.template.TemplateMethodModelEx</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.template.TemplateDirectiveModel</code>
-            respectively, and then where you were write <code class="inline-code">&lt;#function
-            my
-            <em class="code-color">...</em>&gt;<em class="code-color">...</em>&lt;/#function&gt;</code>
-            or <code class="inline-code">&lt;#macro my
-            <em class="code-color">...</em>&gt;<em class="code-color">...</em>&lt;/#macro&gt;</code>
-            you write <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign my = &quot;your.package.YourClass
-            &quot;?</code><a href="ref_builtins_expert.html#ref_builtin_new"><code>new</code></a><code class="inline-code">()&gt;</code>
-            instead. Note that using the <code class="inline-code">assign</code> directive
-            for this works because functions (and methods) and macros are just
-            plain variables in FreeMarker. (For the same reason you could also
-            put <code class="inline-code">TemplateMethodModelEx</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">TemplateDirectiveModel</code> instances into the
-            data-model before calling the template, or into the shared
-            variable map (see:
-            <code class="inline-code">freemarker.template.Configuration.setSharedVariable(String,
-            TemplateModel)</code>) when you initialize the
-            application.)</p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_nice_error_page">
-    24.&nbsp; 
-            <a name="misc.faq.niceErrorPage"></a> In my Servlet
-            based application, how do I show a nice error page instead of a
-            stack trace when error occurs during template processing?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>First of all, use <code class="inline-code">RETHROW_HANDLER</code> instead
-            of the default <code class="inline-code">DEBUG_HANDLER</code> (for more
-            information about template exception handlers <a href="pgui_config_errorhandling.html">read this...</a>). Now
-            FreeMarker will not print anything to the output when an error
-            occurs, so the control is in your hands. After you have caught the
-            exception of
-            <code class="inline-code">Template.process(<em class="code-color">...</em>)</code>
-            basically you can follow two strategies:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Call <code class="inline-code">httpResp.isCommitted()</code>, and if
-                that returns <code class="inline-code">false</code>, then you call
-                <code class="inline-code">httpResp.reset()</code> and print a "nice
-                error page" for the visitor. If the return value was
-                <code class="inline-code">true</code>, then try to finish the page be
-                printing something that makes clear for the visitor that the
-                page generation was abruptly interrupted because of an error
-                on the Web server. You may have to print a lot of redundant
-                HTML end-tags and set colors and font size to ensure that the
-                error message will be actually readable in the browser window
-                (check the source code of the
-                <code class="inline-code">HTML_DEBUG_HANDLER</code> in
-                <code class="inline-code">src\freemarker\template\TemplateException.java</code>
-                to see an example).</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Use full page buffering. This means that the
-                <code class="inline-code">Writer</code> doesn&#39;t send the output to the
-                client progressively, but buffers the whole page in the
-                memory. Since you provide the <code class="inline-code">Writer</code>
-                instance for the
-                <code class="inline-code">Template.process(<em class="code-color">...</em>)</code>
-                method, this is your responsibility, FreeMarker has nothing to
-                do with it. For example, you may use a
-                <code class="inline-code">StringWriter</code>, and if
-                <code class="inline-code">Template.process(<em class="code-color">...</em>)</code>
-                returns by throwing an exception, then ignore the content
-                accumulated by the <code class="inline-code">StringWriter</code>, and send
-                an error page instead, otherwise you print the content of
-                <code class="inline-code">StringWriter</code> to the output. With this
-                method you surely don&#39;t have to deal with partially sent
-                pages, but it can have negative performance implications
-                depending on the characteristic of the pages (for example, the
-                user will experience more response delay for a long page that
-                is generated slowly, also the server will consume more RAM).
-                Note that using a <code class="inline-code">StringWriter</code> is surely
-                not the most efficient solution, as it often reallocates its
-                buffer as the accumulated content grows.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-
-        
-          
-  <dt class="question" id="faq_html_editor_mangles">
-    25.&nbsp; 
-            I&#39;m using a visual HTML editor that mangles template tags.
-            Will you change the template language syntax to accommodate my
-            editor?
-          
-  </dt>
-
-
-          <dd class="answer">
-
-            <p>We won&#39;t change the standard version, because a lot of
-            templates depend on it.</p>
-
-            <p>Our view is that the editors that break template code are
-            themselves broken. A good editor should ignore, not mangle, what
-            it doesn&#39;t understand.</p>
-
-            <p>You maybe interested in that starting from FreeMarker 2.3.4
-            you can use <code class="inline-code">[</code> and <code class="inline-code">]</code> instead
-            of <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code>. For more
-            details <a href="dgui_misc_alternativesyntax.html">read
-            this...</a></p>
-          </dd>
-
-        
-        </dl>
-
-  </div>
-<div class="bottom-pagers-wrapper"><div class="pagers bottom"><a class="paging-arrow previous" href="app.html"><span>Previous</span></a><a class="paging-arrow next" href="app_versions.html"><span>Next</span></a></div></div></div></div>      </div>
-    </div>
-<div class="site-footer"><div class="site-width"><div class="footer-top"><div class="col-left sitemap"><div class="column"><h3 class="column-header">Overview</h3><ul><li><a href="http://freemarker.org/">What is FreeMarker?</a></li><li><a href="http://freemarker.org/freemarkerdownload.html">Download</a></li><li><a href="app_versions.html">Version history</a></li><li><a href="http://freemarker.org/history.html">About us</a></li><li><a itemprop="license" href="app_license.html">License</a></li></ul></div><div class="column"><h3 class="column-header">Handy stuff</h3><ul><li><a href="http://freemarker-online.kenshoo.com/">Try template online</a></li><li><a href="dgui_template_exp.html#exp_cheatsheet">Expressions cheatsheet</a></li><li><a href="ref_directive_alphaidx.html">#directives</a></li><li><a href="ref_builtins_alphaidx.html">?built_ins</a></li><li><a href="ref_specvar.html">.special_vars</a></li></ul></div><div class="column"><h3 class="column-header">Community</h3><ul><li><a href
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-Last generated:
-<time itemprop="dateModified" datetime="2017-03-13T10:55:28Z" title="Monday, March 13, 2017 10:55:28 AM GMT">2017-03-13 10:55:28 GMT</time>, for Freemarker 2.3.26 </p>
-<p class="copyright">
-© <span itemprop="copyrightYear">1999</span>–2017
-<a itemtype="http://schema.org/Organization" itemprop="copyrightHolder

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