flink-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From u..@apache.org
Subject [23/51] [partial] flink git commit: [FLINK-4317, FLIP-3] [docs] Restructure docs
Date Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:26:43 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flink/blob/844c874b/docs/concepts/index.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/docs/concepts/index.md b/docs/concepts/index.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a9638451
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/concepts/index.md
@@ -0,0 +1,249 @@
+---
+title: Concepts
+nav-id: concepts
+nav-pos: 1
+nav-title: '<i class="fa fa-map-o" aria-hidden="true"></i> Concepts'
+nav-parent_id: root
+---
+<!--
+Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+distributed with this work for additional information
+regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+specific language governing permissions and limitations
+under the License.
+-->
+
+* This will be replaced by the TOC
+{:toc}
+
+## Programs and Dataflows
+
+The basic building blocks of Flink programs are **streams** and **transformations** (note that a DataSet is internally
+also a stream). A *stream* is an intermediate result, and a *transformation* is an operation that takes one or more streams
+as input, and computes one or more result streams from them.
+
+When executed, Flink programs are mapped to **streaming dataflows**, consisting of **streams** and transformation **operators**.
+Each dataflow starts with one or more **sources** and ends in one or more **sinks**. The dataflows may resemble
+arbitrary **directed acyclic graphs** *(DAGs)*. (Special forms of cycles are permitted via *iteration* constructs, we
+omit this here for simplicity).
+
+In most cases, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the transformations in the programs and the operators
+in the dataflow. Sometimes, however, one transformation may consist of multiple transformation operators.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/program_dataflow.svg" alt="A DataStream program, and its dataflow." class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+### Parallel Dataflows
+
+Programs in Flink are inherently parallel and distributed. *Streams* are split into **stream partitions** and
+*operators* are split into **operator subtasks**. The operator subtasks execute independently from each other,
+in different threads and on different machines or containers.
+
+The number of operator subtasks is the **parallelism** of that particular operator. The parallelism of a stream
+is always that of its producing operator. Different operators of the program may have a different parallelism.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/parallel_dataflow.svg" alt="A parallel dataflow" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+Streams can transport data between two operators in a *one-to-one* (or *forwarding*) pattern, or in a *redistributing* pattern:
+
+  - **One-to-one** streams (for example between the *source* and the *map()* operators) preserves partitioning and order of
+    elements. That means that subtask[1] of the *map()* operator will see the same elements in the same order, as they
+    were produced by subtask[1] of the *source* operator.
+
+  - **Redistributing** streams (between *map()* and *keyBy/window*, as well as between *keyBy/window* and *sink*) change
+    the partitioning of streams. Each *operator subtask* sends data to different target subtasks,
+    depending on the selected transformation. Examples are *keyBy()* (re-partitions by hash code), *broadcast()*, or
+    *rebalance()* (random redistribution).
+    In a *redistributing* exchange, order among elements is only preserved for each pair of sending- and receiving
+    task (for example subtask[1] of *map()* and subtask[2] of *keyBy/window*).
+
+{% top %}
+
+### Tasks & Operator Chains
+
+For distributed execution, Flink *chains* operator subtasks together into *tasks*. Each task is executed by one thread.
+Chaining operators together into tasks is a useful optimization: it reduces the overhead of thread-to-thread
+handover and buffering, and increases overall throughput while decreasing latency.
+The chaining behavior can be configured in the APIs.
+
+The sample dataflow in the figure below is executed with five subtasks, and hence with five parallel threads.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/tasks_chains.svg" alt="Operator chaining into Tasks" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+## Distributed Execution
+
+**Master, Worker, Client**
+
+The Flink runtime consists of two types of processes:
+
+  - The **master** processes (also called *JobManagers*) coordinate the distributed execution. They schedule tasks, coordinate
+    checkpoints, coordinate recovery on failures, etc.
+
+    There is always at least one master process. A high-availability setup will have multiple master processes, out of
+    which one is always the *leader*, and the others are *standby*.
+
+  - The **worker** processes (also called *TaskManagers*) execute the *tasks* (or more specifically, the subtasks) of a dataflow,
+    and buffer and exchange the data *streams*.
+
+    There must always be at least one worker process.
+
+The master and worker processes can be started in an arbitrary fashion: Directly on the machines, via containers, or via
+resource frameworks like YARN. Workers connect to masters, announcing themselves as available, and get work assigned.
+
+The **client** is not part of the runtime and program execution, but is used to prepare and send a dataflow to the master.
+After that, the client can disconnect, or stay connected to receive progress reports. The client runs either as part of the
+Java/Scala program that triggers the execution, or in the command line process `./bin/flink run ...`.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/processes.svg" alt="The processes involved in executing a Flink dataflow" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+### Workers, Slots, Resources
+
+Each worker (TaskManager) is a *JVM process*, and may execute one or more subtasks in separate threads.
+To control how many tasks a worker accepts, a worker has so called **task slots** (at least one).
+
+Each *task slot* represents a fixed subset of resources of the TaskManager. A TaskManager with three slots, for example,
+will dedicate 1/3 of its managed memory to each slot. Slotting the resources means that a subtask will not
+compete with subtasks from other jobs for managed memory, but instead has a certain amount of reserved
+managed memory. Note that no CPU isolation happens here, slots currently only separate managed memory of tasks.
+
+Adjusting the number of task slots thus allows users to define how subtasks are isolated against each other.
+Having one slot per TaskManager means each task group runs in a separate JVM (which can be started in a
+separate container, for example). Having multiple slots
+means more subtasks share the same JVM. Tasks in the same JVM share TCP connections (via multiplexing) and
+heartbeats messages. They may also share data sets and data structures, thus reducing the per-task overhead.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/tasks_slots.svg" alt="A TaskManager with Task Slots and Tasks" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+By default, Flink allows subtasks to share slots, if they are subtasks of different tasks, but from the same
+job. The result is that one slot may hold an entire pipeline of the job. Allowing this *slot sharing*
+has two main benefits:
+
+  - A Flink cluster needs exactly as many tasks slots, as the highest parallelism used in the job.
+    No need to calculate how many tasks (with varying parallelism) a program contains in total.
+
+  - It is easier to get better resource utilization. Without slot sharing, the non-intensive
+    *source/map()* subtasks would block as many resources as the resource intensive *window* subtasks.
+    With slot sharing, increasing the base parallelism from two to six yields full utilization of the
+    slotted resources, while still making sure that each TaskManager gets only a fair share of the
+    heavy subtasks.
+
+The slot sharing behavior can be controlled in the APIs, to prevent sharing where it is undesirable.
+The mechanism for that are the *resource groups*, which define what (sub)tasks may share slots.
+
+As a rule-of-thumb, a good default number of task slots would be the number of CPU cores.
+With hyper threading, each slot then takes 2 or more hardware thread contexts.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/slot_sharing.svg" alt="TaskManagers with shared Task Slots" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+## Time and Windows
+
+Aggregating events (e.g., counts, sums) works slightly differently on streams than in batch processing.
+For example, it is impossible to first count all elements in the stream and then return the count,
+because streams are in general infinite (unbounded). Instead, aggregates on streams (counts, sums, etc),
+are scoped by **windows**, such as *"count over the last 5 minutes"*, or *"sum of the last 100 elements"*.
+
+Windows can be *time driven* (example: every 30 seconds) or *data driven* (example: every 100 elements).
+One typically distinguishes different types of windows, such as *tumbling windows* (no overlap),
+*sliding windows* (with overlap), and *session windows* (gap of activity).
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/windows.svg" alt="Time- and Count Windows" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+More window examples can be found in this [blog post](https://flink.apache.org/news/2015/12/04/Introducing-windows.html).
+
+{% top %}
+
+### Time
+
+When referring to time in a streaming program (for example to define windows), one can refer to different notions
+of time:
+
+  - **Event Time** is the time when an event was created. It is usually described by a timestamp in the events,
+    for example attached by the producing sensor, or the producing service. Flink accesses event timestamps
+    via [timestamp assigners]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/event_timestamps_watermarks.html).
+
+  - **Ingestion time** is the time when an event enters the Flink dataflow at the source operator.
+
+  - **Processing Time** is the local time at each operator that performs a time-based operation.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/event_ingestion_processing_time.svg" alt="Event Time, Ingestion Time, and Processing Time" class="offset" width="80%" />
+
+More details on how to handle time are in the [event time docs]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/event_time.html).
+
+{% top %}
+
+## State and Fault Tolerance
+
+While many operations in a dataflow simply look at one individual *event at a time* (for example an event parser),
+some operations remember information across individual events (for example window operators).
+These operations are called **stateful**.
+
+The state of stateful operations is maintained in what can be thought of as an embedded key/value store.
+The state is partitioned and distributed strictly together with the streams that are read by the
+stateful operators. Hence, access the key/value state is only possible on *keyed streams*, after a *keyBy()* function,
+and is restricted to the values of the current event's key. Aligning the keys of streams and state
+makes sure that all state updates are local operations, guaranteeing consistency without transaction overhead.
+This alignment also allows Flink to redistribute the state and adjust the stream partitioning transparently.
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/state_partitioning.svg" alt="State and Partitioning" class="offset" width="50%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+### Checkpoints for Fault Tolerance
+
+Flink implements fault tolerance using a combination of **stream replay** and **checkpoints**. A checkpoint
+defines a consistent point in streams and state from which a streaming dataflow can resume, and maintain consistency
+*(exactly-once processing semantics)*. The events and state updates since the last checkpoint are replayed from the input streams.
+
+The checkpoint interval is a means of trading off the overhead of fault tolerance during execution, with the recovery time (the amount
+of events that need to be replayed).
+
+More details on checkpoints and fault tolerance are in the [fault tolerance docs]({{ site.baseurl }}/internals/stream_checkpointing.html).
+
+<img src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/checkpoints.svg" alt="checkpoints and snapshots" class="offset" width="60%" />
+
+{% top %}
+
+### State Backends
+
+The exact data structures in which the key/values indexes are stored depend on the chosen **state backend**. One state backend
+stores data in an in-memory hash map, another state backend uses [RocksDB](http://rocksdb.org) as the key/value index.
+In addition to defining the data structure that holds the state, the state backends also implements the logic to
+take a point-in-time snapshot of the key/value state and store that snapshot as part of a checkpoint.
+
+{% top %}
+
+## Batch on Streaming
+
+Flink executes batch programs as a special case of streaming programs, where the streams are bounded (finite number of elements).
+A *DataSet* is treated internally as a stream of data. The concepts above thus apply to batch programs in the
+same way as well as they apply to streaming programs, with minor exceptions:
+
+  - Programs in the DataSet API do not use checkpoints. Recovery happens by fully replaying the streams.
+    That is possible, because inputs are bounded. This pushes the cost more towards the recovery,
+    but makes the regular processing cheaper, because it avoids checkpoints.
+
+  - Stateful operation in the DataSet API use simplified in-memory/out-of-core data structures, rather than
+    key/value indexes.
+
+  - The DataSet API introduces special synchronized (superstep-based) iterations, which are only possible on
+    bounded streams. For details, check out the [iteration docs]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/iterations.html).
+
+{% top %}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flink/blob/844c874b/docs/dev/api_concepts.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/docs/dev/api_concepts.md b/docs/dev/api_concepts.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..468085a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/dev/api_concepts.md
@@ -0,0 +1,1349 @@
+---
+title: "Basic API Concepts"
+nav-parent_id: apis
+nav-pos: 1
+---
+<!--
+Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+distributed with this work for additional information
+regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+specific language governing permissions and limitations
+under the License.
+-->
+
+Flink programs are regular programs that implement transformations on distributed collections
+(e.g., filtering, mapping, updating state, joining, grouping, defining windows, aggregating).
+Collections are initially created from sources (e.g., by reading files, kafka, or from local
+collections). Results are returned via sinks, which may for example write the data to
+(distributed) files, or to standard output (for example the command line terminal).
+Flink programs run in a variety of contexts, standalone, or embedded in other programs.
+The execution can happen in a local JVM, or on clusters of many machines.
+
+Depending on the type of data sources, i.e. bounded or unbounded sources you would either
+write a batch program or a streaming program where the DataSet API is used for the former
+and the DataStream API is used for the latter. This guide will introduce the basic concepts
+that are common to both APIs but please see our
+[Streaming Guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/datastream_api.html) and
+[Batch Guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/index.html) for concrete information about
+writing programs with each API.
+
+**NOTE:** When showing actual examples of how the APIs can be used  we will use
+`StreamingExecutionEnvironment` and the `DataStream` API. The concepts are exactly the same
+in the `DataSet` API, just replace by `ExecutionEnvironment` and `DataSet`.
+
+* This will be replaced by the TOC
+{:toc}
+
+Linking with Flink
+------------------
+
+To write programs with Flink, you need to include the Flink library corresponding to
+your programming language in your project.
+
+The simplest way to do this is to use one of the quickstart scripts: either for
+[Java]({{ site.baseurl }}/quickstart/java_api_quickstart.html) or for [Scala]({{ site.baseurl }}/quickstart/scala_api_quickstart.html). They
+create a blank project from a template (a Maven Archetype), which sets up everything for you. To
+manually create the project, you can use the archetype and create a project by calling:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight bash %}
+mvn archetype:generate \
+    -DarchetypeGroupId=org.apache.flink \
+    -DarchetypeArtifactId=flink-quickstart-java \
+    -DarchetypeVersion={{site.version }}
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight bash %}
+mvn archetype:generate \
+    -DarchetypeGroupId=org.apache.flink \
+    -DarchetypeArtifactId=flink-quickstart-scala \
+    -DarchetypeVersion={{site.version }}
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+The archetypes are working for stable releases and preview versions (`-SNAPSHOT`).
+
+If you want to add Flink to an existing Maven project, add the following entry to your
+*dependencies* section in the *pom.xml* file of your project:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight xml %}
+<!-- Use this dependency if you are using the DataStream API -->
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-streaming-java{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+<!-- Use this dependency if you are using the DataSet API -->
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-java</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-clients{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight xml %}
+<!-- Use this dependency if you are using the DataStream API -->
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-streaming-scala{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+<!-- Use this dependency if you are using the DataSet API -->
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-scala{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+<dependency>
+  <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+  <artifactId>flink-clients{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+  <version>{{site.version }}</version>
+</dependency>
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+**Important:** When working with the Scala API you must have one of these two imports:
+{% highlight scala %}
+import org.apache.flink.api.scala._
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+or
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+import org.apache.flink.api.scala.createTypeInformation
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+The reason is that Flink analyzes the types that are used in a program and generates serializers
+and comparaters for them. By having either of those imports you enable an implicit conversion
+that creates the type information for Flink operations.
+</div>
+</div>
+
+#### Scala Dependency Versions
+
+Because Scala 2.10 binary is not compatible with Scala 2.11 binary, we provide multiple artifacts
+to support both Scala versions.
+
+Starting from the 0.10 line, we cross-build all Flink modules for both 2.10 and 2.11. If you want
+to run your program on Flink with Scala 2.11, you need to add a `_2.11` suffix to the `artifactId`
+values of the Flink modules in your dependencies section.
+
+If you are looking for building Flink with Scala 2.11, please check
+[build guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/setup/building.html#scala-versions).
+
+#### Hadoop Dependency Versions
+
+If you are using Flink together with Hadoop, the version of the dependency may vary depending on the
+version of Hadoop (or more specifically, HDFS) that you want to use Flink with. Please refer to the
+[downloads page](http://flink.apache.org/downloads.html) for a list of available versions, and instructions
+on how to link with custom versions of Hadoop.
+
+In order to link against the latest SNAPSHOT versions of the code, please follow
+[this guide](http://flink.apache.org/how-to-contribute.html#snapshots-nightly-builds).
+
+The *flink-clients* dependency is only necessary to invoke the Flink program locally (for example to
+run it standalone for testing and debugging).  If you intend to only export the program as a JAR
+file and [run it on a cluster]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/cluster_execution.html), you can skip that dependency.
+
+{% top %}
+
+DataSet and DataStream
+----------------------
+
+Flink has the special classes `DataSet` and `DataStream` to represent data in a program. You
+can think of them as immutable collections of data that can contain duplicates. In the case
+of `DataSet` the data is finite while for a `DataStream` the number of elements can be unbounded.
+
+These collections differ from regular Java collections in some key ways. First, they
+are immutable, meaning that once they are created you cannot add or remove elements. You can also
+not simply inspect the elements inside.
+
+A collection is initially created by adding a source in a Flink program and new collections are
+derived from these by transforming them using API methods such as `map`, `filter` and so on.
+
+Anatomy of a Flink Program
+--------------------------
+
+Flink program programs look like regular programs that transform collections of data.
+Each program consists of the same basic parts:
+
+1. Obtain an `execution environment`,
+2. Load/create the initial data,
+3. Specify transformations on this data,
+4. Specify where to put the results of your computations,
+5. Trigger the program execution
+
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+
+
+We will now give an overview of each of those steps, please refer to the respective sections for
+more details. Note that all core classes of the Java DataSet API are found in the package
+{% gh_link /flink-java/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/java "org.apache.flink.api.java" %}
+while the classes of the Java DataStream API can be found in
+{% gh_link /flink-streaming-java/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/streaming/api "org.apache.flink.streaming.api" %}.
+
+The `StreamExecutionEnvironment` is the basis for all Flink programs. You can
+obtain one using these static methods on `StreamExecutionEnvironment`:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+getExecutionEnvironment()
+
+createLocalEnvironment()
+
+createRemoteEnvironment(String host, int port, String... jarFiles)
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Typically, you only need to use `getExecutionEnvironment()`, since this
+will do the right thing depending on the context: if you are executing
+your program inside an IDE or as a regular Java program it will create
+a local environment that will execute your program on your local machine. If
+you created a JAR file from your program, and invoke it through the
+[command line]({{ site.baseurl }}/setup/cli.html), the Flink cluster manager
+will execute your main method and `getExecutionEnvironment()` will return
+an execution environment for executing your program on a cluster.
+
+For specifying data sources the execution environment has several methods
+to read from files using various methods: you can just read them line by line,
+as CSV files, or using completely custom data input formats. To just read
+a text file as a sequence of lines, you can use:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+final StreamExecutionEnvironment env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+
+DataStream<String> text = env.readTextFile("file:///path/to/file");
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+This will give you a DataStream on which you can then apply transformations to create new
+derived DataStreams.
+
+You apply transformations by calling methods on DataStream with a transformation
+functions. For example, a map transformation looks like this:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<String> input = ...;
+
+DataStream<Integer> parsed = input.map(new MapFunction<String, Integer>() {
+    @Override
+    public Integer map(String value) {
+        return Integer.parseInt(value);
+    }
+});
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+This will create a new DataStream by converting every String in the original
+collection to an Integer.
+
+Once you have a DataStream containing your final results, you can write it to an outside system
+by creating a sink. These are just some example methods for creating a sink:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+writeAsText(String path)
+
+print()
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+
+We will now give an overview of each of those steps, please refer to the respective sections for
+more details. Note that all core classes of the Scala DataSet API are found in the package
+{% gh_link /flink-scala/src/main/scala/org/apache/flink/api/scala "org.apache.flink.api.scala" %}
+while the classes of the Scala DataStream API can be found in
+{% gh_link /flink-streaming-scala/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/streaming/api/scala "org.apache.flink.streaming.api.scala" %}.
+
+The `StreamExecutionEnvironment` is the basis for all Flink programs. You can
+obtain one using these static methods on `StreamExecutionEnvironment`:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+getExecutionEnvironment()
+
+createLocalEnvironment()
+
+createRemoteEnvironment(host: String, port: Int, jarFiles: String*)
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Typically, you only need to use `getExecutionEnvironment()`, since this
+will do the right thing depending on the context: if you are executing
+your program inside an IDE or as a regular Java program it will create
+a local environment that will execute your program on your local machine. If
+you created a JAR file from your program, and invoke it through the
+[command line]({{ site.baseurl }}/apis/cli.html), the Flink cluster manager
+will execute your main method and `getExecutionEnvironment()` will return
+an execution environment for executing your program on a cluster.
+
+For specifying data sources the execution environment has several methods
+to read from files using various methods: you can just read them line by line,
+as CSV files, or using completely custom data input formats. To just read
+a text file as a sequence of lines, you can use:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+val env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment()
+
+val text: DataStream[String] = env.readTextFile("file:///path/to/file")
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+This will give you a DataStream on which you can then apply transformations to create new
+derived DataStreams.
+
+You apply transformations by calling methods on DataSet with a transformation
+functions. For example, a map transformation looks like this:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+val input: DataSet[String] = ...
+
+val mapped = input.map { x => x.toInt }
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+This will create a new DataStream by converting every String in the original
+collection to an Integer.
+
+Once you have a DataStream containing your final results, you can write it to an outside system
+by creating a sink. These are just some example methods for creating a sink:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+writeAsText(path: String)
+
+print()
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+</div>
+
+Once you specified the complete program you need to **trigger the program execution** by calling
+`execute()` on the `StreamExecutionEnvironment`.
+Depending on the type of the `ExecutionEnvironment` the execution will be triggered on your local
+machine or submit your program for execution on a cluster.
+
+The `execute()` method is returning a `JobExecutionResult`, this contains execution
+times and accumulator results.
+
+Please see the [Streaming Guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/datastream_api.html)
+for information about streaming data sources and sink and for more in-depths information
+about the supported transformations on DataStream.
+
+Check out the [Batch Guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/index.html)
+for information about batch data sources and sink and for more in-depths information
+about the supported transformations on DataSet.
+
+
+{% top %}
+
+Lazy Evaluation
+---------------
+
+All Flink programs are executed lazily: When the program's main method is executed, the data loading
+and transformations do not happen directly. Rather, each operation is created and added to the
+program's plan. The operations are actually executed when the execution is explicitly triggered by
+an `execute()` call on the execution environment. Whether the program is executed locally
+or on a cluster depends on the type of execution environment
+
+The lazy evaluation lets you construct sophisticated programs that Flink executes as one
+holistically planned unit.
+
+{% top %}
+
+Specifying Keys
+---------------
+
+Some transformations (join, coGroup, keyBy, groupBy) require that a key be defined on
+a collection of elements. Other transformations (Reduce, GroupReduce,
+Aggregate, Windows) allow data being grouped on a key before they are
+applied.
+
+A DataSet is grouped as
+{% highlight java %}
+DataSet<...> input = // [...]
+DataSet<...> reduced = input
+  .groupBy(/*define key here*/)
+  .reduceGroup(/*do something*/);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+while a key can be specified on a DataStream using
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<...> input = // [...]
+DataStream<...> windowed = input
+  .key(/*define key here*/)
+  .window(/*window specification*/);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+The data model of Flink is not based on key-value pairs. Therefore,
+you do not need to physically pack the data set types into keys and
+values. Keys are "virtual": they are defined as functions over the
+actual data to guide the grouping operator.
+
+**NOTE:** In the following discussion we will use the `DataStream` API and `keyBy`.
+For the DataSet API you just have to replace by `DataSet` and `groupBy`.
+
+### Define keys for Tuples
+{:.no_toc}
+
+The simplest case is grouping Tuples on one or more
+fields of the Tuple:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<Tuple3<Integer,String,Long>> input = // [...]
+KeyedStream<Tuple3<Integer,String,Long> keyed = input.keyBy(0)
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val input: DataStream[(Int, String, Long)] = // [...]
+val keyed = input.keyBy(0)
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+The tuples is grouped on the first field (the one of
+Integer type).
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<Tuple3<Integer,String,Long>> input = // [...]
+KeyedStream<Tuple3<Integer,String,Long> keyed = input.keyBy(0,1)
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val input: DataSet[(Int, String, Long)] = // [...]
+val grouped = input.groupBy(0,1)
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+Here, we group the tuples on a composite key consisting of the first and the
+second field.
+
+A note on nested Tuples: If you have a DataStream with a nested tuple, such as:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<Tuple3<Tuple2<Integer, Float>,String,Long>> ds;
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Specifying `keyBy(0)` will cause the system to use the full `Tuple2` as a key (with the Integer and Float being the key). If you want to "navigate" into the nested `Tuple2`, you have to use field expression keys which are explained below.
+
+### Define keys using Field Expressions
+{:.no_toc}
+
+You can use String-based field expressions to reference nested fields and define keys for grouping, sorting, joining, or coGrouping.
+
+Field expressions make it very easy to select fields in (nested) composite types such as [Tuple](#tuples-and-case-classes) and [POJO](#pojos) types.
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+
+In the example below, we have a `WC` POJO with two fields "word" and "count". To group by the field `word`, we just pass its name to the `groupBy()` function.
+{% highlight java %}
+// some ordinary POJO (Plain old Java Object)
+public class WC {
+  public String word;
+  public int count;
+}
+DataStream<WC> words = // [...]
+DataStream<WC> wordCounts = words.keyBy("word").window(/*window specification*/);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+**Field Expression Syntax**:
+
+- Select POJO fields by their field name. For example `"user"` refers to the "user" field of a POJO type.
+
+- Select Tuple fields by their field name or 0-offset field index. For example `"f0"` and `"5"` refer to the first and sixth field of a Java Tuple type, respectively.
+
+- You can select nested fields in POJOs and Tuples. For example `"user.zip"` refers to the "zip" field of a POJO which is stored in the "user" field of a POJO type. Arbitrary nesting and mixing of POJOs and Tuples is supported such as `"f1.user.zip"` or `"user.f3.1.zip"`.
+
+- You can select the full type using the `"*"` wildcard expressions. This does also work for types which are not Tuple or POJO types.
+
+**Field Expression Example**:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+public static class WC {
+  public ComplexNestedClass complex; //nested POJO
+  private int count;
+  // getter / setter for private field (count)
+  public int getCount() {
+    return count;
+  }
+  public void setCount(int c) {
+    this.count = c;
+  }
+}
+public static class ComplexNestedClass {
+  public Integer someNumber;
+  public float someFloat;
+  public Tuple3<Long, Long, String> word;
+  public IntWritable hadoopCitizen;
+}
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+These are valid field expressions for the example code above:
+
+- `"count"`: The count field in the `WC` class.
+
+- `"complex"`: Recursively selects all fields of the field complex of POJO type `ComplexNestedClass`.
+
+- `"complex.word.f2"`: Selects the last field of the nested `Tuple3`.
+
+- `"complex.hadoopCitizen"`: Selects the Hadoop `IntWritable` type.
+
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+
+In the example below, we have a `WC` POJO with two fields "word" and "count". To group by the field `word`, we just pass its name to the `groupBy()` function.
+{% highlight java %}
+// some ordinary POJO (Plain old Java Object)
+class WC(var word: String, var count: Int) {
+  def this() { this("", 0L) }
+}
+val words: DataStream[WC] = // [...]
+val wordCounts = words.keyBy("word").window(/*window specification*/)
+
+// or, as a case class, which is less typing
+case class WC(word: String, count: Int)
+val words: DataStream[WC] = // [...]
+val wordCounts = words.keyBy("word").window(/*window specification*/)
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+**Field Expression Syntax**:
+
+- Select POJO fields by their field name. For example `"user"` refers to the "user" field of a POJO type.
+
+- Select Tuple fields by their 1-offset field name or 0-offset field index. For example `"_1"` and `"5"` refer to the first and sixth field of a Scala Tuple type, respectively.
+
+- You can select nested fields in POJOs and Tuples. For example `"user.zip"` refers to the "zip" field of a POJO which is stored in the "user" field of a POJO type. Arbitrary nesting and mixing of POJOs and Tuples is supported such as `"_2.user.zip"` or `"user._4.1.zip"`.
+
+- You can select the full type using the `"_"` wildcard expressions. This does also work for types which are not Tuple or POJO types.
+
+**Field Expression Example**:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+class WC(var complex: ComplexNestedClass, var count: Int) {
+  def this() { this(null, 0) }
+}
+
+class ComplexNestedClass(
+    var someNumber: Int,
+    someFloat: Float,
+    word: (Long, Long, String),
+    hadoopCitizen: IntWritable) {
+  def this() { this(0, 0, (0, 0, ""), new IntWritable(0)) }
+}
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+These are valid field expressions for the example code above:
+
+- `"count"`: The count field in the `WC` class.
+
+- `"complex"`: Recursively selects all fields of the field complex of POJO type `ComplexNestedClass`.
+
+- `"complex.word._3"`: Selects the last field of the nested `Tuple3`.
+
+- `"complex.hadoopCitizen"`: Selects the Hadoop `IntWritable` type.
+
+</div>
+</div>
+
+### Define keys using Key Selector Functions
+{:.no_toc}
+
+An additional way to define keys are "key selector" functions. A key selector function
+takes a single element as input and returns the key for the element. The key can be of any type and be derived from arbitrary computations.
+
+The following example shows a key selector function that simply returns the field of an object:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+// some ordinary POJO
+public class WC {public String word; public int count;}
+DataStream<WC> words = // [...]
+KeyedStream<WC> kyed = words
+  .keyBy(new KeySelector<WC, String>() {
+     public String getKey(WC wc) { return wc.word; }
+   });
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+// some ordinary case class
+case class WC(word: String, count: Int)
+val words: DataStream[WC] = // [...]
+val keyed = words.keyBy( _.word )
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+{% top %}
+
+Specifying Transformation Functions
+--------------------------
+
+Most transformations require user-defined functions. This section lists different ways
+of how they can be specified
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+
+#### Implementing an interface
+
+The most basic way is to implement one of the provided interfaces:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+class MyMapFunction implements MapFunction<String, Integer> {
+  public Integer map(String value) { return Integer.parseInt(value); }
+});
+data.map(new MyMapFunction());
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+#### Anonymous classes
+
+You can pass a function as an anonymous class:
+{% highlight java %}
+data.map(new MapFunction<String, Integer> () {
+  public Integer map(String value) { return Integer.parseInt(value); }
+});
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+#### Java 8 Lambdas
+
+Flink also supports Java 8 Lambdas in the Java API. Please see the full [Java 8 Guide]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/java8.html).
+
+{% highlight java %}
+data.filter(s -> s.startsWith("http://"));
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+{% highlight java %}
+data.reduce((i1,i2) -> i1 + i2);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+#### Rich functions
+
+All transformations that require a user-defined function can
+instead take as argument a *rich* function. For example, instead of
+
+{% highlight java %}
+class MyMapFunction implements MapFunction<String, Integer> {
+  public Integer map(String value) { return Integer.parseInt(value); }
+});
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+you can write
+
+{% highlight java %}
+class MyMapFunction extends RichMapFunction<String, Integer> {
+  public Integer map(String value) { return Integer.parseInt(value); }
+});
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+and pass the function as usual to a `map` transformation:
+
+{% highlight java %}
+data.map(new MyMapFunction());
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Rich functions can also be defined as an anonymous class:
+{% highlight java %}
+data.map (new RichMapFunction<String, Integer>() {
+  public Integer map(String value) { return Integer.parseInt(value); }
+});
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+
+
+#### Lambda Functions
+
+As already seen in previous examples all operations accept lambda functions for describing
+the operation:
+{% highlight scala %}
+val data: DataSet[String] = // [...]
+data.filter { _.startsWith("http://") }
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+val data: DataSet[Int] = // [...]
+data.reduce { (i1,i2) => i1 + i2 }
+// or
+data.reduce { _ + _ }
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+#### Rich functions
+
+All transformations that take as argument a lambda function can
+instead take as argument a *rich* function. For example, instead of
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+data.map { x => x.toInt }
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+you can write
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+class MyMapFunction extends RichMapFunction[String, Int] {
+  def map(in: String):Int = { in.toInt }
+})
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+and pass the function to a `map` transformation:
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+data.map(new MyMapFunction())
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Rich functions can also be defined as an anonymous class:
+{% highlight scala %}
+data.map (new RichMapFunction[String, Int] {
+  def map(in: String):Int = { in.toInt }
+})
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+Rich functions provide, in addition to the user-defined function (map,
+reduce, etc), four methods: `open`, `close`, `getRuntimeContext`, and
+`setRuntimeContext`. These are useful for parameterizing the function
+(see [Passing Parameters to Functions]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/index.html#passing-parameters-to-functions)),
+creating and finalizing local state, accessing broadcast variables (see
+[Broadcast Variables]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/index.html#broadcast-variables), and for accessing runtime
+information such as accumulators and counters (see
+[Accumulators and Counters](#accumulators--counters), and information
+on iterations (see [Iterations]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/iterations.html)).
+
+{% top %}
+
+Supported Data Types
+--------------------
+
+Flink places some restrictions on the type of elements that can be in a DataSet or DataStream.
+The reason for this is that the system analyzes the types to determine
+efficient execution strategies.
+
+There are six different categories of data types:
+
+1. **Java Tuples** and **Scala Case Classes**
+2. **Java POJOs**
+3. **Primitive Types**
+4. **Regular Classes**
+5. **Values**
+6. **Hadoop Writables**
+7. **Special Types**
+
+#### Tuples and Case Classes
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+
+Tuples are composite types that contain a fixed number of fields with various types.
+The Java API provides classes from `Tuple1` up to `Tuple25`. Every field of a tuple
+can be an arbitrary Flink type including further tuples, resulting in nested tuples. Fields of a
+tuple can be accessed directly using the field's name as `tuple.f4`, or using the generic getter method
+`tuple.getField(int position)`. The field indices start at 0. Note that this stands in contrast
+to the Scala tuples, but it is more consistent with Java's general indexing.
+
+{% highlight java %}
+DataStream<Tuple2<String, Integer>> wordCounts = env.fromElements(
+    new Tuple2<String, Integer>("hello", 1),
+    new Tuple2<String, Integer>("world", 2));
+
+wordCounts.map(new MapFunction<Tuple2<String, Integer>, Integer>() {
+    @Override
+    public String map(Tuple2<String, Integer> value) throws Exception {
+        return value.f1;
+    }
+});
+
+wordCounts.keyBy(0); // also valid .keyBy("f0")
+
+
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+
+Scala case classes (and Scala tuples which are a special case of case classes), are composite types that contain a fixed number of fields with various types. Tuple fields are addressed by their 1-offset names such as `_1` for the first field. Case class fields are accessed by their name.
+
+{% highlight scala %}
+case class WordCount(word: String, count: Int)
+val input = env.fromElements(
+    WordCount("hello", 1),
+    WordCount("world", 2)) // Case Class Data Set
+
+input.keyBy("word")// key by field expression "word"
+
+val input2 = env.fromElements(("hello", 1), ("world", 2)) // Tuple2 Data Set
+
+input2.keyBy(0, 1) // key by field positions 0 and 1
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+</div>
+</div>
+
+#### POJOs
+
+Java and Scala classes are treated by Flink as a special POJO data type if they fulfill the following requirements:
+
+- The class must be public.
+
+- It must have a public constructor without arguments (default constructor).
+
+- All fields are either public or must be accessible through getter and setter functions. For a field called `foo` the getter and setter methods must be named `getFoo()` and `setFoo()`.
+
+- The type of a field must be supported by Flink. At the moment, Flink uses [Avro](http://avro.apache.org) to serialize arbitrary objects (such as `Date`).
+
+Flink analyzes the structure of POJO types, i.e., it learns about the fields of a POJO. As a result POJO types are easier to use than general types. Moreover, Flink can process POJOs more efficiently than general types.
+
+The following example shows a simple POJO with two public fields.
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+public class WordWithCount {
+
+    public String word;
+    public int count;
+
+    public WordWithCount() {}
+
+    public WordWithCount(String word, int count) {
+        this.word = word;
+        this.count = count;
+    }
+}
+
+DataStream<WordWithCount> wordCounts = env.fromElements(
+    new WordWithCount("hello", 1),
+    new WordWithCount("world", 2));
+
+wordCounts.keyBy("word"); // key by field expression "word"
+
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+class WordWithCount(var word: String, var count: Int) {
+    def this() {
+      this(null, -1)
+    }
+}
+
+val input = env.fromElements(
+    new WordWithCount("hello", 1),
+    new WordWithCount("world", 2)) // Case Class Data Set
+
+input.keyBy("word")// key by field expression "word"
+
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+#### Primitive Types
+
+Flink supports all Java and Scala primitive types such as `Integer`, `String`, and `Double`.
+
+#### General Class Types
+
+Flink supports most Java and Scala classes (API and custom).
+Restrictions apply to classes containing fields that cannot be serialized, like file pointers, I/O streams, or other native
+resources. Classes that follow the Java Beans conventions work well in general.
+
+All classes that are not identified as POJO types (see POJO requirements above) are handled by Flink as general class types.
+Flink treats these data types as black boxes and is not able to access their their content (i.e., for efficient sorting). General types are de/serialized using the serialization framework [Kryo](https://github.com/EsotericSoftware/kryo).
+
+#### Values
+
+*Value* types describe their serialization and deserialization manually. Instead of going through a
+general purpose serialization framework, they provide custom code for those operations by means of
+implementing the `org.apache.flinktypes.Value` interface with the methods `read` and `write`. Using
+a Value type is reasonable when general purpose serialization would be highly inefficient. An
+example would be a data type that implements a sparse vector of elements as an array. Knowing that
+the array is mostly zero, one can use a special encoding for the non-zero elements, while the
+general purpose serialization would simply write all array elements.
+
+The `org.apache.flinktypes.CopyableValue` interface supports manual internal cloning logic in a
+similar way.
+
+Flink comes with pre-defined Value types that correspond to basic data types. (`ByteValue`,
+`ShortValue`, `IntValue`, `LongValue`, `FloatValue`, `DoubleValue`, `StringValue`, `CharValue`,
+`BooleanValue`). These Value types act as mutable variants of the basic data types: Their value can
+be altered, allowing programmers to reuse objects and take pressure off the garbage collector.
+
+
+#### Hadoop Writables
+
+You can use types that implement the `org.apache.hadoop.Writable` interface. The serialization logic
+defined in the `write()`and `readFields()` methods will be used for serialization.
+
+#### Special Types
+
+You can use special types, including Scala's `Either`, `Option`, and `Try`.
+The Java API has its own custom implementation of `Either`.
+Similarly to Scala's `Either`, it represents a value of one two possible types, *Left* or *Right*.
+`Either` can be useful for error handling or operators that need to output two different types of records.
+
+#### Type Erasure & Type Inference
+
+*Note: This Section is only relevant for Java.*
+
+The Java compiler throws away much of the generic type information after compilation. This is
+known as *type erasure* in Java. It means that at runtime, an instance of an object does not know
+its generic type any more. For example, instances of `DataStream<String>` and `DataStream<Long>` look the
+same to the JVM.
+
+Flink requires type information at the time when it prepares the program for execution (when the
+main method of the program is called). The Flink Java API tries to reconstruct the type information
+that was thrown away in various ways and store it explicitly in the data sets and operators. You can
+retrieve the type via `DataStream.getType()`. The method returns an instance of `TypeInformation`,
+which is Flink's internal way of representing types.
+
+The type inference has its limits and needs the "cooperation" of the programmer in some cases.
+Examples for that are methods that create data sets from collections, such as
+`ExecutionEnvironment.fromCollection(),` where you can pass an argument that describes the type. But
+also generic functions like `MapFunction<I, O>` may need extra type information.
+
+The
+{% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/java/typeutils/ResultTypeQueryable.java "ResultTypeQueryable" %}
+interface can be implemented by input formats and functions to tell the API
+explicitly about their return type. The *input types* that the functions are invoked with can
+usually be inferred by the result types of the previous operations.
+
+Execution Configuration
+-----------------------
+
+The `StreamExecutionEnvironment` also contains the `ExecutionConfig` which allows to set job specific configuration values for the runtime.
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+StreamExecutionEnvironment env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+ExecutionConfig executionConfig = env.getConfig();
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment
+var executionConfig = env.getConfig
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+The following configuration options are available: (the default is bold)
+
+- **`enableClosureCleaner()`** / `disableClosureCleaner()`. The closure cleaner is enabled by default. The closure cleaner removes unneeded references to the surrounding class of anonymous functions inside Flink programs.
+With the closure cleaner disabled, it might happen that an anonymous user function is referencing the surrounding class, which is usually not Serializable. This will lead to exceptions by the serializer.
+
+- `getParallelism()` / `setParallelism(int parallelism)` Set the default parallelism for the job.
+
+- `getNumberOfExecutionRetries()` / `setNumberOfExecutionRetries(int numberOfExecutionRetries)` Sets the number of times that failed tasks are re-executed. A value of zero effectively disables fault tolerance. A value of `-1` indicates that the system default value (as defined in the configuration) should be used.
+
+- `getExecutionRetryDelay()` / `setExecutionRetryDelay(long executionRetryDelay)` Sets the delay in milliseconds that the system waits after a job has failed, before re-executing it. The delay starts after all tasks have been successfully been stopped on the TaskManagers, and once the delay is past, the tasks are re-started. This parameter is useful to delay re-execution in order to let certain time-out related failures surface fully (like broken connections that have not fully timed out), before attempting a re-execution and immediately failing again due to the same problem. This parameter only has an effect if the number of execution re-tries is one or more.
+
+- `getExecutionMode()` / `setExecutionMode()`. The default execution mode is PIPELINED. Sets the execution mode to execute the program. The execution mode defines whether data exchanges are performed in a batch or on a pipelined manner.
+
+- `enableForceKryo()` / **`disableForceKryo`**. Kryo is not forced by default. Forces the GenericTypeInformation to use the Kryo serializer for POJOS even though we could analyze them as a POJO. In some cases this might be preferable. For example, when Flink's internal serializers fail to handle a POJO properly.
+
+- `enableForceAvro()` / **`disableForceAvro()`**. Avro is not forced by default. Forces the Flink AvroTypeInformation to use the Avro serializer instead of Kryo for serializing Avro POJOs.
+
+- `enableObjectReuse()` / **`disableObjectReuse()`** By default, objects are not reused in Flink. Enabling the object reuse mode will instruct the runtime to reuse user objects for better performance. Keep in mind that this can lead to bugs when the user-code function of an operation is not aware of this behavior.
+
+- **`enableSysoutLogging()`** / `disableSysoutLogging()` JobManager status updates are printed to `System.out` by default. This setting allows to disable this behavior.
+
+- `getGlobalJobParameters()` / `setGlobalJobParameters()` This method allows users to set custom objects as a global configuration for the job. Since the `ExecutionConfig` is accessible in all user defined functions, this is an easy method for making configuration globally available in a job.
+
+- `addDefaultKryoSerializer(Class<?> type, Serializer<?> serializer)` Register a Kryo serializer instance for the given `type`.
+
+- `addDefaultKryoSerializer(Class<?> type, Class<? extends Serializer<?>> serializerClass)` Register a Kryo serializer class for the given `type`.
+
+- `registerTypeWithKryoSerializer(Class<?> type, Serializer<?> serializer)` Register the given type with Kryo and specify a serializer for it. By registering a type with Kryo, the serialization of the type will be much more efficient.
+
+- `registerKryoType(Class<?> type)` If the type ends up being serialized with Kryo, then it will be registered at Kryo to make sure that only tags (integer IDs) are written. If a type is not registered with Kryo, its entire class-name will be serialized with every instance, leading to much higher I/O costs.
+
+- `registerPojoType(Class<?> type)` Registers the given type with the serialization stack. If the type is eventually serialized as a POJO, then the type is registered with the POJO serializer. If the type ends up being serialized with Kryo, then it will be registered at Kryo to make sure that only tags are written. If a type is not registered with Kryo, its entire class-name will be serialized with every instance, leading to much higher I/O costs.
+
+Note that types registered with `registerKryoType()` are not available to Flink's Kryo serializer instance.
+
+- `disableAutoTypeRegistration()` Automatic type registration is enabled by default. The automatic type registration is registering all types (including sub-types) used by usercode with Kryo and the POJO serializer.
+
+- `setTaskCancellationInterval(long interval)` Sets the the interval (in milliseconds) to wait between consecutive attempts to cancel a running task. When a task is canceled a new thread is created which periodically calls `interrupt()` on the task thread, if the task thread does not terminate within a certain time. This parameter refers to the time between consecutive calls to `interrupt()` and is set by default to **30000** milliseconds, or **30 seconds**.
+
+The `RuntimeContext` which is accessible in `Rich*` functions through the `getRuntimeContext()` method also allows to access the `ExecutionConfig` in all user defined functions.
+
+{% top %}
+
+Program Packaging and Distributed Execution
+-----------------------------------------
+
+As described earlier, Flink programs can be executed on
+clusters by using a `remote environment`. Alternatively, programs can be packaged into JAR Files
+(Java Archives) for execution. Packaging the program is a prerequisite to executing them through the
+[command line interface]({{ site.baseurl }}/setup/cli.html).
+
+#### Packaging Programs
+
+To support execution from a packaged JAR file via the command line or web interface, a program must
+use the environment obtained by `StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment()`. This environment
+will act as the cluster's environment when the JAR is submitted to the command line or web
+interface. If the Flink program is invoked differently than through these interfaces, the
+environment will act like a local environment.
+
+To package the program, simply export all involved classes as a JAR file. The JAR file's manifest
+must point to the class that contains the program's *entry point* (the class with the public
+`main` method). The simplest way to do this is by putting the *main-class* entry into the
+manifest (such as `main-class: org.apache.flinkexample.MyProgram`). The *main-class* attribute is
+the same one that is used by the Java Virtual Machine to find the main method when executing a JAR
+files through the command `java -jar pathToTheJarFile`. Most IDEs offer to include that attribute
+automatically when exporting JAR files.
+
+
+#### Packaging Programs through Plans
+
+Additionally, we support packaging programs as *Plans*. Instead of defining a progam in the main
+method and calling
+`execute()` on the environment, plan packaging returns the *Program Plan*, which is a description of
+the program's data flow. To do that, the program must implement the
+`org.apache.flink.api.common.Program` interface, defining the `getPlan(String...)` method. The
+strings passed to that method are the command line arguments. The program's plan can be created from
+the environment via the `ExecutionEnvironment#createProgramPlan()` method. When packaging the
+program's plan, the JAR manifest must point to the class implementing the
+`org.apache.flinkapi.common.Program` interface, instead of the class with the main method.
+
+
+#### Summary
+
+The overall procedure to invoke a packaged program is as follows:
+
+1. The JAR's manifest is searched for a *main-class* or *program-class* attribute. If both
+attributes are found, the *program-class* attribute takes precedence over the *main-class*
+attribute. Both the command line and the web interface support a parameter to pass the entry point
+class name manually for cases where the JAR manifest contains neither attribute.
+
+2. If the entry point class implements the `org.apache.flinkapi.common.Program`, then the system
+calls the `getPlan(String...)` method to obtain the program plan to execute.
+
+3. If the entry point class does not implement the `org.apache.flinkapi.common.Program` interface,
+the system will invoke the main method of the class.
+
+{% top %}
+
+Accumulators & Counters
+---------------------------
+
+Accumulators are simple constructs with an **add operation** and a **final accumulated result**,
+which is available after the job ended.
+
+The most straightforward accumulator is a **counter**: You can increment it using the
+```Accumulator.add(V value)``` method. At the end of the job Flink will sum up (merge) all partial
+results and send the result to the client. Accumulators are useful during debugging or if you
+quickly want to find out more about your data.
+
+Flink currently has the following **built-in accumulators**. Each of them implements the
+{% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/Accumulator.java "Accumulator" %}
+interface.
+
+- {% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/IntCounter.java "__IntCounter__" %},
+  {% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/LongCounter.java "__LongCounter__" %}
+  and {% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/DoubleCounter.java "__DoubleCounter__" %}:
+  See below for an example using a counter.
+- {% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/Histogram.java "__Histogram__" %}:
+  A histogram implementation for a discrete number of bins. Internally it is just a map from Integer
+  to Integer. You can use this to compute distributions of values, e.g. the distribution of
+  words-per-line for a word count program.
+
+__How to use accumulators:__
+
+First you have to create an accumulator object (here a counter) in the user-defined transformation
+function where you want to use it.
+
+{% highlight java %}
+private IntCounter numLines = new IntCounter();
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+Second you have to register the accumulator object, typically in the ```open()``` method of the
+*rich* function. Here you also define the name.
+
+{% highlight java %}
+getRuntimeContext().addAccumulator("num-lines", this.numLines);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+You can now use the accumulator anywhere in the operator function, including in the ```open()``` and
+```close()``` methods.
+
+{% highlight java %}
+this.numLines.add(1);
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+The overall result will be stored in the ```JobExecutionResult``` object which is
+returned from the `execute()` method of the execution environment
+(currently this only works if the execution waits for the
+completion of the job).
+
+{% highlight java %}
+myJobExecutionResult.getAccumulatorResult("num-lines")
+{% endhighlight %}
+
+All accumulators share a single namespace per job. Thus you can use the same accumulator in
+different operator functions of your job. Flink will internally merge all accumulators with the same
+name.
+
+A note on accumulators and iterations: Currently the result of accumulators is only available after
+the overall job ended. We plan to also make the result of the previous iteration available in the
+next iteration. You can use
+{% gh_link /flink-java/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/java/operators/IterativeDataSet.java#L98 "Aggregators" %}
+to compute per-iteration statistics and base the termination of iterations on such statistics.
+
+__Custom accumulators:__
+
+To implement your own accumulator you simply have to write your implementation of the Accumulator
+interface. Feel free to create a pull request if you think your custom accumulator should be shipped
+with Flink.
+
+You have the choice to implement either
+{% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/Accumulator.java "Accumulator" %}
+or {% gh_link /flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/accumulators/SimpleAccumulator.java "SimpleAccumulator" %}.
+
+```Accumulator<V,R>``` is most flexible: It defines a type ```V``` for the value to add, and a
+result type ```R``` for the final result. E.g. for a histogram, ```V``` is a number and ```R``` is
+ a histogram. ```SimpleAccumulator``` is for the cases where both types are the same, e.g. for counters.
+
+{% top %}
+
+Parallel Execution
+------------------
+
+This section describes how the parallel execution of programs can be configured in Flink. A Flink
+program consists of multiple tasks (transformations/operators, data sources, and sinks). A task is split into
+several parallel instances for execution and each parallel instance processes a subset of the task's
+input data. The number of parallel instances of a task is called its *parallelism*.
+
+
+The parallelism of a task can be specified in Flink on different levels.
+
+### Operator Level
+
+The parallelism of an individual operator, data source, or data sink can be defined by calling its
+`setParallelism()` method.  For example, like this:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+final StreamExecutionEnvironment env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+
+DataStream<String> text = [...]
+DataStream<Tuple2<String, Integer>> wordCounts = text
+    .flatMap(new LineSplitter())
+    .keyBy(0)
+    .timeWindow(Time.seconds(5))
+    .sum(1).setParallelism(5);
+
+wordCounts.print();
+
+env.execute("Word Count Example");
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment
+
+val text = [...]
+val wordCounts = text
+    .flatMap{ _.split(" ") map { (_, 1) } }
+    .keyBy(0)
+    .timeWindow(Time.seconds(5))
+    .sum(1).setParallelism(5)
+wordCounts.print()
+
+env.execute("Word Count Example")
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+### Execution Environment Level
+
+As mentioned [here](#anatomy-of-a-flink-program) Flink programs are executed in the context
+of an execution environment. An
+execution environment defines a default parallelism for all operators, data sources, and data sinks
+it executes. Execution environment parallelism can be overwritten by explicitly configuring the
+parallelism of an operator.
+
+The default parallelism of an execution environment can be specified by calling the
+`setParallelism()` method. To execute all operators, data sources, and data sinks with a parallelism
+of `3`, set the default parallelism of the execution environment as follows:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+final StreamExecutionEnvironment env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+env.setParallelism(3);
+
+DataStream<String> text = [...]
+DataStream<Tuple2<String, Integer>> wordCounts = [...]
+wordCounts.print();
+
+env.execute("Word Count Example");
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val env = StreamExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment
+env.setParallelism(3)
+
+val text = [...]
+val wordCounts = text
+    .flatMap{ _.split(" ") map { (_, 1) } }
+    .keyBy(0)
+    .timeWindow(Time.seconds(5))
+    .sum(1)
+wordCounts.print()
+
+env.execute("Word Count Example")
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+### Client Level
+
+The parallelism can be set at the Client when submitting jobs to Flink. The
+Client can either be a Java or a Scala program. One example of such a Client is
+Flink's Command-line Interface (CLI).
+
+For the CLI client, the parallelism parameter can be specified with `-p`. For
+example:
+
+    ./bin/flink run -p 10 ../examples/*WordCount-java*.jar
+
+
+In a Java/Scala program, the parallelism is set as follows:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+
+try {
+    PackagedProgram program = new PackagedProgram(file, args);
+    InetSocketAddress jobManagerAddress = RemoteExecutor.getInetFromHostport("localhost:6123");
+    Configuration config = new Configuration();
+
+    Client client = new Client(jobManagerAddress, config, program.getUserCodeClassLoader());
+
+    // set the parallelism to 10 here
+    client.run(program, 10, true);
+
+} catch (ProgramInvocationException e) {
+    e.printStackTrace();
+}
+
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+try {
+    PackagedProgram program = new PackagedProgram(file, args)
+    InetSocketAddress jobManagerAddress = RemoteExecutor.getInetFromHostport("localhost:6123")
+    Configuration config = new Configuration()
+
+    Client client = new Client(jobManagerAddress, new Configuration(), program.getUserCodeClassLoader())
+
+    // set the parallelism to 10 here
+    client.run(program, 10, true)
+
+} catch {
+    case e: Exception => e.printStackTrace
+}
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+### System Level
+
+A system-wide default parallelism for all execution environments can be defined by setting the
+`parallelism.default` property in `./conf/flink-conf.yaml`. See the
+[Configuration]({{ site.baseurl }}/setup/config.html) documentation for details.
+
+{% top %}
+
+Execution Plans
+---------------
+
+Depending on various parameters such as data size or number of machines in the cluster, Flink's
+optimizer automatically chooses an execution strategy for your program. In many cases, it can be
+useful to know how exactly Flink will execute your program.
+
+__Plan Visualization Tool__
+
+Flink comes packaged with a visualization tool for execution plans. The HTML document containing
+the visualizer is located under ```tools/planVisualizer.html```. It takes a JSON representation of
+the job execution plan and visualizes it as a graph with complete annotations of execution
+strategies.
+
+The following code shows how to print the execution plan JSON from your program:
+
+<div class="codetabs" markdown="1">
+<div data-lang="java" markdown="1">
+{% highlight java %}
+final ExecutionEnvironment env = ExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+
+...
+
+System.out.println(env.getExecutionPlan());
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+<div data-lang="scala" markdown="1">
+{% highlight scala %}
+val env = ExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment
+
+...
+
+println(env.getExecutionPlan())
+{% endhighlight %}
+</div>
+</div>
+
+
+To visualize the execution plan, do the following:
+
+1. **Open** ```planVisualizer.html``` with your web browser,
+2. **Paste** the JSON string into the text field, and
+3. **Press** the draw button.
+
+After these steps, a detailed execution plan will be visualized.
+
+<img alt="A flink job execution graph." src="{{ site.baseurl }}/fig/plan_visualizer.png" width="80%">
+
+
+__Web Interface__
+
+Flink offers a web interface for submitting and executing jobs. The interface is part of the JobManager's
+web interface for monitoring, per default running on port 8081. Job submission via this interfaces requires
+that you have set `jobmanager.web.submit.enable: true` in `flink-conf.yaml`.
+
+You may specify program arguments before the job is executed. The plan visualization enables you to show
+the execution plan before executing the Flink job.
+
+{% top %}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flink/blob/844c874b/docs/dev/apis.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/docs/dev/apis.md b/docs/dev/apis.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5e06e14
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/dev/apis.md
@@ -0,0 +1,24 @@
+---
+title: "APIs"
+nav-id: apis
+nav-parent_id: dev
+nav-pos: 2
+---
+<!--
+Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+distributed with this work for additional information
+regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+specific language governing permissions and limitations
+under the License.
+-->

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flink/blob/844c874b/docs/dev/batch/connectors.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/docs/dev/batch/connectors.md b/docs/dev/batch/connectors.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4e5b009
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/dev/batch/connectors.md
@@ -0,0 +1,238 @@
+---
+title:  "Connectors"
+nav-parent_id: batch
+nav-pos: 4
+---
+<!--
+Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+distributed with this work for additional information
+regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+specific language governing permissions and limitations
+under the License.
+-->
+
+* TOC
+{:toc}
+
+## Reading from file systems
+
+Flink has build-in support for the following file systems:
+
+| Filesystem                            | Scheme       | Notes  |
+| ------------------------------------- |--------------| ------ |
+| Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) &nbsp; | `hdfs://`    | All HDFS versions are supported |
+| Amazon S3                             | `s3://`      | Support through Hadoop file system implementation (see below) |
+| MapR file system                      | `maprfs://`  | The user has to manually place the required jar files in the `lib/` dir |
+| Alluxio                               | `alluxio://` &nbsp; | Support through Hadoop file system implementation (see below) |
+
+
+
+### Using Hadoop file system implementations
+
+Apache Flink allows users to use any file system implementing the `org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem`
+interface. There are Hadoop `FileSystem` implementations for
+
+- [S3](https://aws.amazon.com/s3/) (tested)
+- [Google Cloud Storage Connector for Hadoop](https://cloud.google.com/hadoop/google-cloud-storage-connector) (tested)
+- [Alluxio](http://alluxio.org/) (tested)
+- [XtreemFS](http://www.xtreemfs.org/) (tested)
+- FTP via [Hftp](http://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r1.2.1/hftp.html) (not tested)
+- and many more.
+
+In order to use a Hadoop file system with Flink, make sure that
+
+- the `flink-conf.yaml` has set the `fs.hdfs.hadoopconf` property set to the Hadoop configuration directory.
+- the Hadoop configuration (in that directory) has an entry for the required file system. Examples for S3 and Alluxio are shown below.
+- the required classes for using the file system are available in the `lib/` folder of the Flink installation (on all machines running Flink). If putting the files into the directory is not possible, Flink is also respecting the `HADOOP_CLASSPATH` environment variable to add Hadoop jar files to the classpath.
+
+#### Amazon S3
+
+For Amazon S3 support add the following entries into the `core-site.xml` file:
+
+~~~xml
+<!-- configure the file system implementation -->
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3.impl</name>
+  <value>org.apache.hadoop.fs.s3native.NativeS3FileSystem</value>
+</property>
+
+<!-- set your AWS ID -->
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3.awsAccessKeyId</name>
+  <value>putKeyHere</value>
+</property>
+
+<!-- set your AWS access key -->
+<property>
+  <name>fs.s3.awsSecretAccessKey</name>
+  <value>putSecretHere</value>
+</property>
+~~~
+
+#### Alluxio
+
+For Alluxio support add the following entry into the `core-site.xml` file:
+
+~~~xml
+<property>
+  <name>fs.alluxio.impl</name>
+  <value>alluxio.hadoop.FileSystem</value>
+</property>
+~~~
+
+
+## Connecting to other systems using Input/OutputFormat wrappers for Hadoop
+
+Apache Flink allows users to access many different systems as data sources or sinks.
+The system is designed for very easy extensibility. Similar to Apache Hadoop, Flink has the concept
+of so called `InputFormat`s and `OutputFormat`s.
+
+One implementation of these `InputFormat`s is the `HadoopInputFormat`. This is a wrapper that allows
+users to use all existing Hadoop input formats with Flink.
+
+This section shows some examples for connecting Flink to other systems.
+[Read more about Hadoop compatibility in Flink]({{ site.baseurl }}/dev/batch/hadoop_compatibility.html).
+
+## Avro support in Flink
+
+Flink has extensive build-in support for [Apache Avro](http://avro.apache.org/). This allows to easily read from Avro files with Flink.
+Also, the serialization framework of Flink is able to handle classes generated from Avro schemas.
+
+In order to read data from an Avro file, you have to specify an `AvroInputFormat`.
+
+**Example**:
+
+~~~java
+AvroInputFormat<User> users = new AvroInputFormat<User>(in, User.class);
+DataSet<User> usersDS = env.createInput(users);
+~~~
+
+Note that `User` is a POJO generated by Avro. Flink also allows to perform string-based key selection of these POJOs. For example:
+
+~~~java
+usersDS.groupBy("name")
+~~~
+
+
+Note that using the `GenericData.Record` type is possible with Flink, but not recommended. Since the record contains the full schema, its very data intensive and thus probably slow to use.
+
+Flink's POJO field selection also works with POJOs generated from Avro. However, the usage is only possible if the field types are written correctly to the generated class. If a field is of type `Object` you can not use the field as a join or grouping key.
+Specifying a field in Avro like this `{"name": "type_double_test", "type": "double"},` works fine, however specifying it as a UNION-type with only one field (`{"name": "type_double_test", "type": ["double"]},`) will generate a field of type `Object`. Note that specifying nullable types (`{"name": "type_double_test", "type": ["null", "double"]},`) is possible!
+
+
+
+### Access Microsoft Azure Table Storage
+
+_Note: This example works starting from Flink 0.6-incubating_
+
+This example is using the `HadoopInputFormat` wrapper to use an existing Hadoop input format implementation for accessing [Azure's Table Storage](https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/storage-introduction/).
+
+1. Download and compile the `azure-tables-hadoop` project. The input format developed by the project is not yet available in Maven Central, therefore, we have to build the project ourselves.
+Execute the following commands:
+
+   ~~~bash
+   git clone https://github.com/mooso/azure-tables-hadoop.git
+   cd azure-tables-hadoop
+   mvn clean install
+   ~~~
+
+2. Setup a new Flink project using the quickstarts:
+
+   ~~~bash
+   curl https://flink.apache.org/q/quickstart.sh | bash
+   ~~~
+
+3. Add the following dependencies (in the `<dependencies>` section) to your `pom.xml` file:
+
+   ~~~xml
+   <dependency>
+       <groupId>org.apache.flink</groupId>
+       <artifactId>flink-hadoop-compatibility{{ site.scala_version_suffix }}</artifactId>
+       <version>{{site.version}}</version>
+   </dependency>
+   <dependency>
+     <groupId>com.microsoft.hadoop</groupId>
+     <artifactId>microsoft-hadoop-azure</artifactId>
+     <version>0.0.4</version>
+   </dependency>
+   ~~~
+
+   `flink-hadoop-compatibility` is a Flink package that provides the Hadoop input format wrappers.
+   `microsoft-hadoop-azure` is adding the project we've build before to our project.
+
+The project is now prepared for starting to code. We recommend to import the project into an IDE, such as Eclipse or IntelliJ. (Import as a Maven project!).
+Browse to the code of the `Job.java` file. Its an empty skeleton for a Flink job.
+
+Paste the following code into it:
+
+~~~java
+import java.util.Map;
+import org.apache.flink.api.common.functions.MapFunction;
+import org.apache.flink.api.java.DataSet;
+import org.apache.flink.api.java.ExecutionEnvironment;
+import org.apache.flink.api.java.tuple.Tuple2;
+import org.apache.flink.hadoopcompatibility.mapreduce.HadoopInputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
+import com.microsoft.hadoop.azure.AzureTableConfiguration;
+import com.microsoft.hadoop.azure.AzureTableInputFormat;
+import com.microsoft.hadoop.azure.WritableEntity;
+import com.microsoft.windowsazure.storage.table.EntityProperty;
+
+public class AzureTableExample {
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    // set up the execution environment
+    final ExecutionEnvironment env = ExecutionEnvironment.getExecutionEnvironment();
+
+    // create a  AzureTableInputFormat, using a Hadoop input format wrapper
+    HadoopInputFormat<Text, WritableEntity> hdIf = new HadoopInputFormat<Text, WritableEntity>(new AzureTableInputFormat(), Text.class, WritableEntity.class, new Job());
+
+    // set the Account URI, something like: https://apacheflink.table.core.windows.net
+    hdIf.getConfiguration().set(AzureTableConfiguration.Keys.ACCOUNT_URI.getKey(), "TODO");
+    // set the secret storage key here
+    hdIf.getConfiguration().set(AzureTableConfiguration.Keys.STORAGE_KEY.getKey(), "TODO");
+    // set the table name here
+    hdIf.getConfiguration().set(AzureTableConfiguration.Keys.TABLE_NAME.getKey(), "TODO");
+
+    DataSet<Tuple2<Text, WritableEntity>> input = env.createInput(hdIf);
+    // a little example how to use the data in a mapper.
+    DataSet<String> fin = input.map(new MapFunction<Tuple2<Text,WritableEntity>, String>() {
+      @Override
+      public String map(Tuple2<Text, WritableEntity> arg0) throws Exception {
+        System.err.println("--------------------------------\nKey = "+arg0.f0);
+        WritableEntity we = arg0.f1;
+
+        for(Map.Entry<String, EntityProperty> prop : we.getProperties().entrySet()) {
+          System.err.println("key="+prop.getKey() + " ; value (asString)="+prop.getValue().getValueAsString());
+        }
+
+        return arg0.f0.toString();
+      }
+    });
+
+    // emit result (this works only locally)
+    fin.print();
+
+    // execute program
+    env.execute("Azure Example");
+  }
+}
+~~~
+
+The example shows how to access an Azure table and turn data into Flink's `DataSet` (more specifically, the type of the set is `DataSet<Tuple2<Text, WritableEntity>>`). With the `DataSet`, you can apply all known transformations to the DataSet.
+
+## Access MongoDB
+
+This [GitHub repository documents how to use MongoDB with Apache Flink (starting from 0.7-incubating)](https://github.com/okkam-it/flink-mongodb-test).


Mime
View raw message