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From ddek...@apache.org
Subject [40/51] [partial] incubator-freemarker-site git commit: 2.3.26-voting docs, removed nightly
Date Wed, 15 Mar 2017 21:19:37 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker-site/blob/a4004324/builds/2.3.26-nightly/dgui_template_exp.html
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diff --git a/builds/2.3.26-nightly/dgui_template_exp.html b/builds/2.3.26-nightly/dgui_template_exp.html
deleted file mode 100644
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--- a/builds/2.3.26-nightly/dgui_template_exp.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,2331 +0,0 @@
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-<div class="col-right"><div class="page-content"><div class="page-title"><div class="pagers top"><a class="paging-arrow previous" href="dgui_template_directives.html"><span>Previous</span></a><a class="paging-arrow next" href="dgui_template_valueinsertion.html"><span>Next</span></a></div><div class="title-wrapper">
-<h1 class="content-header header-section1" id="dgui_template_exp" itemprop="headline">Expressions</h1>
-</div></div><div class="page-menu">
-<div class="page-menu-title">Page Contents</div>
-<ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#exp_cheatsheet" data-menu-target="exp_cheatsheet">Quick overview (cheat sheet)</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct">Specify values directly</a><ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_string" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_string">Strings</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_number" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_number">Numbers</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_boolean" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_boolean">Booleans</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_seuqence" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_seuqence">Sequences</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_ranges" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_ranges">Ranges</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#d
 gui_template_exp_direct_hash" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_direct_hash">Hashes</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_var" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_var">Retrieving variables</a><ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel">Top-level variables</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_var_hash" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_var_hash">Retrieving data from a hash</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_var_sequence" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_var_sequence">Retrieving data from a sequence</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_var_special" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_var_special">Special variables</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_stringop">String operations</a><ul><li><a class="page-men
 u-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation">Interpolation and concatenation</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_get_character" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_get_character">Getting a character</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_slice" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_stringop_slice">String slicing (substrings)</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_sequenceop">Sequence operations</a><ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">Concatenation</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">Sequence slicing</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_hashop" data-menu-ta
 rget="dgui_template_exp_hashop">Hash operations</a><ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat">Concatenation</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_arit" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_arit">Arithmetical calculations</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_comparison" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_comparison">Comparison</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_logicalop" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_logicalop">Logical operations</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_builtin" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_builtin">Built-ins</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_methodcall" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_methodcall">Method call</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_missing" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_missing">Handling miss
 ing values</a><ul><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_missing_default" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_missing_default">Default value operator</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_missing_test" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_missing_test">Missing value test operator</a></li></ul></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_assignment" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_assignment">Assignment Operators</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_parentheses" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_parentheses">Parentheses</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_whitespace" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_whitespace">White-space in expressions</a></li><li><a class="page-menu-link" href="#dgui_template_exp_precedence" data-menu-target="dgui_template_exp_precedence">Operator precedence</a></li></ul> </div><p>When you supply values for interpolations or directive
-        parameters you can use variables or more complex expressions. For
-        example, if x is the number 8 and y is 5, the value of <code class="inline-code">(x +
-        y)/2</code> resolves to the numerical value 6.5.</p><p>Before we go into details, let&#39;s see some concrete
-        examples:</p><ul>
-          <li>
-            <p>When you supply value for interpolations: The usage of
-            interpolations is
-            <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">expression</em>}</code> where
-            expression gives the value you want to insert into the output as
-            text. So <code class="inline-code">${(5 + 8)/2}</code> prints "6.5"
-            to the output (or possibly "6,5" if the language of
-            your output is not US English).</p>
-          </li>
-
-          <li>
-            <p>When you supply a value for the directive parameter: You
-            have already seen the <code class="inline-code">if</code> directive in the
-            Getting Started section. The syntax of this directive is:
-            <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if
-            <em class="code-color">expression</em>&gt;<em class="code-color">...</em>&lt;/#if&gt;</code>.
-            The expression here must evaluate to a boolean value. For example
-            in <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if 2 &lt; 3&gt;</code> the <code class="inline-code">2 &lt;
-            3</code> (2 is less than 3) is an expression which evaluates to
-            <code class="inline-code">true</code>.</p>
-          </li>
-        </ul>
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="exp_cheatsheet">Quick overview (cheat sheet)</h2>
-
-
-          <p>This is a reminder for those of you who already know
-          FreeMarker or are just experienced programmers:</p>
-
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct">Specify values
-              directly</a>
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_string">Strings</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">&quot;Foo&quot;</code> or <code class="inline-code">&#39;Foo&#39;</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">&quot;It&#39;s \&quot;quoted\&quot;&quot;</code> or <code class="inline-code">&#39;It\&#39;s
-                  &quot;quoted&quot;&#39;</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">r&quot;C:\raw\string&quot;</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_number">Numbers</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">123.45</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_boolean">Booleans</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">true</code>, <code class="inline-code">false</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_seuqence">Sequences</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">[&quot;foo&quot;, &quot;bar&quot;, 123.45]</code>; Ranges:
-                  <code class="inline-code">0..9</code>, <code class="inline-code">0..&lt;10</code> (or
-                  <code class="inline-code">0..!10</code>), <code class="inline-code">0..</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_hash">Hashes</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">{&quot;name&quot;:&quot;green mouse&quot;,
-                  &quot;price&quot;:150}</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var">Retrieving
-              variables</a>
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel">Top-level
-                  variables</a>: <code class="inline-code">user</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_hash">Retrieving
-                  data from a hash</a>: <code class="inline-code">user.name</code>,
-                  <code class="inline-code">user[&quot;name&quot;]</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_sequence">Retrieving data
-                  from a sequence</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">products[5]</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_special">Special
-                  variable</a>: <code class="inline-code">.main</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop">String
-              operations</a>
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation">Interpolation
-                  and concatenation</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">&quot;Hello ${user}!&quot;</code> (or <code class="inline-code">&quot;Hello
-                  &quot; + user + &quot;!&quot;</code>)
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_get_character">Getting a
-                  character</a>: <code class="inline-code">name[0]</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_slice">String
-                  slice:</a> Inclusive end: <code class="inline-code">name[0..4]</code>,
-                  Exclusive end: <code class="inline-code">name[0..&lt;5]</code>,
-                  Length-based (lenient): <code class="inline-code">name[0..*5]</code>,
-                  Remove starting: <code class="inline-code">name[5..]</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop">Sequence
-              operations</a>
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">Concatenation</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">users + [&quot;guest&quot;]</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">Sequence
-                  slice</a>: Inclusive end:
-                  <code class="inline-code">products[20..29]</code>, Exclusive end:
-                  <code class="inline-code">products[20..&lt;30]</code>, Length-based
-                  (lenient): <code class="inline-code">products[20..*10]</code>, Remove
-                  starting: <code class="inline-code">products[20..]</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_hashop">Hash
-              operations</a>
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat">Concatenation</a>:
-                  <code class="inline-code">passwords + { &quot;joe&quot;: &quot;secret42&quot; }</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_arit">Arithmetical
-              calculations</a>: <code class="inline-code">(x * 1.5 + 10) / 2 - y %
-              100</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_comparison">Comparison</a>:
-              <code class="inline-code">x == y</code>, <code class="inline-code">x != y</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">x &lt; y</code>, <code class="inline-code">x &gt; y</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">x &gt;= y</code>, <code class="inline-code">x &lt;= y</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">x lt y</code>, <code class="inline-code">x lte y</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">x gt y</code>, <code class="inline-code">x gte y</code>,
-              ...etc.
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_logicalop">Logical
-              operations</a>: <code class="inline-code">!registered &amp;&amp; (firstVisit
-              || fromEurope)</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_builtin">Built-ins</a>:
-              <code class="inline-code">name?upper_case</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">path?ensure_starts_with(&#39;/&#39;)</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_methodcall">Method
-              call</a>: <code class="inline-code">repeat(&quot;What&quot;, 3)</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_missing">Missing value
-              handler operators</a>:
-
-              <ul>
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_missing_default">Default
-                  value</a>: <code class="inline-code">name!&quot;unknown&quot;</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">(user.name)!&quot;unknown&quot;</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">name!</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">(user.name)!</code>
-                </li>
-
-                <li>
-                  <a href="#dgui_template_exp_missing_test">Missing
-                  value test</a>: <code class="inline-code">name??</code> or
-                  <code class="inline-code">(user.name)??</code>
-                </li>
-              </ul>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              <a href="#dgui_template_exp_assignment">Assignment
-              operators</a>: <code class="inline-code">=</code>, <code class="inline-code">+=</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">-=</code>, <code class="inline-code">*=</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">/=</code>, <code class="inline-code">%=</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">++</code>, <code class="inline-code">--</code>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-
-          <p>See also: <a href="#dgui_template_exp_precedence">Operator
-          precedence</a></p>
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_direct">Specify values directly</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          <p>Often you want to specify a value directly and not as a result
-          of some calculations.</p>
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_string">Strings</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            <p>To specify a string value directly you give the text in
-            quotation marks, e.g.: <code class="inline-code">&quot;some text&quot;</code> or in
-            apostrophe-quote, e.g. <code class="inline-code">&#39;some text&#39;</code>. The two
-            forms are equivalent. If the text itself contains the character
-            used for the quoting (either <code class="inline-code">&quot;</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">&#39;</code>) or backslashes, you have to precede them
-            with a backslash; this is called escaping. You can type any other
-            character, including <a href="gloss.html#gloss.lineBreak">line
-            breaks</a>, in the text directly. Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${&quot;It&#39;s \&quot;quoted\&quot; and
-this is a backslash: \\&quot;}
-
-${&#39;It\&#39;s &quot;quoted&quot; and
-this is a backslash: \\&#39;}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">It&#39;s &quot;quoted&quot; and
-this is a backslash: \
-
-It&#39;s &quot;quoted&quot; and
-this is a backslash: \</pre></div>
-
-              <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-              <p>Of course, you could simply type the above text into the
-              template, without using
-              <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code>. But we do
-              it here just for the sake of example, to demonstrate
-              expressions.</p>
-              </div>
-
-
-            <a name="topic.escapeSequence"></a>
-
-            
-
-            <p>This is the list of all supported escape sequences. All
-            other usage of backlash in string literals is an error and any
-            attempt to use the template will fail.</p>
-
-              <div class="table-responsive">
-    <table class="table">
-
-              <thead>
-                <tr>
-                  <th>Escape sequence</th>
-
-
-                  <th>Meaning</th>
-
-                </tr>
-
-              </thead>
-
-
-              <tbody>
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\&quot;</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Quotation mark (u0022)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\&#39;</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Apostrophe (a.k.a. apostrophe-quote) (u0027)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\{</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Opening curly brace: <code class="inline-code">{</code></td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\\</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Back slash (u005C)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\n</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Line feed (u000A)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\r</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Carriage return (u000D)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\t</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Horizontal tabulation (a.k.a. tab) (u0009)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\b</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Backspace (u0008)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\f</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Form feed (u000C)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\l</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Less-than sign: <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code></td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\g</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Greater-than sign: <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code></td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\a</code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Ampersand: <code class="inline-code">&amp;</code></td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-
-                <tr>
-                  <td><code class="inline-code">\x<em class="code-color">Code</em></code></td>
-
-
-                  <td>Character given with its hexadecimal <a href="gloss.html#gloss.unicode">Unicode</a> code (<a href="gloss.html#gloss.UCS">UCS</a> code)</td>
-
-                </tr>
-
-              </tbody>
-
-                </table>
-  </div>
-
-
-            <p>The <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">Code</em></code> after
-            the <code class="inline-code">\x</code> is 1 to 4 hexadecimal digits. For
-            example this all put a copyright sign into the string:
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;\xA9 1999-2001&quot;</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;\x0A9 1999-2001&quot;</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;\x00A9 1999-2001&quot;</code>. When the character directly
-            after the last hexadecimal digit can be interpreted as hexadecimal
-            digit, you must use all 4 digits or else FreeMarker will
-            misunderstand you.</p>
-
-            <p>Note that the character sequence <code class="inline-code">${</code> (and
-            <code class="inline-code">#{</code>) has special meaning. It&#39;s used to insert
-            the value of expressions (typically: the value of variables, as in
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;Hello ${user}!&quot;</code>). This will be explained <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation">later</a>.
-            If you want to print <code class="inline-code">${</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">#{</code>, you should either use raw string literals
-            as explained below, or escape the <code class="inline-code">{</code> like in
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;foo $\{bar}&quot;</code>.</p>
-
-            
-
-            <p>A special kind of string literals is the raw string
-            literals. In raw string literals, backslash and
-            <code class="inline-code">${</code> have no special meaning, they are considered
-            as plain characters. To indicate that a string literal is a raw
-            string literal, you have to put an <code class="inline-code">r</code> directly
-            before the opening quotation mark or apostrophe-quote.
-            Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${r&quot;${foo}&quot;}
-${r&quot;C:\foo\bar&quot;}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">${foo}
-C:\foo\bar</pre></div>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_number">Numbers</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            <p>To specify a numerical value directly you type the number
-            without quotation marks. You have to use the dot as your decimal
-            separator and must not use any grouping separator symbols. You can
-            use <code class="inline-code">-</code> or <code class="inline-code">+</code> to indicate the
-            sign (<code class="inline-code">+</code> is redundant). Scientific notation is
-            not yet supported (so <code class="inline-code">1E3</code> is wrong). Also, you
-            cannot omit the 0 before the decimal separator (so
-            <code class="inline-code">.5</code> is wrong).</p>
-
-            <p>Examples of valid number literals: <code class="inline-code">0.08</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">-5.013</code>, <code class="inline-code">8</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">008</code>, <code class="inline-code">11</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">+11</code></p>
-
-            <p>Note that numerical literals like <code class="inline-code">08</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">+8</code>, <code class="inline-code">8.00</code> and
-            <code class="inline-code">8</code> are totally equivalent as they all symbolize
-            the number eight. Thus, <code class="inline-code">${08}</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">${+8}</code>, <code class="inline-code">${8.00}</code> and
-            <code class="inline-code">${8}</code> will all print exactly same.</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_boolean">Booleans</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>To specify a boolean value you write <code class="inline-code">true</code>
-            or <code class="inline-code">false</code>. Don&#39;t use quotation marks.</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_seuqence">Sequences</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>To specify a literal sequence, you list the <a href="dgui_quickstart_datamodel.html#topic.dataModel.subVar">sub variables</a> separated by
-            commas, and put the whole list into square brackets. For
-            example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#list <strong>[&quot;foo&quot;, &quot;bar&quot;, &quot;baz&quot;]</strong> as x&gt;
-${x}
-&lt;/#list&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">foo
-bar
-baz
- </pre></div>
-
-            <p>The items in the list are expressions, so you can do this
-            for example: <code class="inline-code">[2 + 2, [1, 2, 3, 4], &quot;foo&quot;]</code>. Here
-            the first subvariable will be the number 4, the second will be
-            another sequence, and the third subvariable will be the string
-            "foo".</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_ranges">Ranges</h3>
-
-
-            <p>Ranges are just sequences, but they are created by
-            specifying what range of whole numbers they contain, instead of
-            specifying their items one by one. For example,
-            <code class="inline-code">0..&lt;m</code>, assuming the <code class="inline-code">m</code>
-            variable stores 5, will give a sequence that contains <code class="inline-code">[0,
-            1, 2, 3, 4]</code>. Ranges are primarily used for iterating
-            over a range of numbers with <code class="inline-code">&lt;#list
-            <em class="code-color">...</em>&gt;</code> and for <a href="#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">slicing
-            sequences</a> and <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_slice">slicing
-            strings</a>.</p>
-
-            <p>The generic forms of range expressions are (where
-            <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em></code> and
-            <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">end</em></code> can be any
-            expression that evaluates to a number):</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..<em class="code-color">end</em></code>:
-                Range with inclusive end. For example, <code class="inline-code">1..4</code>
-                gives <code class="inline-code">[1, 2, 3, 4]</code>, and
-                <code class="inline-code">4..1</code> gives <code class="inline-code">[4, 3, 2, 1]</code>.
-                Beware, ranges with inclusive end never give an empty
-                sequence, so <code class="inline-code">0..length-1</code> is
-                <em>WRONG</em>, because when length is
-                <code class="inline-code">0</code> it gives <code class="inline-code">[0,
-                -1]</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..&lt;<em class="code-color">end</em></code>
-                or
-                <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..!<em class="code-color">end</em></code>:
-                Range with exclusive end. For example,
-                <code class="inline-code">1..&lt;4</code> gives <code class="inline-code">[1, 2,
-                3]</code>, <code class="inline-code">4..&lt;1</code> gives <code class="inline-code">[4,
-                3, 2]</code>, and <code class="inline-code">1..&lt;1</code> gives
-                <code class="inline-code">[]</code>. Note the last example; the result can
-                be an empty sequence. There&#39;s no difference between
-                <code class="inline-code">..&lt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">..!</code>; the last
-                form is used in applications where using the
-                <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code> character causes problems (for HTML
-                editors and such).</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..*<em class="code-color">length</em></code>:
-                Length limited range. For example, <code class="inline-code">10..*4</code>
-                gives <code class="inline-code">[10, 11, 12, 13]</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">10..*-4</code> gives <code class="inline-code">[10, 9, 8,
-                7]</code>, and <code class="inline-code">10..*0</code> gives
-                <code class="inline-code">[]</code>. When these kind of ranges are used for
-                slicing, the slice will end without error if the end of the
-                sliced sequence or string is reached before the specified
-                range length was reached; see <a href="#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">slicing
-                sequences</a> for more.</p>
-
-                  <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-                  <p>Length limited ranges were introduced in FreeMarker
-                  2.3.21.</p>
-                  </div>
-
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..</code>:
-                Right-unbounded range. This are like length limited ranges
-                with infinite length. For example <code class="inline-code">1..</code> gives
-                <code class="inline-code">[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... ]</code>, up to infinity.
-                Be careful when processing (like listing) such ranges, as
-                processing all items of it it would take forever or until the
-                application runs out of memory and crashes. Just like with
-                length limited ranges, when these kind of ranges are used for
-                slicing, the slice will end when the end of the sliced
-                sequence or string is reached.</p>
-
-                  <div class="callout warning">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Warning!</strong>
-
-                  <p>Right-unbounded ranges before FreeMarker 2.3.21 were
-                  only used for slicing, and behaved like an empty sequence
-                  for other purposes. To activate the new behavior, it&#39;s not
-                  enough to use FreeMarker 2.3.21, the programmer also have to
-                  set the <code class="inline-code">incompatible_improvements</code>
-                  configuration setting to at least 2.3.21.</p>
-                  </div>
-
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>Further notes on ranges:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Range expressions themselves don&#39;t have square brackets,
-                for example, you write <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign myRange =
-                0..&lt;x</code>, NOT <code class="inline-code">&lt;#assign myRange =
-                [0..&lt;x]&gt;</code>. The last would create a sequence
-                that contains an item that&#39;s a range. The square brackets are
-                part of the slicing syntax, like
-                <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">seq</em>[<em class="code-color">myRange</em>]</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>You can write arithmetical expression on the sides of
-                the <code class="inline-code">..</code> without parenthesis, like <code class="inline-code">n
-                + 1 ..&lt; m / 2 - 1</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code">..</code>, <code class="inline-code">..&lt;</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">..!</code> and <code class="inline-code">..*</code> are
-                operators, so you can&#39;t have space inside them. Like
-                <code class="inline-code">n .. &lt;m</code> is WRONG, but <code class="inline-code">n ..&lt;
-                m</code> is good.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>The reported size of right-unbounded ranges is
-                2147483647 (or 0 if
-                <code class="inline-code">incompatible_improvements</code> is less than
-                2.3.21) due to a technical limitation (32 bits). However, when
-                listing them, their actual size is infinite.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>Ranges don&#39;t really store the numbers they consist of,
-                thus for example <code class="inline-code">0..1</code> and
-                <code class="inline-code">0..100000000</code> is equally fast to create and
-                takes the same amount of memory.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_direct_hash">Hashes</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>To specify a hash in a template, you list the key/value
-            pairs separated by commas, and put the list into curly brackets.
-            The key and value within a key/value pair are separated with a
-            colon. Here is an example: <code class="inline-code">{ &quot;name&quot;: &quot;green mouse&quot;,
-            &quot;price&quot;: 150 }</code>. Note that both the names and the values
-            are expressions. The keys must be strings. The values can be if
-            any type.</p>
-          
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_var">Retrieving variables</h2>
-
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel">Top-level variables</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            <p>To access a top-level variable, you simply use the variable
-            name. For example, the expression <code class="inline-code">user</code> will
-            evaluate to the value of variable stored with name
-            "user" in the root. So this will print what you store
-            there:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${user}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>If there is no such top-level variable, then an error will
-            result when FreeMarker tries to evaluate the expression, and it
-            aborts template processing (unless programmers has configured
-            FreeMarker differently).</p>
-
-            <p>In this kind of expression, the variable name can only
-            contain letters (including non-Latin letters), digits (including
-            non-Latin digits), underline (<code class="inline-code">_</code>), dollar
-            (<code class="inline-code">$</code>), at sign (<code class="inline-code">@</code>).
-            Furthermore, the first character can&#39;t be a ASCII digit
-            (<code class="inline-code">0</code>-<code class="inline-code">9</code>). Starting from
-            FreeMarker 2.3.22, the variable name can also contain minus
-            (<code class="inline-code">-</code>), dot (<code class="inline-code">.</code>), and colon
-            (<code class="inline-code">:</code>) at any position, but these must be escaped
-            with a preceding backslash (<code class="inline-code">\</code>), or else they
-            would be interpreted as operators. For example, to read the
-            variable whose name is "data-id", the expression is
-            <code class="inline-code">data\-id</code>, as <code class="inline-code">data-id</code> would
-            be interpreted as "data minus id". (Note that these
-            escapes only work in identifiers, not in string literals.)</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_var_hash">Retrieving data from a hash</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>If we already have a hash as a result of an expression, then
-            we can get its subvariable with a dot and the name of the
-            subvariable. Assume that we have this data-model:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-data-model">(root)
- |
- +- book
- |   |
- |   +- title = &quot;Breeding green mouses&quot;
- |   |
- |   +- author
- |       |
- |       +- name = &quot;Julia Smith&quot;
- |       |
- |       +- info = &quot;Biologist, 1923-1985, Canada&quot;
- |
- +- test = &quot;title&quot;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>Now we can read the <code class="inline-code">title</code> with
-            <code class="inline-code">book.title</code>, since the book expression will
-            return a hash (as explained in the last chapter). Applying this
-            logic further, we can read the name of the author with this
-            expression: <code class="inline-code">book.author.name</code>.</p>
-
-            <p>There is an alternative syntax if we want to specify the
-            subvariable name with an expression:
-            <code class="inline-code">book[&quot;title&quot;]</code>. In the square brackets you can
-            give any expression as long as it evaluates to a string. So with
-            this data-model you can also read the title with
-            <code class="inline-code">book[test]</code>. More examples; these are all
-            equivalent: <code class="inline-code">book.author.name</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">book[&quot;author&quot;].name</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">book.author.[&quot;name&quot;]</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">book[&quot;author&quot;][&quot;name&quot;]</code>.</p>
-
-            <p>When you use the dot syntax, the same restrictions apply
-            regarding the variable name as with top-level variables (name can
-            contain only letters, digits, <code class="inline-code">_</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">$</code>, <code class="inline-code">@</code> but can&#39;t start with
-            <code class="inline-code">0</code>-<code class="inline-code">9</code>, also starting from
-            2.3.22 you can also use <code class="inline-code">\-</code>,
-            <code class="inline-code">\.</code> and <code class="inline-code">\:</code>). There are no
-            such restrictions when you use the square bracket syntax, since
-            the name is the result of an arbitrary expression. (Note, that to
-            help the FreeMarker XML support, if the subvariable name is
-            <code class="inline-code">*</code> (asterisk) or <code class="inline-code">**</code>, then you
-            do not have to use square bracket syntax.)</p>
-
-            <p>As with the top-level variables, trying to access a
-            non-existent subvariable causes an error and aborts the processing
-            of the template (unless programmers has configured FreeMarker
-            differently).</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_var_sequence">Retrieving data from a sequence</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>This is the same as for hashes, but you can use the square
-            bracket syntax only, and the expression in the brackets must
-            evaluate to a number, not a string. For example to get the name of
-            the first animal of the <a href="dgui_datamodel_basics.html#example.stdDataModel">example data-model</a> (remember
-            that the number of the first item is 0, not 1):
-            <code class="inline-code">animals[0].name</code></p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_var_special">Special variables</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            <p>Special variables are variables defined by the FreeMarker
-            engine itself. To access them, you use the
-            <code class="inline-code">.<em class="code-color">variable_name</em></code>
-            syntax.</p>
-
-            <p>Normally you don&#39;t need to use special variables. They are
-            for expert users. The complete list of special variables can be
-            found in the <a href="ref_specvar.html">reference</a>.</p>
-          
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_stringop">String operations</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation">Interpolation and concatenation</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>If you want to insert the value of an expression into a
-            string, you can use
-            <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code> (and the
-            deprecated <code class="inline-code">#{<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code>)
-            in string literals.
-            <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code> in string
-            literals <a href="dgui_template_valueinsertion.html">behaves
-            similarly as in <span class="marked-text">text</span>
-            sections</a> (so it goes through the same <em>locale
-            sensitive</em> number and date/time formatting).</p>
-
-            <p>Example (assume that user is "Big Joe"):</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign s = &quot;Hello ${user}!&quot;&gt;
-${s} &lt;#-- Just to see what the value of s is --&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>This will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">Hello Big Joe!</pre></div>
-
-              <div class="callout warning">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Warning!</strong>
-
-              <p>A frequent mistake of users is the usage of interpolations
-              in places where they needn&#39;t/shouldn&#39;t/can&#39;t be used.
-              Interpolations work <em>only</em> in <a href="dgui_template_overallstructure.html"><span class="marked-text">text</span> sections</a> (e.g.
-              <code class="inline-code">&lt;h1&gt;Hello ${name}!&lt;/h1&gt;</code>) and in
-              string literals (e.g. <code class="inline-code">&lt;#include
-              &quot;/footer/${company}.html&quot;&gt;</code>). A typical
-              <em>WRONG</em> usage is <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if
-              ${big}&gt;...&lt;/#if&gt;</code>, which will cause a
-              syntactical error. You should simply write <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if
-              big&gt;...&lt;/#if&gt;</code>. Also, <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if
-              &quot;${big}&quot;&gt;...&lt;/#if&gt;</code> is
-              <em>WRONG</em>, since it converts the parameter
-              value to string and the <code class="inline-code">if</code> directive wants a
-              boolean value, so it will cause a runtime error.</p>
-              </div>
-
-
-            <p><a name="dgui_template_exp_stringop_concatenation"></a>Alternatively,
-            you can use the <code class="inline-code">+</code> operator to achieve similar
-            result:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign s = &quot;Hello &quot; + user + &quot;!&quot;&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>This gives the same result as the earlier example with the
-            <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code>.</p>
-
-              <div class="callout warning">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Warning!</strong>
-
-              <p>Because <code class="inline-code">+</code> follows similar rules as
-              <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code>, the
-              appended string is influenced by the <code class="inline-code">locale</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">number_format</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">date_format</code>, <code class="inline-code">time_format</code>,
-              <code class="inline-code">datetime_format</code> and
-              <code class="inline-code">boolean_format</code>, etc. settings, and thus the
-              result targets humans and isn&#39;t in generally machine parseable.
-              This mostly leads to problems with numbers, as many locales use
-              grouping (thousands separators) by default, and so
-              <code class="inline-code">&quot;someUrl?id=&quot; + id</code> becomes to something like
-              <code class="inline-code">&quot;someUrl?id=1 234&quot;</code>. To prevent this, use the
-              <code class="inline-code">?c</code> (for Computer audience) built-in, like in
-              <code class="inline-code">&quot;someUrl?id=&quot; + id?c</code> or
-              <code class="inline-code">&quot;someUrl?id=${id?c}&quot;</code>, which will evaluate to
-              something like <code class="inline-code">&quot;someUrl?id=1234&quot;</code>, regardless
-              of locale and format settings.</p>
-              </div>
-
-
-            <p>As when <code class="inline-code">${<em class="code-color">...</em>}</code>
-            is used inside string <em>expressions</em> it&#39;s just a
-            shorthand of using the <code class="inline-code">+</code> operator, <a href="dgui_misc_autoescaping.html">auto-escaping</a> is not
-            applied on it.</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_get_character">Getting a character</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>You can get a single character of a string at a given index
-            similarly as you can <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_sequence">read the subvariable of a
-            sequence</a>, e.g. <code class="inline-code">user[0]</code>. The result will
-            be a string whose length is 1; FTL doesn&#39;t have a separate
-            character type. As with sequence sub variables, the index must be
-            a number that is at least 0 and less than the length of the
-            string, or else an error will abort the template
-            processing.</p>
-
-            <p>Since the sequence subvariable syntax and the character
-            getter syntax clashes, you can use the character getter syntax
-            only if the variable is not a sequence as well (which is possible
-            because FTL supports multi-typed values), since in that case the
-            sequence behavior prevails. (To work this around, you can use
-            <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_string_for_string">the
-            <code>string</code> built-in</a>, e.g.
-            <code class="inline-code">user?string[0]</code>. Don&#39;t worry if you don&#39;t
-            understand this yet; built-ins will be discussed later.)</p>
-
-            <p>Example (assume that user is "Big Joe"):</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${user[0]}
-${user[4]}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print (note that the index of the first character is
-            0):</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">B
-J</pre></div>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_stringop_slice">String slicing (substrings)</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>You can a slice a string in the same way as you <a href="#dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">slice a
-            sequence</a> (see there), only here instead of sequence items
-            you work with characters. Some differences are:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Decreasing ranges aren&#39;t allowed for string slicing.
-                (That&#39;s because unlike sequences, you seldom if ever want to
-                show a string reversed, so if that happens, that&#39;s almost
-                always the result of an oversight.)</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>If a value is both a string and a sequence (a
-                multi-typed value), then slicing will slice the sequence
-                instead of the string. When you are processing XML, such
-                values are common. In such cases you can use
-                <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">someXMLnode</em>?string[<em class="code-color">range</em>]</code>.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p>There&#39;s a legacy bug where a range with
-                <em>inclusive</em> end that&#39;s one less than the
-                starting index and is non-negative (like in
-                <code class="inline-code">&quot;abc&quot;[1..0]</code>) will give an empty string
-                instead of an error. (It should be an error as it&#39;s a
-                decreasing range.) Currently this bug is emulated for backward
-                compatibility, but you shouldn&#39;t utilize it, as in the future
-                it will be certainly an error.</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-
-            <p>Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign s = &quot;ABCDEF&quot;&gt;
-${s[2..3]}
-${s[2..&lt;4]}
-${s[2..*3]}
-${s[2..*100]}
-${s[2..]}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">CD
-CD
-CDE
-CDEF
-CDEF</pre></div>
-
-              <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-              <p>Some of the typical use-cases of string slicing is covered
-              by convenient built-ins: <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_remove_beginning"><code>remove_beginning</code></a>,
-              <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_remove_ending"><code>remove_ending</code></a>,
-              <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_keep_before"><code>keep_before</code></a>,
-              <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_keep_after"><code>keep_after</code></a>,
-              <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_keep_before_last"><code>keep_before_last</code></a>,
-              <a href="ref_builtins_string.html#ref_builtin_keep_after_last"><code>keep_after_last</code></a></p>
-              </div>
-
-          
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_sequenceop">Sequence operations</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">Concatenation</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>You can concatenate sequences in the same way as strings,
-            with <code class="inline-code">+</code>. Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#list [&quot;Joe&quot;, &quot;Fred&quot;] + [&quot;Julia&quot;, &quot;Kate&quot;] as user&gt;
-- ${user}
-&lt;/#list&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">- Joe
-- Fred
-- Julia
-- Kate
- </pre></div>
-
-            <p>Note that sequence concatenation is not to be used for many
-            repeated concatenations, like for appending items to a sequence
-            inside a loop. It&#39;s just for things like <code class="inline-code">&lt;#list users
-            + admins as person&gt;</code>. Although concatenating sequences
-            is fast and its speed is independently of the size of the
-            concatenated sequences, the resulting sequence will be always a
-            little bit slower to read than the original two sequences were.
-            This way the result of many repeated concatenations is a sequence
-            that is slow to read.</p>
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_seqenceop_slice">Sequence slicing</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>With
-            <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">seq</em>[<em class="code-color">range</em>]</code>,
-            were <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">range</em></code> is a
-            range value <a href="#dgui_template_exp_direct_ranges">as
-            described here</a>, you can take a slice of the sequence. The
-            resulting sequence will contain the items from the original
-            sequence (<code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">seq</em></code>) whose
-            indexes are in the range. For example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assert seq = [&quot;A&quot;, &quot;B&quot;, &quot;C&quot;, &quot;D&quot;, &quot;E&quot;]&gt;
-&lt;#list seq[1..3] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">BCD </pre></div>
-
-            <p>Furthermore, the items in the slice will be in the same
-            order as in the range. Thus for example the above example with the
-            <code class="inline-code">3..1</code> range would print
-            <code class="inline-code">DCB</code>.</p>
-
-            <p>The numbers in the range must be valid indexes in the
-            sequence, or else the processing of the template will be aborted
-            with error. Like in the last example,
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[-1..0]</code> would be an error as
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[-1]</code> is invalid, also
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[1..5]</code> would be because
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[5]</code> is invalid. (Note that
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[100..&lt;100]</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">seq[100..*0]</code> would be valid despite that 100 is
-            out of bounds, because those ranges are empty.)</p>
-
-            <p>Length limited ranges
-            (<code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..*<em class="code-color">length</em></code>)
-            and right-unbounded ranges
-            (<code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">start</em>..</code>) adapt to
-            the length of the sliced sequence. They will slice out at most as
-            many items as there is available:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign seq = [&quot;A&quot;, &quot;B&quot;, &quot;C&quot;]&gt;
-
-Slicing with length limited ranges:
-- &lt;#list seq[0..*2] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[1..*2] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[2..*2] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt; &lt;#-- Not an error --&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[3..*2] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt; &lt;#-- Not an error --&gt;
-
-Slicing with right-unlimited ranges:
-- &lt;#list seq[0..] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[1..] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[2..] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;
-- &lt;#list seq[3..] as i&gt;${i}&lt;/#list&gt;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>This will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">Slicing with length limited ranges:
-- AB
-- BC
-- C
--
-
-Slicing with right-unlimited ranges:
-- ABC
-- BC
-- C
--</pre></div>
-
-            <p>Note above that slicing with length limited and right
-            unbounded ranges allow the starting index to be past the last item
-            <em>by one</em> (but no more).</p>
-
-              <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-              <p>To split a sequence to slices of a given size, you should
-              use the <a href="ref_builtins_sequence.html#ref_builtin_chunk"><code>chunk</code></a>
-              built-in.</p>
-              </div>
-
-          
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_hashop">Hash operations</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_hashop_cat">Concatenation</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            
-
-            <p>You can concatenate hashes in the same way as strings, with
-            <code class="inline-code">+</code>. If both hashes contain the same key, the
-            hash on the right-hand side of the <code class="inline-code">+</code> takes
-            precedence. Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#assign ages = {&quot;Joe&quot;:23, &quot;Fred&quot;:25} + {&quot;Joe&quot;:30, &quot;Julia&quot;:18}&gt;
-- Joe is ${ages.Joe}
-- Fred is ${ages.Fred}
-- Julia is ${ages.Julia}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>will print:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">- Joe is 30
-- Fred is 25
-- Julia is 18</pre></div>
-
-            <p>Note that hash concatenation is not to be used for many
-            repeated concatenations, like for adding items to a hash inside a
-            loop. It&#39;s the same as with the <a href="#dgui_template_exp_sequenceop_cat">sequence
-            concatenation</a>.</p>
-          
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_arit">Arithmetical calculations</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          <p>This is the basic 4-function calculator arithmetic plus the
-          modulus operator. So the operators are:</p>
-
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              Addition: <code class="inline-code">+</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Subtraction: <code class="inline-code">-</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Multiplication: <code class="inline-code">*</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Division: <code class="inline-code">/</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Modulus (remainder) of integer operands:
-              <code class="inline-code">%</code>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-
-          
-
-          <p>Example:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${100 - x * x}
-${x / 2}
-${12 % 10}</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Assuming that <code class="inline-code">x</code> is 5, it will print:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">75
-2.5
-2</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Both operands must be expressions which evaluate to a
-          numerical value. So the example below will cause an error when
-          FreeMarker tries to evaluate it, since <code class="inline-code">&quot;5&quot;</code> is a
-          string and not the number 5:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${3 * &quot;5&quot;} &lt;#-- WRONG! --&gt;</pre></div>
-
-          <p>There is an exception to the above rule. The
-          <code class="inline-code">+</code> operator, is used to <a href="#dgui_template_exp_stringop_interpolation">concatenate
-          strings</a> as well. If on one side of <code class="inline-code">+</code> is a
-          string and on the other side of <code class="inline-code">+</code> is a numerical
-          value, then it will convert the numerical value to string (using the
-          format appropriate for language of the page) and then use the
-          <code class="inline-code">+</code> as string concatenation operator.
-          Example:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${3 + &quot;5&quot;}</pre></div>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">35</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Generally, FreeMarker never converts a string to a number
-          automatically, but it may convert a number to a string
-          automatically.</p>
-
-          <p> People often want only the integer part of the result
-          of a division (or of other calculations). This is possible with the
-          <code class="inline-code">int</code> built-in. (Built-ins are explained <a href="#dgui_template_exp_builtin">later</a>):</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${(x/2)?int}
-${1.1?int}
-${1.999?int}
-${-1.1?int}
-${-1.999?int}</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Assuming that <code class="inline-code">x</code> is 5, it will print:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">2
-1
-1
--1
--1</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Due to historical reasons, the <code class="inline-code">%</code> operator
-          works by first truncating the operands to an integer number, and
-          then returning the remainder of the division:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${12 % 5}   &lt;#-- Prints 2 --&gt;
-${12.9 % 5} &lt;#-- Prints 2 --&gt;
-${12.1 % 5} &lt;#-- Prints 2 --&gt;
-
-${12 % 6}   &lt;#-- Prints 0 --&gt;
-${12 % 6.9} &lt;#-- Prints 0 --&gt;</pre></div>
-
-          <p>The sign of the result of <code class="inline-code">%</code> is the same as
-          the sign of the left hand operand, and its absolute value is the
-          same as if both operands where positive:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${-12 % -5} &lt;#-- Prints -2 --&gt;
-${-12 % 5} &lt;#-- Prints -2 --&gt;
-${12 % -5} &lt;#-- Prints 2 --&gt;</pre></div>
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_comparison">Comparison</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          <p>Sometimes you want to know if two values are equal or not, or
-          which value is the greater.</p>
-
-          <p>To show concrete examples I will use the <code class="inline-code">if</code>
-          directive here. The usage of <code class="inline-code">if</code> directive is:
-          <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if
-          <em class="code-color">expression</em>&gt;...&lt;/#if&gt;</code>,
-          where expression must evaluate to a boolean value or else an error
-          will abort the processing of the template. If the value of
-          expression is <code class="inline-code">true</code> then the things between the
-          begin and end-tag will be processed, otherwise they will be
-          skipped.</p>
-
-          <p>To test two values for equality you use <code class="inline-code">==</code>
-          (or <code class="inline-code">=</code> as a <em>deprecated</em>
-          alternative) To test two values for inequality you use
-          <code class="inline-code">!=</code>. For example, assume that
-          <code class="inline-code">user</code> is "Big Joe":</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#if <strong>user == &quot;Big Joe&quot;</strong>&gt;
-  It is Big Joe
-&lt;/#if&gt;
-&lt;#if <strong>user != &quot;Big Joe&quot;</strong>&gt;
-  It is not Big Joe
-&lt;/#if&gt;</pre></div>
-
-          <p>The <code class="inline-code">user == &quot;Big Joe&quot;</code> expression in the
-          <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if ...&gt;</code> will evaluate to the boolean
-          <code class="inline-code">true</code>, so the above will say "It is Big
-          Joe".</p>
-
-          <p>The expressions on both sides of the <code class="inline-code">==</code> or
-          <code class="inline-code">!=</code> must evaluate to a scalar (not a sequence or
-          hash). Furthermore, the two scalars must have the same type (i.e.
-          strings can only be compared to strings and numbers can only be
-          compared to numbers, etc.) or else an error will abort template
-          processing. For example <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if 1 == &quot;1&quot;&gt;</code> will
-          cause an error. Note that FreeMarker does exact comparison, so
-          string comparisons are case and white-space sensitive:
-          <code class="inline-code">&quot;x&quot;</code> and <code class="inline-code">&quot;x &quot;</code> and
-          <code class="inline-code">&quot;X&quot;</code> are not equal values.</p>
-
-          <p>For numerical and date, time and date-time values you can also
-          use <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code>, <code class="inline-code">&lt;=</code>,
-          <code class="inline-code">&gt;=</code> and <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code>. You can&#39;t use
-          them for strings! Example:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#if x <strong>&lt;=</strong> 12&gt;
-  x is less or equivalent with 12
-&lt;/#if&gt;</pre></div>
-
-          <p>There&#39;s a problem with <code class="inline-code">&gt;=</code> and
-          <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code>. FreeMarker interprets the
-          <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code> character as the closing character of the
-          FTL tag. To prevent this, you can use <code class="inline-code">lt</code> instead
-          of <code class="inline-code">&lt;</code>, <code class="inline-code">lte</code> instead of
-          <code class="inline-code">&lt;=</code>, <code class="inline-code">gt</code> instead of
-          <code class="inline-code">&gt;</code> and <code class="inline-code">gte</code> instead of
-          <code class="inline-code">&gt;=</code>, like in <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if x gt
-          y&gt;</code>. Another trick it to put the expression into <a href="#dgui_template_exp_parentheses">parentheses</a> like in
-          <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if (x &gt; y)&gt;</code>, although it&#39;s considered
-          to be less elegant.</p>
-
-            <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-            <p>FreeMarker supports some other alternatives too, but these
-            are deprecated:</p>
-
-            <ul>
-              <li>
-                <p>Writing <code class="inline-code">&amp;gt;</code> and
-                <code class="inline-code">&amp;lt;</code> on the place of the problematic
-                relation marks, like in: <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if x &amp;gt;
-                y&gt;</code> or <code class="inline-code">&lt;#if x &amp;gt;=
-                y&gt;</code> . Note that in general FTL does not support
-                entity references (the
-                <code class="inline-code">&amp;<em class="code-color">...</em>;</code>
-                things) in FTL tags; it&#39;s just an exception with the
-                arithmetical comparisons.</p>
-              </li>
-
-              <li>
-                <p><code class="inline-code">\lt</code>, <code class="inline-code">\lte</code>,
-                <code class="inline-code">\gt</code> and <code class="inline-code">\gte</code> which are
-                the same as the ones without the backslash</p>
-              </li>
-            </ul>
-            </div>
-
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_logicalop">Logical operations</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          <p>Just the usual logical operators:</p>
-
-          <ul>
-            <li>
-              Logical or: <code class="inline-code">||</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Logical and: <code class="inline-code">&amp;&amp;</code>
-            </li>
-
-            <li>
-              Logical not: <code class="inline-code">!</code>
-            </li>
-          </ul>
-
-          <p>The operators will work with boolean values only. Otherwise an
-          error will abort the template processing.</p>
-
-          <p>Example:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">&lt;#if x &lt; 12 <strong>&amp;&amp;</strong> color == &quot;green&quot;&gt;
-  We have less than 12 things, and they are green.
-&lt;/#if&gt;
-&lt;#if <strong>!</strong>hot&gt; &lt;#-- here hot must be a boolean --&gt;
-  It&#39;s not hot.
-&lt;/#if&gt;</pre></div>
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_builtin">Built-ins</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          <p>Built-ins are like methods that are added to the objects by
-          FreeMarker. To prevent name clashes with actual methods and other
-          sub-variables, instead of dot (<code class="inline-code">.</code>), you separate
-          them from the parent object with question mark
-          (<code class="inline-code">?</code>). For example, if you want to ensure that
-          <code class="inline-code">path</code> has an initial <code class="inline-code">/</code> then you
-          could write <code class="inline-code">path?ensure_starts_with(&#39;/&#39;)</code>. The
-          Java object behind <code class="inline-code">path</code> (a
-          <code class="inline-code">String</code> most certainly) doesn&#39;t have such method,
-          FreeMarker adds it. For brevity, if the method has no parameters,
-          you <em>must</em> omit the <code class="inline-code">()</code>, like,
-          to get the length of <code class="inline-code">path</code>, you have to write
-          <code class="inline-code">path?length</code>, <em>not</em>
-          <code class="inline-code">path?length()</code>.</p>
-
-          <p>The other reason why built-ins are crucial is that normally
-          (though it depends on configuration settings), FreeMarker doesn&#39;t
-          expose the Java API of the objects. So despite that Java&#39;s
-          <code class="inline-code">String</code> has a <code class="inline-code">length()</code> method,
-          it&#39;s hidden from the template, you <em>have to</em> use
-          <code class="inline-code">path?length</code> instead. The advantage of that is
-          that thus the template doesn&#39;t depend on the exactly type of the
-          underlying Java objects. (Like <code class="inline-code">path</code> is maybe a
-          <code class="inline-code">java.nio.Path</code> behind the scenes, but if the
-          programmers has configure FreeMarker to expose
-          <code class="inline-code">Path</code> objects as FTL strings, the template won&#39;t
-          be aware of that, and <code class="inline-code">?length</code> will work, despite
-          that <code class="inline-code">java.nio.Path</code> has no similar method.)</p>
-
-          <p>You can find some of the <a href="dgui_quickstart_template.html#topic.commonlyUsedBuiltIns">most commonly used built-ins
-          mentioned here</a>, and the <a href="ref_builtins.html">complete
-          list of built-ins in the Reference</a>. For now, just a few of
-          the more important ones:</p>
-
-          <p>Example:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${testString?upper_case}
-${testString?html}
-${testString?upper_case?html}
-
-${testSequence?size}
-${testSequence?join(&quot;, &quot;)}</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Assuming that <code class="inline-code">testString</code> stores the string
-          "Tom &amp; Jerry", and testSequnce stores the strings
-          "foo", "bar" and "baz", the
-          output will be:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">TOM &amp; JERRY
-Tom &amp;amp; Jerry
-TOM &amp;amp; JERRY
-
-3
-foo, bar, baz</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Note the <code class="inline-code">test?upper_case?html</code> above. Since
-          the result of <code class="inline-code">test?upper_case</code> is a string, you
-          can apply the <code class="inline-code">html</code> built-in on it.</p>
-
-          <p>Naturally, the left side of the built-in can be arbitrary
-          expression, not just a variable name:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${testSeqence[1]?cap_first}
-${&quot;horse&quot;?cap_first}
-${(testString + &quot; &amp; Duck&quot;)?html}</pre></div>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">Bar
-Horse
-Tom &amp;amp; Jerry &amp;amp; Duck</pre></div>
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_methodcall">Method call</h2>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          <p>If you have a method then you can use the method call
-          operation on it. The method call operation is a comma-separated list
-          of expressions in parentheses. These values are called parameters.
-          The method call operation passes these values to the method which
-          will in turn return a result. This result will be the value of the
-          whole method call expression.</p>
-
-          <p>For example, assume the programmers have made available a
-          method variable called <code class="inline-code">repeat</code>. You give a string
-          as the first parameter, and a number as the second parameter, and it
-          returns a string which repeats the first parameter the number of
-          times specified by the second parameter.</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${repeat(&quot;Foo&quot;, 3)}</pre></div>
-
-          <p>will print:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">FooFooFoo</pre></div>
-
-          <p>Here <code class="inline-code">repeat</code> was evaluated to the method
-          variable (according to how you <a href="#dgui_template_exp_var_toplevel">access top-level
-          variables</a>) and then <code class="inline-code">(&quot;What&quot;, 3)</code> invoked
-          that method.</p>
-
-          <p>I would like to emphasize that method calls are just plain
-          expressions, like everything else. So this:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${repeat(repeat(&quot;x&quot;, 2), 3) + repeat(&quot;Foo&quot;, 4)?upper_case}</pre></div>
-
-          <p>will print this:</p>
-
-          
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">xxxxxxFOOFOOFOOFOO</pre></div>
-        
-          
-
-
-
-<h2 class="content-header header-section2" id="dgui_template_exp_missing">Handling missing values</h2>
-
-
-            <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-            <p>These operators exist since FreeMarker 2.3.7 (replacing the
-            <code class="inline-code">default</code>, <code class="inline-code">exists</code> and
-            <code class="inline-code">if_exists</code> built-ins).</p>
-            </div>
-
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          
-
-          <p>As we explained earlier, an error will occur and abort the
-          template processing if you try to access a missing variable. However
-          two special operators can suppress this error, and handle the
-          problematic situation. The handled variable can be top-level
-          variable, hash subvariable, or sequence subvariable as well.
-          Furthermore these operators handle the situation when a method call
-          doesn&#39;t return a value <span class="marked-for-programmers">(from the
-          viewpoint of Java programmers: it returns <code class="inline-code">null</code> or
-          it&#39;s return type is <code class="inline-code">void</code>)</span>, so it&#39;s more
-          correct to say that these operators handle missing values in
-          general, rather than just missing variables.</p>
-
-          <p><span class="marked-for-programmers">For those who know what&#39;s Java
-          <code class="inline-code">null</code>, FreeMarker 2.3.<em>x</em>
-          treats them as missing values. Simply, the template language doesn&#39;t
-          know the concept of <code class="inline-code">null</code>. For example, if you
-          have a bean that has a <code class="inline-code">maidenName</code> property, and
-          the value of that property is <code class="inline-code">null</code>, then that&#39;s
-          the same as if there were no such property at all, as far as the
-          template is concerned (assuming you didn&#39;t configured FreeMarker to
-          use some extreme object wrapper, that is). The result of a method
-          call that returns <code class="inline-code">null</code> is also treated as a
-          missing variable (again, assuming that you use some usual object
-          wrapper). See more <a href="app_faq.html#faq_null">in the
-          FAQ</a>.</span></p>
-
-            <div class="callout note">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Note:</strong>
-
-            <p>If you wonder why is FreeMarker so picky about missing
-            variables, <a href="app_faq.html#faq_picky_about_missing_vars">read this
-            FAQ entry</a>.</p>
-            </div>
-
-
-          
-            
-
-
-
-<h3 class="content-header header-section3" id="dgui_template_exp_missing_default">Default value operator</h3>
-
-
-            
-
-            <p>Synopsis:
-            <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">unsafe_expr</em>!<em class="code-color">default_expr</em></code>
-            or <code class="inline-code"><em class="code-color">unsafe_expr</em>!</code> or
-            <code class="inline-code">(<em class="code-color">unsafe_expr</em>)!<em class="code-color">default_expr</em></code>
-            or
-            <code class="inline-code">(<em class="code-color">unsafe_expr</em>)!</code></p>
-
-            <p>This operator allows you to specify a default value for the
-            case when the value is missing.</p>
-
-            <p>Example. Assume no variable called <code class="inline-code">mouse</code>
-            is present:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">${mouse!&quot;No mouse.&quot;}
-&lt;#assign mouse=&quot;Jerry&quot;&gt;
-${mouse!&quot;No mouse.&quot;}</pre></div>
-
-            <p>The output will be:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">No mouse.
-Jerry</pre></div>
-
-            <p>The default value can be any kind of expression, so it
-            doesn&#39;t have to be a string. For example you can write
-            <code class="inline-code">hits!0</code> or <code class="inline-code">colors![&quot;red&quot;, &quot;green&quot;,
-            &quot;blue&quot;]</code>. There is no restriction regarding the
-            complexity of the expression that specifies the default value, for
-            example you can write: <code class="inline-code">cargo.weight!(item.weight *
-            itemCount + 10)</code>.</p>
-
-              <div class="callout warning">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Warning!</strong>
-
-              <p>If you have a composite expression after the
-              <code class="inline-code">!</code>, like <code class="inline-code">1 + x</code>,
-              <em>always</em> use parenthesses, like
-              <code class="inline-code">${x!(1 + y)}</code> or <code class="inline-code">${(x!1) +
-              y)}</code>, depending on which interpretation you meant.
-              That&#39;s needed because due to a programming mistake in FreeMarker
-              2.3.x, the precedence of <code class="inline-code">!</code> (when it&#39;s used as
-              default value operator) is very low at its right side. This
-              means that, for example, <code class="inline-code">${x!1 + y}</code> is
-              misinterpreted by FreeMarker as <code class="inline-code">${x!(1 + y)}</code>
-              while it should mean <code class="inline-code">${(x!1) + y}</code>. This
-              programming error will be fixed in FreeMarker 2.4, so you should
-              not utilize this wrong behavior, or else your templates will
-              break with FreeMarker 2.4!</p>
-              </div>
-
-
-            <p>If the default value is omitted, then it will be empty
-            string and empty sequence and empty hash at the same time. (This
-            is possible because FreeMarker allows multi-type values.) Note the
-            consequence that you can&#39;t omit the default value if you want it
-            to be <code class="inline-code">0</code> or <code class="inline-code">false</code>.
-            Example:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">(${mouse!})
-&lt;#assign mouse = &quot;Jerry&quot;&gt;
-(${mouse!})</pre></div>
-
-            <p>The output will be:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-output">()
-(Jerry)</pre></div>
-
-              <div class="callout warning">
-    <strong class="callout-label">Warning!</strong>
-
-              <p>Due to syntactical ambiguities <code class="inline-code">&lt;@something
-              a=x! b=y /&gt;</code> will be interpreted as
-              <code class="inline-code">&lt;@something a=x!(b=y) /&gt;</code>, that is, the
-              <code class="inline-code">b=y</code> will be interpreted as a comparison that
-              gives the default value for <code class="inline-code">x</code>, rather than
-              the specification of the <code class="inline-code">b</code> parameter. To
-              prevent this, write: <code class="inline-code">&lt;@something a=(x!) b=y
-              /&gt;</code></p>
-              </div>
-
-
-            <p>You can use this operator in two ways with non-top-level
-            variables:</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">product.color!&quot;red&quot;</pre></div>
-
-            <p>This will handle if <code class="inline-code">color</code> is missing
-            inside <code class="inline-code">product</code> (and returns
-            <code class="inline-code">&quot;red&quot;</code> if so), but will not handle if
-            <code class="inline-code">product</code> is missing. That is, the
-            <code class="inline-code">product</code> variable itself must exist, otherwise
-            the template processing will die with error.</p>
-
-            
-
-<div class="code-wrapper"><pre class="code-block code-template">(product.color)!&

<TRUNCATED>


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