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From cd...@apache.org
Subject [23/51] [partial] flex-blazeds git commit: - Moved old stuff to an "attic" directory - Changed the directory structure to comply to a default maven directory structure
Date Tue, 04 Aug 2015 10:06:57 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flex-blazeds/blob/5be16a28/attic/servers/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/webapps/docs/class-loader-howto.html
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+<html><head><META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"><title>Apache Tomcat 6.0 - Class Loader HOW-TO</title><meta content="Craig R. McClanahan" name="author"><meta content="Yoav Shapira" name="author"><style media="print" type="text/css">
+			.noPrint {display: none;}
+			td#mainBody {width: 100%;}
+		</style></head><body vlink="#525D76" alink="#525D76" link="#525D76" text="#000000" bgcolor="#ffffff"><table cellspacing="0" width="100%" border="0"><!--PAGE HEADER--><tr><td><!--PROJECT LOGO--><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/"><img border="0" alt="
+      The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container
+    " align="right" src="./images/tomcat.gif"></a></td><td><h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Apache Tomcat 6.0</font></h1></td><td><!--APACHE LOGO--><a href="http://www.apache.org/"><img border="0" alt="Apache Logo" align="right" src="./images/asf-logo.gif"></a></td></tr></table><table cellspacing="4" width="100%" border="0"><!--HEADER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr size="1" noshade></td></tr><tr><!--LEFT SIDE NAVIGATION--><td class="noPrint" nowrap valign="top" width="20%"><p><strong>Links</strong></p><ul><li><a href="index.html">Docs Home</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FAQ">FAQ</a></li></ul><p><strong>User Guide</strong></p><ul><li><a href="introduction.html">1) Introduction</a></li><li><a href="setup.html">2) Setup</a></li><li><a href="appdev/index.html">3) First webapp</a></li><li><a href="deployer-howto.html">4) Deployer</a></li><li><a href="manager-howto.html">5) Manager</a></li><li><a href="realm-howto.html">6) Realms and AAA</a></li><li><a hr
 ef="security-manager-howto.html">7) Security Manager</a></li><li><a href="jndi-resources-howto.html">8) JNDI Resources</a></li><li><a href="jndi-datasource-examples-howto.html">9) JDBC DataSources</a></li><li><a href="class-loader-howto.html">10) Classloading</a></li><li><a href="jasper-howto.html">11) JSPs</a></li><li><a href="ssl-howto.html">12) SSL</a></li><li><a href="ssi-howto.html">13) SSI</a></li><li><a href="cgi-howto.html">14) CGI</a></li><li><a href="proxy-howto.html">15) Proxy Support</a></li><li><a href="mbeans-descriptor-howto.html">16) MBean Descriptor</a></li><li><a href="default-servlet.html">17) Default Servlet</a></li><li><a href="cluster-howto.html">18) Clustering</a></li><li><a href="balancer-howto.html">19) Load Balancer</a></li><li><a href="connectors.html">20) Connectors</a></li><li><a href="monitoring.html">21) Monitoring and Management</a></li><li><a href="logging.html">22) Logging</a></li><li><a href="apr.html">23) APR/Native</a></li><li><a href="virtual-ho
 sting-howto.html">24) Virtual Hosting</a></li><li><a href="aio.html">25) Advanced IO</a></li><li><a href="extras.html">26) Additional Components</a></li><li><a href="maven-jars.html">27) Mavenized</a></li></ul><p><strong>Reference</strong></p><ul><li><a href="RELEASE-NOTES.txt">Release Notes</a></li><li><a href="config/index.html">Configuration</a></li><li><a href="api/index.html">Javadocs</a></li><li><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/">JK 1.2 Documentation</a></li></ul><p><strong>Apache Tomcat Development</strong></p><ul><li><a href="building.html">Building</a></li><li><a href="changelog.html">Changelog</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/TomcatVersions">Status</a></li><li><a href="developers.html">Developers</a></li><li><a href="architecture/index.html">Architecture</a></li><li><a href="funcspecs/index.html">Functional Specs.</a></li></ul></td><!--RIGHT SIDE MAIN BODY--><td id="mainBody" align="left" valign="top" width="80%"><h1>Apache Tomcat 6.0</h1>
 <h2>Class Loader HOW-TO</h2><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Table of Contents"><!--()--></a><a name="Table_of_Contents"><strong>Table of Contents</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<ul><li><a href="#Overview">Overview</a></li><li><a href="#Class_Loader_Definitions">Class Loader Definitions</a></li><li><a href="#XML_Parsers_and_JSE_5">XML Parsers and JSE 5</a></li><li><a href="#Running_under_a_security_manager">Running under a security manager</a></li></ul>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Overview"><strong>Overview</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>Like many server applications, Tomcat 6 installs a variety of class loaders
+(that is, classes that implement <code>java.lang.ClassLoader</code>) to allow
+different portions of the container, and the web applications running on the
+container, to have access to different repositories of available classes and
+resources.  This mechanism is used to provide the functionality defined in the
+Servlet Specification, version 2.4 -- in particular, Sections 9.4 and 9.6.</p>
+
+<p>In a J2SE 2 (that is, J2SE 1.2 or later) environment, class loaders are
+arranged in a parent-child tree.  Normally, when a class loader is asked to
+load a particular class or resource, it delegates the request to a parent
+class loader first, and then looks in its own repositories only if the parent
+class loader(s) cannot find the requested class or resource.  The model for
+web application class loaders differs slightly from this, as discussed below,
+but the main principles are the same.</p>
+
+<p>When Tomcat 6 is started, it creates a set of class loaders that are
+organized into the following parent-child relationships, where the parent
+class loader is above the child class loader:</p>
+
+<div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+      Bootstrap
+          |
+       System
+          |
+       Common
+       /     \
+  Webapp1   Webapp2 ... 
+</pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>The characteristics of each of these class loaders, including the source
+of classes and resources that they make visible, are discussed in detail in
+the following section.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Class Loader Definitions"><!--()--></a><a name="Class_Loader_Definitions"><strong>Class Loader Definitions</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>As indicated in the diagram above, Tomcat 6 creates the following class
+loaders as it is initialized:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><strong>Bootstrap</strong> - This class loader contains the basic runtime
+    classes provided by the Java Virtual Machine, plus any classes from JAR
+    files present in the System Extensions directory
+    (<code>$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext</code>).  <em>NOTE</em> - Some JVMs may
+    implement this as more than one class loader, or it may not be visible
+    (as a class loader) at all.</li>
+<li><strong>System</strong> - This class loader is normally initialized from
+    the contents of the <code>CLASSPATH</code> environment variable.  All such
+    classes are visible to both Tomcat internal classes, and to web
+    applications.  However, the standard Tomcat 6 startup scripts
+    (<code>$CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh</code> or
+    <code>%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\catalina.bat</code>) totally ignore the contents
+    of the <code>CLASSPATH</code> environment variable itself, and instead
+    build the System class loader from the following repositories:
+    <ul>
+    <li><em>$CATALINA_HOME/bin/bootstrap.jar</em> - Contains the main() method
+        that is used to initialize the Tomcat 6 server, and the class loader
+        implementation classes it depends on.</li>
+    <li><em>$CATALINA_HOME/bin/tomcat-juli.jar</em> - Package renamed Commons 
+        logging API, and java.util.logging LogManager.</li>
+    </ul></li>
+<li><strong>Common</strong> - This class loader contains additional classes
+    that are made visible to both Tomcat internal classes and to all web
+    applications.  Normally, application classes should <strong>NOT</strong>
+    be placed here.  All unpacked classes and resources in
+    <code>$CATALINA_HOME/lib</code>, as well as classes and
+    resources in JAR files are made visible through this
+    class loader.  By default, that includes the following:
+    <ul>
+    <li><em>annotations-api.jar</em> - JEE annotations classes.</li>
+    <li><em>catalina.jar</em> - Implementation of the Catalina servlet
+        container portion of Tomcat 6.</li>
+    <li><em>catalina-ant.jar</em> - Tomcat Catalina Ant tasks.</li>
+    <li><em>catalina-ha.jar</em> - High availability package.</li>
+    <li><em>catalina-tribes.jar</em> - Group communication package.</li>
+    <li><em>el-api.jar</em> - EL 2.1 API.</li>
+    <li><em>jasper.jar</em> - Jasper 2 Compiler and Runtime.</li>
+    <li><em>jasper-el.jar</em> - Jasper 2 EL implementation.</li>
+    <li><em>jasper-jdt.jar</em> - Eclipse JDT 3.2 Java compiler.</li>
+    <li><em>jsp-api.jar</em> - JSP 2.1 API.</li>
+    <li><em>servlet-api.jar</em> - Servlet 2.5 API.</li>
+    <li><em>tomcat-coyote.jar</em> - Tomcat connectors and utility classes.</li>
+    <li><em>tomcat-dbcp.jar</em> - package renamed database connection 
+        pool based on Commons DBCP.</li>
+    <li><em>tomcat-i18n-**.jar</em> - Optional JARs containing resource bundles
+        for other languages. As default bundles are also included in each 
+        individual JAR, they can be safely removed if no internationalization
+        of messages is needed.</li>
+    </ul></li>
+<li><strong>WebappX</strong> - A class loader is created for each web
+    application that is deployed in a single Tomcat 6 instance.  All unpacked
+    classes and resources in the <code>/WEB-INF/classes</code> directory of
+    your web application archive, plus classes and resources in JAR files
+    under the <code>/WEB-INF/lib</code> directory of your web application
+    archive, are made visible to the containing web application, but to
+    no others.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>As mentioned above, the web application class loader diverges from the
+default Java 2 delegation model (in accordance with the recommendations in the
+Servlet Specification, version 2.3, section 9.7.2 Web Application Classloader).  
+When a request to load a
+class from the web application's <em>WebappX</em> class loader is processed,
+this class loader will look in the local repositories <strong>first</strong>,
+instead of delegating before looking.  There are exceptions. Classes which are
+part of the JRE base classes cannot be overriden. For some classes (such as
+the XML parser components in J2SE 1.4+), the J2SE 1.4 endorsed feature can be 
+used.
+Last, any JAR containing servlet API classes will be ignored by the 
+classloader.
+All other class loaders in Tomcat 6 follow the usual delegation pattern.</p>
+
+<p>Therefore, from the perspective of a web application, class or resource
+loading looks in the following repositories, in this order:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>Bootstrap classes of your JVM</li>
+<li>System class loader classes (described above)</li>
+<li><em>/WEB-INF/classes</em> of your web application</li>
+<li><em>/WEB-INF/lib/*.jar</em> of your web application</li>
+<li><em>$CATALINA_HOME/lib</em></li>
+<li><em>$CATALINA_HOME/lib/*.jar</em></li>
+</ul>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="XML Parsers and JSE 5"><!--()--></a><a name="XML_Parsers_and_JSE_5"><strong>XML Parsers and JSE 5</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>Among many other changes, the JSE 5 release packages the JAXP APIs, and
+a version of Xerces, inside the JRE.  This has impacts on applications that
+wish to use their own XML parser.</p>
+
+<p>In previous versions of Tomcat, you could simply replace the XML parser
+in the <code>$CATALINA_HOME/common/lib</code> directory to change the parser
+used by all web applications.  However, this technique will not be effective
+when you are running on JSE 5, because the usual class loader delegation
+process will always choose the implementation inside the JDK in preference
+to this one.</p>
+
+<p>JDK 1.5 supports a mechanism called the "Endorsed Standards Override
+Mechanism" to allow replacement of APIs created outside of the JCP (i.e.
+DOM and SAX from W3C).  It can also be used to update the XML parser
+implementation.  For more information, see:
+<a href="http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5/docs/guide/standards/index.html">
+http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5/docs/guide/standards/index.html</a>.</p>
+
+<p>Tomcat utilizes this mechanism by including the system property setting
+<code>-Djava.endorsed.dirs=$JAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS</code> in the
+command line that starts the container.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Running under a security manager"><!--()--></a><a name="Running_under_a_security_manager"><strong>Running under a security manager</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>When running under a security manager the locations from which classes
+are permitted to be loaded will also depend on the contents of your policy
+file. See <a href="security-manager-howto.html">Security Manager HOW-TO</a>
+for further information.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><!--FOOTER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr size="1" noshade></td></tr><!--PAGE FOOTER--><tr><td colspan="2"><div align="center"><font size="-1" color="#525D76"><em>
+        Copyright &copy; 1999-2010, Apache Software Foundation
+        </em></font></div></td></tr></table></body></html>
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http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/flex-blazeds/blob/5be16a28/attic/servers/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/webapps/docs/cluster-howto.html
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+<html><head><META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"><title>Apache Tomcat 6.0 - Clustering/Session Replication HOW-TO</title><meta content="Filip Hanik" name="author"><meta content="Peter Rossbach" name="author"><style media="print" type="text/css">
+			.noPrint {display: none;}
+			td#mainBody {width: 100%;}
+		</style></head><body vlink="#525D76" alink="#525D76" link="#525D76" text="#000000" bgcolor="#ffffff"><table cellspacing="0" width="100%" border="0"><!--PAGE HEADER--><tr><td><!--PROJECT LOGO--><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/"><img border="0" alt="
+      The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container
+    " align="right" src="./images/tomcat.gif"></a></td><td><h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Apache Tomcat 6.0</font></h1></td><td><!--APACHE LOGO--><a href="http://www.apache.org/"><img border="0" alt="Apache Logo" align="right" src="./images/asf-logo.gif"></a></td></tr></table><table cellspacing="4" width="100%" border="0"><!--HEADER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr size="1" noshade></td></tr><tr><!--LEFT SIDE NAVIGATION--><td class="noPrint" nowrap valign="top" width="20%"><p><strong>Links</strong></p><ul><li><a href="index.html">Docs Home</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FAQ">FAQ</a></li></ul><p><strong>User Guide</strong></p><ul><li><a href="introduction.html">1) Introduction</a></li><li><a href="setup.html">2) Setup</a></li><li><a href="appdev/index.html">3) First webapp</a></li><li><a href="deployer-howto.html">4) Deployer</a></li><li><a href="manager-howto.html">5) Manager</a></li><li><a href="realm-howto.html">6) Realms and AAA</a></li><li><a hr
 ef="security-manager-howto.html">7) Security Manager</a></li><li><a href="jndi-resources-howto.html">8) JNDI Resources</a></li><li><a href="jndi-datasource-examples-howto.html">9) JDBC DataSources</a></li><li><a href="class-loader-howto.html">10) Classloading</a></li><li><a href="jasper-howto.html">11) JSPs</a></li><li><a href="ssl-howto.html">12) SSL</a></li><li><a href="ssi-howto.html">13) SSI</a></li><li><a href="cgi-howto.html">14) CGI</a></li><li><a href="proxy-howto.html">15) Proxy Support</a></li><li><a href="mbeans-descriptor-howto.html">16) MBean Descriptor</a></li><li><a href="default-servlet.html">17) Default Servlet</a></li><li><a href="cluster-howto.html">18) Clustering</a></li><li><a href="balancer-howto.html">19) Load Balancer</a></li><li><a href="connectors.html">20) Connectors</a></li><li><a href="monitoring.html">21) Monitoring and Management</a></li><li><a href="logging.html">22) Logging</a></li><li><a href="apr.html">23) APR/Native</a></li><li><a href="virtual-ho
 sting-howto.html">24) Virtual Hosting</a></li><li><a href="aio.html">25) Advanced IO</a></li><li><a href="extras.html">26) Additional Components</a></li><li><a href="maven-jars.html">27) Mavenized</a></li></ul><p><strong>Reference</strong></p><ul><li><a href="RELEASE-NOTES.txt">Release Notes</a></li><li><a href="config/index.html">Configuration</a></li><li><a href="api/index.html">Javadocs</a></li><li><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/">JK 1.2 Documentation</a></li></ul><p><strong>Apache Tomcat Development</strong></p><ul><li><a href="building.html">Building</a></li><li><a href="changelog.html">Changelog</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/TomcatVersions">Status</a></li><li><a href="developers.html">Developers</a></li><li><a href="architecture/index.html">Architecture</a></li><li><a href="funcspecs/index.html">Functional Specs.</a></li></ul></td><!--RIGHT SIDE MAIN BODY--><td id="mainBody" align="left" valign="top" width="80%"><h1>Apache Tomcat 6.0</h1>
 <h2>Clustering/Session Replication HOW-TO</h2><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Important Note"><!--()--></a><a name="Important_Note"><strong>Important Note</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<p><b>You can also check the <a href="config/cluster.html">configuration reference documentation.</a></b>
+</p>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Table of Contents"><!--()--></a><a name="Table_of_Contents"><strong>Table of Contents</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<ul><li><a href="#For_the_impatient">For the impatient</a></li><li><a href="#Cluster_Basics">Cluster Basics</a></li><li><a href="#Overview">Overview</a></li><li><a href="#Cluster_Information">Cluster Information</a></li><li><a href="#Bind_session_after_crash_to_failover_node">Bind session after crash to failover node</a></li><li><a href="#Configuration_Example">Configuration Example</a></li><li><a href="#Cluster_Architecture">Cluster Architecture</a></li><li><a href="#How_it_Works">How it Works</a></li><li><a href="#FAQ">FAQ</a></li></ul>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="For the impatient"><!--()--></a><a name="For_the_impatient"><strong>For the impatient</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+  <p>
+    Simply add <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>&lt;Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/&gt;</pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src=
 "./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    to your <code>&lt;Engine&gt;</code> or your <code>&lt;Host&gt;</code> element to enable clustering.
+  </p>
+  <p>
+    Using the above configuration will enable all-to-all session replication
+    using the <code>DeltaManager</code> to replicate session deltas. By all-to-all we mean that the session gets replicated to all the other 
+    nodes in the cluster. This works great for smaller cluster but we don't recommend it for larger clusters(a lot of tomcat nodes).
+    Also when using the delta manager it will replicate to all nodes, even nodes that don't have the application deployed.<br>
+    To get around this problem, you'll want to use the BackupManager. This manager only replicates the session data to one backup
+    node, and only to nodes that have the application deployed. Downside of the BackupManager: not quite as battle tested as the delta manager.
+    <br>
+    Here are some of the important default values:<br>
+    1. Multicast address is 228.0.0.4<br>
+    2. Multicast port is 45564 (the port and the address together determine cluster membership.<br>
+    3. The IP broadcasted is <code>java.net.InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress()</code> (make sure you don't broadcast 127.0.0.1, this is a common error)<br>
+    4. The TCP port listening for replication messages is the first available server socket in range <code>4000-4100</code><br>
+    5. Two listeners are configured <code>ClusterSessionListener</code> and <code>JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener</code><br>
+    6. Two interceptors are configured <code>TcpFailureDetector</code> and <code>MessageDispatch15Interceptor</code><br>
+    The following is the default cluster configuration:<br>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+        &lt;Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
+                 channelSendOptions="8"&gt;
+
+          &lt;Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
+                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/&gt;
+
+          &lt;Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel"&gt;
+            &lt;Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService"
+                        address="228.0.0.4"
+                        port="45564"
+                        frequency="500"
+                        dropTime="3000"/&gt;
+            &lt;Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver"
+                      address="auto"
+                      port="4000"
+                      autoBind="100"
+                      selectorTimeout="5000"
+                      maxThreads="6"/&gt;
+
+            &lt;Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter"&gt;
+              &lt;Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/&gt;
+            &lt;/Sender&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/&gt;
+          &lt;/Channel&gt;
+
+          &lt;Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve"
+                 filter=""/&gt;
+          &lt;Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteBinderValve"/&gt;
+
+          &lt;Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.ha.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
+                    tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
+                    deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
+                    watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
+                    watchEnabled="false"/&gt;
+
+          &lt;ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener"/&gt;
+          &lt;ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/&gt;
+        &lt;/Cluster&gt;    
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+  </p>
+  <p>Will cover this section in more detail later in this document.</p>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Cluster Basics"><!--()--></a><a name="Cluster_Basics"><strong>Cluster Basics</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>To run session replication in your Tomcat 6.0 container, the following steps
+should be completed:</p>
+<ul>
+  <li>All your session attributes must implement <code>java.io.Serializable</code></li>
+  <li>Uncomment the <code>Cluster</code> element in server.xml</li>
+  <li>If you have defined custom cluster valves, make sure you have the <code>ReplicationValve</code>  defined as well under the Cluster element in server.xml</li>
+  <li>If your Tomcat instances are running on the same machine, make sure the <code>tcpListenPort</code>
+      attribute is unique for each instance, in most cases Tomcat is smart enough to resolve this on it's own by autodetecting available ports in the range 4000-4100</li>
+  <li>Make sure your <code>web.xml</code> has the <code>&lt;distributable/&gt;</code> element 
+      or set at your <code>&lt;Context distributable="true" /&gt;</code></li>
+  <li>If you are using mod_jk, make sure that jvmRoute attribute is set at your Engine <code>&lt;Engine name="Catalina" jvmRoute="node01" &gt;</code>
+      and that the jvmRoute attribute value matches your worker name in workers.properties</li>
+  <li>Make sure that all nodes have the same time and sync with NTP service!</li>
+  <li>Make sure that your loadbalancer is configured for sticky session mode.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Load balancing can be achieved through many techniques, as seen in the
+<a href="balancer-howto.html">Load Balancing</a> chapter.</p>
+<p>Note: Remember that your session state is tracked by a cookie, so your URL must look the same from the out
+   side otherwise, a new session will be created.</p>
+<p>Note: Clustering support currently requires the JDK version 1.5 or later.</p>
+<p>The Cluster module uses the Tomcat JULI logging framework, so you can configure logging 
+   through the regular logging.properties file. To track messages, you can enable logging on the key:<code>org.apache.catalina.tribes.MESSAGES</code></p>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Overview"><strong>Overview</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>To enable session replication in Tomcat, three different paths can be followed to achieve the exact same thing:</p>
+<ol>
+  <li>Using session persistence, and saving the session to a shared file system (PersistenceManager + FileStore)</li>
+  <li>Using session persistence, and saving the session to a shared database (PersistenceManager + JDBCStore)</li>
+  <li>Using in-memory-replication, using the SimpleTcpCluster that ships with Tomcat 6 (lib/catalina-tribes.jar + lib/catalina-ha.jar)</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>In this release of session replication, Tomcat can perform an all-to-all replication of session state using the <code>DeltaManager</code> or 
+   perform backup replication to only one node using the <code>BackupManager</code>.
+   The all-to-all replication is an algorithm that is only efficient when the clusters are small. For larger clusters,  to use 
+   a primary-secondary session replication where the session will only be stored at one backup server simply setup the BackupManager. <br>
+   Currently you can use the domain worker attribute (mod_jk &gt; 1.2.8) to build cluster partitions
+   with the potential of having a more scaleable cluster solution with the DeltaManager(you'll need to configure the domain interceptor for this).
+   In order to keep the network traffic down in an all-to-all environment, you can split your cluster
+   into smaller groups. This can be easily achieved by using different multicast addresses for the different groups.
+   A very simple setup would look like this:
+   </p>
+
+<div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+        DNS Round Robin
+               |
+         Load Balancer
+          /           \
+      Cluster1      Cluster2
+      /     \        /     \
+  Tomcat1 Tomcat2  Tomcat3 Tomcat4
+</pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>What is important to mention here, is that session replication is only the beginning of clustering.
+   Another popular concept used to implement clusters is farming, i.e., you deploy your apps only to one
+   server, and the cluster will distribute the deployments across the entire cluster.
+   This is all capabilities that can go into with the FarmWarDeployer (s. cluster example at <code>server.xml</code>)</p>
+<p>In the next section will go deeper into how session replication works and how to configure it.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Cluster Information"><!--()--></a><a name="Cluster_Information"><strong>Cluster Information</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<p>Membership is established using multicast heartbeats. 
+   Hence, if you wish to subdivide your clusters, you can do this by 
+   changing the multicast IP address or port in the <code>&lt;Membership&gt;</code> element.
+</p>
+<p>
+   The heartbeat contains the IP address of the Tomcat node and the TCP port that 
+   Tomcat listens to for replication traffic. All data communication happens over TCP.
+</p>
+<p>
+    The <code>ReplicationValve</code> is used to find out when the request has been completed and initiate the
+    replication, if any. Data is only replicated if the session has changed (by calling setAttribute or removeAttribute
+    on the session).
+</p>
+<p>
+    One of the most important performance considerations is the synchronous versus asynchronous replication.
+    In a synchronous replication mode the request doesn't return until the replicated session has been
+    sent over the wire and reinstantiated on all the other cluster nodes.
+    Synchronous vs. asynchronous is configured using the <code>channelSendOptions</code>
+    flag and is an integer value. The default value for the <code>SimpleTcpCluster/DeltaManager</code> combo is
+    8, which is asynchronous. You can read more on the <a href="tribes/introduction.html">send flag(overview)</a> or the 
+    <a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/api/org/apache/catalina/tribes/Channel.html">send flag(javadoc)</a>.
+    During async replication, the request is returned before the data has been replicated. async replication yields shorter
+    request times, and synchronous replication guarantees the session to be replicated before the request returns.
+</p>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Bind session after crash to failover node"><!--()--></a><a name="Bind_session_after_crash_to_failover_node"><strong>Bind session after crash to failover node</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<p>
+    If you are using mod_jk and not using sticky sessions or for some reasons sticky session don't 
+    work, or you are simply failing over, the session id will need to be modified as it previously contained 
+    the worker id of the previous tomcat (as defined by jvmRoute in the Engine element).
+    To solve this, we will use the JvmRouteBinderValve.
+</p>
+<p> 
+    The JvmRouteBinderValve rewrites the session id to ensure that the next request will remain sticky
+    (and not fall back to go to random nodes since the worker is no longer available) after a fail over.
+    The valve rewrites the JSESSIONID value in the cookie with the same name.
+    Not having this valve in place, will make it harder to ensure stickyness in case of a failure for the mod_jk module.
+</p>
+<p>
+    By default, if no valves are configured, the JvmRouteBinderValve is added on.
+    The cluster message listener called JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener is also defined by default and is used to actually rewrite the 
+    session id on the other nodes in the cluster once a fail over has occurred.
+    Remember, if you are adding your own valves or cluster listeners in server.xml then the defaults are no longer valid,
+    make sure that you add in all the appropriate valves and listeners as defined by the default.
+</p>
+<p>
+    <b>Hint:</b><br>
+    With attribute <i>sessionIdAttribute</i> you can change the request attribute name that included the old session id.
+    Default attribute name is <i>org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.JvmRouteOrignalSessionID</i>.
+</p>
+<p>
+    <b>Trick:</b><br>
+    You can enable this mod_jk turnover mode via JMX before you drop a node to all backup nodes!
+    Set enable true on all JvmRouteBinderValve backups, disable worker at mod_jk 
+    and then drop node and restart it! Then enable mod_jk Worker and disable JvmRouteBinderValves again. 
+    This use case means that only requested session are migrated.
+</p>
+
+
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Configuration Example"><!--()--></a><a name="Configuration_Example"><strong>Configuration Example</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+        &lt;Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
+                 channelSendOptions="6"&gt;
+
+          &lt;Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.BackupManager"
+                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"
+                   mapSendOptions="6"/&gt;
+          &lt;!--
+          &lt;Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
+                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/&gt;
+          --&gt;        
+          &lt;Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel"&gt;
+            &lt;Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService"
+                        address="228.0.0.4"
+                        port="45564"
+                        frequency="500"
+                        dropTime="3000"/&gt;
+            &lt;Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver"
+                      address="auto"
+                      port="5000"
+                      selectorTimeout="100"
+                      maxThreads="6"/&gt;
+
+            &lt;Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter"&gt;
+              &lt;Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/&gt;
+            &lt;/Sender&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.ThroughputInterceptor"/&gt;
+          &lt;/Channel&gt;
+
+          &lt;Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve"
+                 filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/&gt;
+
+          &lt;Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.ha.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
+                    tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
+                    deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
+                    watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
+                    watchEnabled="false"/&gt;
+
+          &lt;ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/&gt;
+        &lt;/Cluster&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+      Break it down!!
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+        &lt;Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
+                 channelSendOptions="6"&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+      The main element, inside this element all cluster details can be configured.
+      The <code>channelSendOptions</code> is the flag that is attached to each message sent by the
+      SimpleTcpCluster class or any objects that are invoking the SimpleTcpCluster.send method.
+      The description of the send flags is available at <a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/api/org/apache/catalina/tribes/Channel.html">
+      our javadoc site</a>
+      The <code>DeltaManager</code> sends information using the SimpleTcpCluster.send method, while the backup manager
+      sends it itself directly through the channel.
+      <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+          &lt;Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.BackupManager"
+                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"
+                   mapSendOptions="6"/&gt;
+          &lt;!--
+          &lt;Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
+                   expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+                   notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/&gt;
+          --&gt;        
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        This is a template for the manager configuration that will be used if no manager is defined in the &lt;Context&gt;
+        element. In Tomcat 5.x each webapp marked distributable had to use the same manager, this is no longer the case
+        since Tomcat 6 you can define a manager class for each webapp, so that you can mix managers in your cluster.
+        Obviously the managers on one node's application has to correspond with the same manager on the same application on the other node.
+        If no manager has been specified for the webapp, and the webapp is marked &lt;distributable/&gt; Tomcat will take this manager configuration 
+        and create a manager instance cloning this configuration.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-manager.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+          &lt;Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel"&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        The channel element is <a href="tribes/introduction.html">Tribes</a>, the group communication framework
+        used inside Tomcat. This element encapsulates everything that has to do with communication and membership logic.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-channel.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+            &lt;Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService"
+                        address="228.0.0.4"
+                        port="45564"
+                        frequency="500"
+                        dropTime="3000"/&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        Membership is done using multicasting. Please note that Tribes also supports static memberships using the 
+        <code>StaticMembershipInterceptor</code> if you want to extend your membership to points beyond multicasting.
+        The address attribute is the multicast address used and the port is the multicast port. These two together
+        create the cluster separation. If you want a QA cluster and a production cluster, the easiest config is to
+        have the QA cluster be on a separate multicast address/port combination the the production cluster.<br>
+        The membership component broadcasts TCP adress/port of itselt to the other nodes so that communication between
+        nodes can be done over TCP. Please note that the address being broadcasted is the one of the 
+        <code>Receiver.address</code> attribute.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-membership.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+            &lt;Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver"
+                      address="auto"
+                      port="5000"
+                      selectorTimeout="100"
+                      maxThreads="6"/&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        In tribes the logic of sending and receiving data has been broken into two functional components. The Receiver, as the name suggests
+        is responsible for receiving messages. Since the Tribes stack is thread less, (a popular improvement now adopted by other frameworks as well),
+        there is a thread pool in this component that has a maxThreads and minThreads setting.<br>
+        The address attribute is the host address that will be broadcasted by the membership component to the other nodes.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-receiver.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+
+            &lt;Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter"&gt;
+              &lt;Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/&gt;
+            &lt;/Sender&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        The sender component, as the name indicates is responsible for sending messages to other nodes.
+        The sender has a shell component, the <code>ReplicationTransmitter</code> but the real stuff done is done in the 
+        sub component, <code>Transport</code>.
+        Tribes support having a pool of senders, so that messages can be sent in parallel and if using the NIO sender,
+        you can send messages concurrently as well.<br>
+        Concurrently means one message to multiple senders at the same time and Parallel means multiple messages to multiple senders
+        at the same time.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-sender.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/&gt;
+            &lt;Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.ThroughputInterceptor"/&gt;
+          &lt;/Channel&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        Tribes uses a stack to send messages through. Each element in the stack is called an interceptor, and works much like the valves do 
+        in the Tomcat servlet container.
+        Using interceptors, logic can be broken into more managable pieces of code. The interceptors configured above are:<br>
+        TcpFailureDetector - verifies crashed members through TCP, if multicast packets get dropped, this interceptor protects against false positives,
+        ie the node marked as crashed even though it still is alive and running.<br>
+        MessageDispatch15Interceptor - dispatches messages to a thread (thread pool) to send message asynchrously.<br>
+        ThroughputInterceptor - prints out simple stats on message traffic.<br>
+        Please note that the order of interceptors is important. the way they are defined in server.xml is the way they are represented in the 
+        channel stack. Think of it as a linked list, with the head being the first most interceptor and the tail the last.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-interceptor.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+          &lt;Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve"
+                 filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        The cluster uses valves to track requests to web applications, we've mentioned the ReplicationValve and the JvmRouteBinderValve above.
+        The &lt;Cluster&gt; element itself is not part of the pipeline in Tomcat, instead the cluster adds the valve to its parent container.
+        If the &lt;Cluster&gt; elements is configured in the &lt;Engine&gt; element, the valves get added to the engine and so on.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-valve.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+          &lt;Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.ha.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
+                    tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
+                    deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
+                    watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
+                    watchEnabled="false"/&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        The default tomcat cluster supports farmed deployment, ie, the cluster can deploy and undeploy applications on the other nodes.
+        The state of this component is currently in flux but will be addressed soon. There was a change in the deployment algorithm 
+        between Tomcat 5.0 and 5.5 and at that point, the logic of this component changed to where the deploy dir has to match the 
+        webapps directory.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-deployer.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    <div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+          &lt;ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/&gt;
+        &lt;/Cluster&gt;
+    </pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+    <p>
+        Since the SimpleTcpCluster itself is a sender and receiver of the Channel object, components can register themselves as listeners to 
+        the SimpleTcpCluster. The listener above <code>ClusterSessionListener</code> listens for DeltaManager replication messages
+        and applies the deltas to the manager that in turn applies it to the session.
+        <br>For more info, Please visit the <a href="config/cluster-listener.html">reference documentation</a>
+    </p>
+    
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="Cluster Architecture"><!--()--></a><a name="Cluster_Architecture"><strong>Cluster Architecture</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p><b>Component Levels:</b>
+<div align="left"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="4"><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#ffffff"><pre>
+         Server
+           |
+         Service
+           |
+         Engine
+           |  \ 
+           |  --- Cluster --*
+           |
+         Host
+           |
+         ------
+        /      \
+     Cluster    Context(1-N)                 
+        |             \
+        |             -- Manager
+        |                   \
+        |                   -- DeltaManager
+        |                   -- BackupManager
+        |
+     ---------------------------
+        |                       \
+      Channel                    \
+    ----------------------------- \
+        |                          \
+     Interceptor_1 ..               \
+        |                            \
+     Interceptor_N                    \
+    -----------------------------      \
+     |          |         |             \
+   Receiver    Sender   Membership       \
+                                         -- Valve
+                                         |      \
+                                         |       -- ReplicationValve
+                                         |       -- JvmRouteBinderValve 
+                                         |
+                                         -- LifecycleListener 
+                                         |
+                                         -- ClusterListener 
+                                         |      \
+                                         |       -- ClusterSessionListener
+                                         |       -- JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener
+                                         |
+                                         -- Deployer 
+                                                \
+                                                 -- FarmWarDeployer
+      
+      
+</pre></td><td width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr><tr><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td><td height="1" width="1" bgcolor="#023264"><img border="0" hspace="0" vspace="0" height="1" width="1" alt="" src="./images/void.gif"></td></tr></table></div>
+</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="How it Works"><!--()--></a><a name="How_it_Works"><strong>How it Works</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<p>To make it easy to understand how clustering works, We are gonna take you through a series of scenarios.
+   In the scenario we only plan to use two tomcat instances <code>TomcatA</code> and <code>TomcatB</code>.
+   We will cover the following sequence of events:</p>
+
+<ol>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> starts up</li>
+<li><code>TomcatB</code> starts up (Wait that TomcatA start is complete)</li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> receives a request, a session <code>S1</code> is created.</li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> crashes</li>
+<li><code>TomcatB</code> receives a request for session <code>S1</code></li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> starts up</li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> receives a request, invalidate is called on the session (<code>S1</code>)</li>
+<li><code>TomcatB</code> receives a request, for a new session (<code>S2</code>)</li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> The session <code>S2</code> expires due to inactivity.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>Ok, now that we have a good sequence, we will take you through exactly what happens in the session repliction code</p>
+
+<ol>
+<li><b><code>TomcatA</code> starts up</b>
+    <p>
+        Tomcat starts up using the standard start up sequence. When the Host object is created, a cluster object is associated with it.
+        When the contexts are parsed, if the distributable element is in place in web.xml
+        Tomcat asks the Cluster class (in this case <code>SimpleTcpCluster</code>) to create a manager
+        for the replicated context. So with clustering enabled, distributable set in web.xml
+        Tomcat will create a <code>DeltaManager</code> for that context instead of a <code>StandardManager</code>.
+        The cluster class will start up a membership service (multicast) and a replication service (tcp unicast).
+        More on the architecture further down in this document.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatB</code> starts up</b>
+    <p>
+        When TomcatB starts up, it follows the same sequence as TomcatA did with one exception.
+        The cluster is started and will establish a membership (TomcatA,TomcatB).
+        TomcatB will now request the session state from a server that already exists in the cluster,
+        in this case TomcatA. TomcatA responds to the request, and before TomcatB starts listening
+        for HTTP requests, the state has been transferred from TomcatA to TomcatB.
+        In case TomcatA doesn't respond, TomcatB will time out after 60 seconds, and issue a log
+        entry. The session state gets transferred for each web application that has distributable in
+        its web.xml. Note: To use session replication efficiently, all your tomcat instances should be
+        configured the same.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+<li><B><code>TomcatA</code> receives a request, a session <code>S1</code> is created.</B>
+    <p>
+        The request coming in to TomcatA is treated exactly the same way as without session replication.
+        The action happens when the request is completed, the <code>ReplicationValve</code> will intercept
+        the request before the response is returned to the user.
+        At this point it finds that the session has been modified, and it uses TCP to replicata the
+        session to TomcatB. Once the serialized data has been handed off to the operating systems TCP logic,
+        the request returns to the user, back through the valve pipeline.
+        For each request the entire session is replicated, this allows code that modifies attributes
+        in the session without calling setAttribute or removeAttribute to be replicated.
+        a useDirtyFlag configuration parameter can be used to optimize the number of times
+        a session is replicated.
+    </p><p></p>
+
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatA</code> crashes</b>
+    <p>
+        When TomcatA crashes, TomcatB receives a notification that TomcatA has dropped out
+        of the cluster. TomcatB removes TomcatA from its membership list, and TomcatA will no longer
+        be notified of any changes that occurs in TomcatB.
+        The load balancer will redirect the requests from TomcatA to TomcatB and all the sessions
+        are current.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatB</code> receives a request for session <code>S1</code></b>
+    <p>Nothing exciting, TomcatB will process the request as any other request.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatA</code> starts up</b>
+    <p>Upon start up, before TomcatA starts taking new request and making itself
+    available to it will follow the start up sequence described above 1) 2).
+    It will join the cluster, contact TomcatB for the current state of all the sessions.
+    And once it receives the session state, it finishes loading and opens its HTTP/mod_jk ports.
+    So no requests will make it to TomcatA until it has received the session state from TomcatB.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatA</code> receives a request, invalidate is called on the session (<code>S1</code>)</b>
+    <p>The invalidate is call is intercepted, and the session is queued with invalidated sessions.
+        When the request is complete, instead of sending out the session that has changed, it sends out
+        an "expire" message to TomcatB and TomcatB will invalidate the session as well.
+    </p><p></p>
+
+</li>
+<li><b><code>TomcatB</code> receives a request, for a new session (<code>S2</code>)</b>
+    <p>Same scenario as in step 3)
+    </p><p></p>
+
+
+</li>
+<li><code>TomcatA</code> The session <code>S2</code> expires due to inactivity.
+    <p>The invalidate is call is intercepted the same was as when a session is invalidated by the user,
+       and the session is queued with invalidated sessions.
+       At this point, the invalidet session will not be replicated across until
+       another request comes through the system and checks the invalid queue.
+    </p><p></p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>Phuuuhh! :)</p>
+
+<p><b>Membership</b>
+    Clustering membership is established using very simple multicast pings.
+    Each Tomcat instance will periodically send out a multicast ping,
+    in the ping message the instance will broad cast its IP and TCP listen port
+    for replication.
+    If an instance has not received such a ping within a given timeframe, the
+    member is considered dead. Very simple, and very effective!
+    Of course, you need to enable multicasting on your system.
+</p>
+
+<p><b>TCP Replication</b>
+    Once a multicast ping has been received, the member is added to the cluster
+    Upon the next replication request, the sending instance will use the host and
+    port info and establish a TCP socket. Using this socket it sends over the serialized data.
+    The reason I choose TCP sockets is because it has built in flow control and guaranteed delivery.
+    So I know, when I send some data, it will make it there :)
+</p>
+
+<p><b>Distributed locking and pages using frames</b>
+    Tomcat does not keep session instances in sync across the cluster.
+    The implementation of such logic would be to much overhead and cause all
+    kinds of problems. If your client accesses the same session
+    simultanously using multiple requests, then the last request
+    will override the other sessions in the cluster.
+</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font face="arial,helvetica.sanserif" color="#ffffff"><a name="FAQ"><strong>FAQ</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<p>Please see <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FAQ/Clustering">the clustering section of the FAQ</a>.</p>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><!--FOOTER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr size="1" noshade></td></tr><!--PAGE FOOTER--><tr><td colspan="2"><div align="center"><font size="-1" color="#525D76"><em>
+        Copyright &copy; 1999-2010, Apache Software Foundation
+        </em></font></div></td></tr></table></body></html>
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