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From m..@apache.org
Subject [03/54] [partial] flink-web git commit: Revert "[hotfix] Manual build of docs"
Date Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00:55 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flink-web/blob/f0ac0cdb/content/docs/master/internals/types_serialization.html
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-  <div class="col-sm-10 col-sm-offset-1">
-    <h1>Type Extraction and Serialization</h1>
-
-
-
-<p>Flink handles types in a unique way, containing its own type descriptors,
-generic type extraction, and type serialization framework.
-This document describes the concepts and the rationale behind them.</p>
-
-<p>There are fundamental differences in the way that the Scala API and
-the Java API handle type information, so most of the issues described 
-here relate only to one of the to APIs.</p>
-
-<ul id="markdown-toc">
-  <li><a href="#type-handling-in-flink" id="markdown-toc-type-handling-in-flink">Type
handling in Flink</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#flinks-typeinformation-class" id="markdown-toc-flinks-typeinformation-class">Flink’s
TypeInformation class</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#type-information-in-the-scala-api" id="markdown-toc-type-information-in-the-scala-api">Type
Information in the Scala API</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#type-information-in-the-java-api" id="markdown-toc-type-information-in-the-java-api">Type
Information in the Java API</a></li>
-</ul>
-
-<h2 id="type-handling-in-flink">Type handling in Flink</h2>
-
-<p>Flink tries to know as much information about what types enter and leave user functions
as possible.
-This stands in contrast to the approach to just assuming nothing and letting the
-programming language and serialization framework handle all types dynamically.</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>
-    <p>To allow using POJOs and grouping/joining them by referring to field names,
Flink needs the type
-information to make checks (for typos and type compatibility) before the job is executed.</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>The more we know, the better serialization and data layout schemes the compiler/optimizer
can develop.
-That is quite important for the memory usage paradigm in Flink (work on serialized data
-inside/outside the heap and make serialization very cheap).</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>For the upcoming logical programs (see roadmap draft) we need this to know the
“schema” of functions.</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>Finally, it also spares users having to worry about serialization frameworks
and having to register
-types at those frameworks.</p>
-  </li>
-</ul>
-
-<h2 id="flinks-typeinformation-class">Flink’s TypeInformation class</h2>
-
-<p>The class <a href="https://github.com/apache/flink/blob/master//flink-core/src/main/java/org/apache/flink/api/common/typeinfo/TypeInformation.java">TypeInformation</a>
-is the base class for all type descriptors. It reveals some basic properties of the type
and can generate serializers
-and, in specializations, comparators for the types.
-(<em>Note that comparators in Flink do much more than defining an order - they are
basically the utility to handle keys</em>)</p>
-
-<p>Internally, Flink makes the following distinctions between types:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>
-    <p>Basic types: All Java primitives and their boxed form, plus <code>void</code>,
<code>String</code>, and <code>Date</code>.</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>Primitive arrays and Object arrays</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>Composite types</p>
-
-    <ul>
-      <li>
-        <p>Flink Java Tuples (part of the Flink Java API)</p>
-      </li>
-      <li>
-        <p>Scala <em>case classes</em> (including Scala tuples)</p>
-      </li>
-      <li>
-        <p>POJOs: classes that follow a certain bean-like pattern</p>
-      </li>
-    </ul>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>Scala auxiliary types (Option, Either, Lists, Maps, …)</p>
-  </li>
-  <li>
-    <p>Generic types: These will not be serialized by Flink itself, but by Kryo.</p>
-  </li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>POJOs are of particular interest, because they support the creation of complex types
and the use of field
-names in the definition of keys: <code>dataSet.join(another).where("name").equalTo("personName")</code>.
-They are also transparent to the runtime and can be handled very efficiently by Flink.</p>
-
-<p><strong>Rules for POJO types</strong></p>
-
-<p>Flink recognizes a data type as a POJO type (and allows “by-name” field referencing)
if the following
-conditions are fulfilled:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>The class is public and standalone (no non-static inner class)</li>
-  <li>The class has a public no-argument constructor</li>
-  <li>All fields in the class (and all superclasses) are either public or
-or have a public getter and a setter method that follows the Java beans
-naming conventions for getters and setters.</li>
-</ul>
-
-<h2 id="type-information-in-the-scala-api">Type Information in the Scala API</h2>
-
-<p>Scala has very elaborate concepts for runtime type information though <em>type
manifests</em> and <em>class tags</em>. In
-general, types and methods have access to the types of their generic parameters - thus, Scala
programs do
-not suffer from type erasure as Java programs do.</p>
-
-<p>In addition, Scala allows to run custom code in the Scala Compiler through Scala
Macros - that means that some Flink
-code gets executed whenever you compile a Scala program written against Flink’s Scala API.</p>
-
-<p>We use the Macros to look at the parameter types and return types of all user functions
during compilation - that
-is the point in time when certainly all type information is perfectly available. Within the
macro, we create
-a <em>TypeInformation</em> for the function’s return types (or parameter types)
and make it part of the operation.</p>
-
-<h4 id="no-implicit-value-for-evidence-parameter-error">No Implicit Value for Evidence
Parameter Error</h4>
-
-<p>In the case where TypeInformation could not be created, programs fail to compile
with an error
-stating <em>“could not find implicit value for evidence parameter of type TypeInformation”</em>.</p>
-
-<p>A frequent reason if that the code that generates the TypeInformation has not been
imported.
-Make sure to import the entire flink.api.scala package.</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-scala" data-lang="scala"><span
class="k">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.flink.api.scala._</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>Another common cause are generic methods, which can be fixed as described in the
following section.</p>
-
-<h4 id="generic-methods">Generic Methods</h4>
-
-<p>Consider the following case below:</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-scala" data-lang="scala"><span
class="k">def</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">T</span><span
class="o">]</span> <span class="n">selectFirst</span><span class="o">(</span><span
class="n">input</span><span class="k">:</span> <span class="kt">DataSet</span><span
class="o">[(</span><span class="kt">T</span>, <span class="k">_</span><span
class="o">)])</span> <span class="k">:</span> <span class="kt">DataSet</span><span
class="o">[</span><span class="kt">T</span><span class="o">]</span>
<span class="k">=</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-  <span class="n">input</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">map</span>
<span class="o">{</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="k">=&gt;</span>
<span class="n">v</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">_1</span>
<span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="o">}</span>
-
-<span class="k">val</span> <span class="n">data</span> <span class="k">:</span>
<span class="kt">DataSet</span><span class="o">[(</span><span class="kt">String</span>,
<span class="kt">Long</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kt">=</span>
<span class="kt">...</span>
-
-<span class="kt">val</span> <span class="kt">result</span> <span
class="kt">=</span> <span class="kt">selectFirst</span><span class="o">(</span><span
class="kt">data</span><span class="o">)</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>For such generic methods, the data types of the function parameters and return type
may not be the same
-for every call and are not known at the site where the method is defined. The code above
will result
-in an error that not enough implicit evidence is available.</p>
-
-<p>In such cases, the type information has to be generated at the invocation site and
passed to the
-method. Scala offers <em>implicit parameters</em> for that.</p>
-
-<p>The following code tells Scala to bring a type information for <em>T</em>
into the function. The type
-information will then be generated at the sites where the method is invoked, rather than
where the
-method is defined.</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-scala" data-lang="scala"><span
class="k">def</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">T</span>
<span class="kt">:</span> <span class="kt">TypeInformation</span><span
class="o">]</span> <span class="n">selectFirst</span><span class="o">(</span><span
class="n">input</span><span class="k">:</span> <span class="kt">DataSet</span><span
class="o">[(</span><span class="kt">T</span>, <span class="k">_</span><span
class="o">)])</span> <span class="k">:</span> <span class="kt">DataSet</span><span
class="o">[</span><span class="kt">T</span><span class="o">]</span>
<span class="k">=</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-  <span class="n">input</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">map</span>
<span class="o">{</span> <span class="n">v</span> <span class="k">=&gt;</span>
<span class="n">v</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">_1</span>
<span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="o">}</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<h2 id="type-information-in-the-java-api">Type Information in the Java API</h2>
-
-<p>Java in general erases generic type information. Only for subclasses of generic
classes, the subclass
-stores the type to which the generic type variables bind.</p>
-
-<p>Flink uses reflection on the (anonymous) classes that implement the user functions
to figure out the types of
-the generic parameters of the function. This logic also contains some simple type inference
for cases where
-the return types of functions are dependent on input types, such as in the generic utility
method below:</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-java" data-lang="java"><span
class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">AppendOne</span><span
class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">T</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
<span class="kd">extends</span> <span class="n">MapFunction</span><span
class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">T</span><span class="o">,</span>
<span class="n">Tuple2</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span
class="n">T</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">Long</span><span
class="o">&gt;&gt;</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-
-    <span class="kd">public</span> <span class="n">Tuple2</span><span
class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">T</span><span class="o">,</span>
<span class="n">Long</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span
class="nf">map</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">T</span>
<span class="n">value</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-        <span class="k">return</span> <span class="k">new</span>
<span class="n">Tuple2</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span
class="n">T</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">Long</span><span
class="o">&gt;(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="o">,</span>
<span class="mi">1L</span><span class="o">);</span>
-    <span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="o">}</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>Not in all cases can Flink figure out the data types of functions reliably in Java.
-Some issues remain with generic lambdas (we are trying to solve this with the Java community,
-see below) and with generic type variables that we cannot infer.</p>
-
-<h4 id="type-hints-in-the-java-api">Type Hints in the Java API</h4>
-
-<p>To help cases where Flink cannot reconstruct the erased generic type information,
the Java API
-offers so called <em>type hints</em> from version 0.9 on. The type hints tell
the system the type of
-the data set produced by a function. The following gives an example:</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-java" data-lang="java"><span
class="n">DataSet</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">SomeType</span><span
class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">result</span> <span class="o">=</span>
<span class="n">dataSet</span>
-    <span class="o">.</span><span class="na">map</span><span class="o">(</span><span
class="k">new</span> <span class="n">MyGenericNonInferrableFunction</span><span
class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Long</span><span class="o">,</span>
<span class="n">SomeType</span><span class="o">&gt;())</span>
-        <span class="o">.</span><span class="na">returns</span><span
class="o">(</span><span class="n">SomeType</span><span class="o">.</span><span
class="na">class</span><span class="o">);</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>The <code>returns</code> statement specifies the produced type, in this
case via a class. The hints support
-type definition through</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>Classes, for non-parameterized types (no generics)</li>
-  <li>Strings in the form of <code>returns("Tuple2&lt;Integer, my.SomeType&gt;")</code>,
which are parsed and converted
-to a TypeInformation.</li>
-  <li>A TypeInformation directly</li>
-</ul>
-
-<h4 id="type-extraction-for-java-8-lambdas">Type extraction for Java 8 lambdas</h4>
-
-<p>Type extraction for Java 8 lambdas works differently than for non-lambdas, because
lambdas are not associated
-with an implementing class that extends the function interface.</p>
-
-<p>Currently, Flink tries to figure out which method implements the lambda and uses
Java’s generic signatures to
-determine the parameter types and the return type. However, these signatures are not generated
for lambdas
-by all compilers (as of writing this document only reliably by the Eclipse JDT compiler 4.5
from Milestone 2
-onwards)</p>
-
-<p><strong>Improving Type information for Java Lambdas</strong></p>
-
-<p>One of the Flink committers (Timo Walther) has actually become active in the Eclipse
JDT compiler community and
-in the OpenJDK community and submitted patches to the compiler to improve availability of
type information 
-available for Java 8 lambdas.</p>
-
-<p>The Eclipse JDT compiler has added support for this as of version 4.5 M4. Discussion
about the feature in the
-OpenJDK compiler is pending.</p>
-
-<h4 id="serialization-of-pojo-types">Serialization of POJO types</h4>
-
-<p>The PojoTypeInformation is creating serializers for all the fields inside the POJO.
Standard types such as 
-int, long, String etc. are handled by serializers we ship with Flink.
-For all other types, we fall back to Kryo.</p>
-
-<p>If Kryo is not able to handle the type, you can ask the PojoTypeInfo to serialize
the POJO using Avro.
-To do so, you have to call</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-java" data-lang="java"><span
class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">ExecutionEnvironment</span> <span
class="n">env</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ExecutionEnvironment</span><span
class="o">.</span><span class="na">getExecutionEnvironment</span><span
class="o">();</span>
-<span class="n">env</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getConfig</span><span
class="o">().</span><span class="na">enableForceAvro</span><span class="o">();</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>Note that Flink is automatically serializing POJOs generated by Avro with the Avro
serializer.</p>
-
-<p>If you want your <strong>entire</strong> POJO Type to be treated by
the Kryo serializer, set</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-java" data-lang="java"><span
class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">ExecutionEnvironment</span> <span
class="n">env</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ExecutionEnvironment</span><span
class="o">.</span><span class="na">getExecutionEnvironment</span><span
class="o">();</span>
-<span class="n">env</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getConfig</span><span
class="o">().</span><span class="na">enableForceKryo</span><span class="o">();</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>If Kryo is not able to serialize your POJO, you can add a custom serializer to Kryo,
using</p>
-
-<div class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-java" data-lang="java"><span
class="n">env</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getConfig</span><span
class="o">().</span><span class="na">addDefaultKryoSerializer</span><span
class="o">(</span><span class="n">Class</span><span class="o">&lt;?&gt;</span>
<span class="n">type</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">Class</span><span
class="o">&lt;?</span> <span class="kd">extends</span> <span class="n">Serializer</span><span
class="o">&lt;?&gt;&gt;</span> <span class="n">serializerClass</span><span
class="o">)</span></code></pre></div>
-
-<p>There are different variants of these methods available.</p>
-
-
-  </div>
-
-  <div class="col-sm-10 col-sm-offset-1">
-    <!-- Disqus thread and some vertical offset -->
-    <div style="margin-top: 75px; margin-bottom: 50px" id="disqus_thread"></div>
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-
-    <!-- jQuery (necessary for Bootstrap's JavaScript plugins) -->
-    <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.2/jquery.min.js"></script>
-    <!-- Include all compiled plugins (below), or include individual files as needed -->
-    <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.4/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
-    <script src="http://flink.apache.org/docs/master/page/js/codetabs.js"></script>
-
-    <!-- Google Analytics -->
-    <script>
-      (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){
-      (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),
-      m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)
-      })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga');
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-      ga('create', 'UA-52545728-1', 'auto');
-      ga('send', 'pageview');
-    </script>
-
-    <!-- Disqus -->
-    <script type="text/javascript">
-    var disqus_shortname = 'stratosphere-eu';
-    (function() {
-        var dsq = document.createElement('script'); dsq.type = 'text/javascript'; dsq.async
= true;
-        dsq.src = '//' + disqus_shortname + '.disqus.com/embed.js';
-        (document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(dsq);
-    })();
-</script>
-  </body>
-</html>

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-regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
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-with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
-
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-
-Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
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\ No newline at end of file

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