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From pa...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r711894 [1/2] - in /felix/trunk/main: ./ doc/ doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/ doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/button_data/ doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation_files/ doc/apache-felix-usage...
Date Thu, 06 Nov 2008 16:23:16 GMT
Author: pauls
Date: Thu Nov  6 08:22:54 2008
New Revision: 711894

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=711894&view=rev
Log:
Prepare 1.4.0 release

Added:
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding.html
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/apache.png   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/button.html
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/button_data/
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/button_data/2008-usa-125x125.png   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/forbidden.gif   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/linkext7.gif   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/logo.png   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/mail_small.gif   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/site.css
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation_files/button.html
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation_files/button_data/
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation_files/button_data/2008-usa-125x125.png   (with props)
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation_files/information.gif   (with props)
Removed:
    felix/trunk/main/doc/launching-and-embedding-apache-felix.html
    felix/trunk/main/doc/launching-and-embedding-apache-felix_files/
Modified:
    felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-usage-documentation.html
    felix/trunk/main/doc/changelog.txt
    felix/trunk/main/pom.xml
    felix/trunk/main/src/main/resources/config.properties

Added: felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding.html?rev=711894&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding.html (added)
+++ felix/trunk/main/doc/apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding.html Thu Nov  6 08:22:54 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,981 @@
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+<html><head>
+
+
+  
+    <title>Apache Felix - Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding</title>
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/site.css" type="text/css" media="all">
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+  </head><body>
+    <div class="title"><div class="logo"><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/index.html"><img alt="Apache Felix" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/logo.png" border="0"></a></div><div class="header"><a href="http://www.apache.org/"><img alt="Apache" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding-Dateien/apache.png" border="0"></a></div></div>
+    <div class="menu">
+<ul>
+	<li><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/news.html" title="news">news</a></li>
+	<li><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/license.html" title="license">license</a></li>
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+	<li><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/documentation.html" title="documentation">documentation</a></li>
+	<li><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/mailinglists.html" title="mailinglists">mailing lists</a></li>
+	<li><a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/contributing.html" title="Contributing">contributing</a></li>
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+	<li><span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.apache.org/foundation/thanks.html" title="Visit page outside Confluence" rel="nofollow">sponsors<sup><img class="rendericon" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/linkext7.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle" border="0" height="7" width="7"></sup></a></span>
+<!-- ApacheCon Ad -->
+<iframe src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/button.html" style="border-width: 0pt; float: left;" frameborder="0" height="135" scrolling="no" width="135"></iframe>
+<p style="height: 100px;">
+<!-- ApacheCon Ad -->
+</p></li></ul> </div>
+    <div class="main">
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding"></a>Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding</h1>
+
+<p><em>[This document is based on Felix 1.4.0.]</em></p>
+
+<ul>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-introduction" title="introduction on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Introduction</a></li>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-overview" title="overview on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">API Overview</a>
+	<ul>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-creatingandconfiguring" title="creating-and-configuring on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Creating and Configuring the Framework Instance</a></li>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-startinginstance" title="starting-instance on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Starting the Framework Instance</a></li>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-stoppinginstance" title="stopping-instance on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Stopping the Framework Instance</a></li>
+	</ul>
+	</li>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-launching" title="launching on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Launching Felix</a>
+	<ul>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-standardlauncher" title="standard-launcher on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Standard Felix Launcher</a></li>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-customlauncher" title="custom-launcher on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Custom Felix Launcher</a></li>
+	</ul>
+	</li>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-embedding" title="embedding on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Embedding Felix</a>
+	<ul>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostinteraction" title="host-interaction on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Host/Felix Interaction</a></li>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostservices" title="host-services on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Providing Host Application Services</a></li>
+		<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostserviceusage" title="host-service-usage on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Using Services Provided by Bundles</a>
+		<ul>
+			<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-servicereflection" title="service-reflection on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Using Bundle Services via Reflection</a></li>
+			<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-serviceother" title="service-other on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Other Approaches</a></li>
+		</ul>
+		</li>
+	</ul>
+	</li>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-caveat" title="caveat on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Caveat</a></li>
+	<li><a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-feedback" title="feedback on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">Feedback</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-introduction"></a></p>
+
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
+
+<p>The Apache Felix framework is intended to be easily launchable and
+embeddable. For example, Felix avoids the use of system properties for
+configuration, since these are globals and can cause interference if
+multiple framework instances are created in the same VM. Felix also
+tries to multiplex singleton facilities, like the URL stream handler
+factory. The goal is to make it possible to use Felix in as many
+scenarios as possible; however, this is still just a goal. In other
+words, this is a work in progress and if any issues arise, it would be
+greatly appreciated if they are brought to the attention of the Felix
+community. The next section provides a Felix API overview, while the
+remainder of the document is divided into two sections, one focusing on
+how to launch Felix and one focusing on how to embed Felix into a host
+application.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-overview"></a></p>
+
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-APIOverview"></a>API Overview</h1>
+
+<p>The Felix framework is implemented by the <tt>org.apache.felix.framework.Felix</tt> class or just <tt>Felix</tt>
+for short. As part of the ongoing OSGi specification process, there is
+a movement to standardize the API for launching and embedding OSGi
+framework implementations. The approach is to have the framework
+implement the <tt>org.osgi.framework.launch.Framework</tt> interface, which extends the <tt>org.osgi.framework.Bundle</tt> interface. These interfaces provide the necessary means to launch and manage framework instances. The <tt>Bundle</tt> interface is defined as:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-keyword">interface</span> Bundle
+{
+    BundleContext getBundleContext();
+    <span class="code-object">long</span> getBundleId();
+    URL getEntry(<span class="code-object">String</span> name);
+    Enumeration getEntryPaths(<span class="code-object">String</span> path);
+    Enumeration findEntries(<span class="code-object">String</span> path, <span class="code-object">String</span> filePattern, <span class="code-object">boolean</span> recurse);
+    Dictionary getHeaders();
+    Dictionary getHeaders(<span class="code-object">String</span> locale);
+    <span class="code-object">long</span> getLastModified();
+    <span class="code-object">String</span> getLocation();
+    URL getResource(<span class="code-object">String</span> name);
+    Enumeration getResources(<span class="code-object">String</span> name) <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> IOException;
+    ServiceReference[] getRegisteredServices();
+    ServiceReference[] getServicesInUse();
+    <span class="code-object">int</span> getState();
+    <span class="code-object">String</span> getSymbolicName();
+    <span class="code-object">boolean</span> hasPermission(<span class="code-object">Object</span> obj);
+    <span class="code-object">Class</span> loadClass(<span class="code-object">String</span> name) <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> ClassNotFoundException;
+    void start() <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> BundleException;
+    void stop() <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> BundleException;
+    void uninstall() <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> BundleException;
+    void update() <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> BundleException;
+    void update(InputStream is) <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> BundleException;
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>The <tt>Framework</tt> interface is defined as:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-keyword">interface</span> Framework <span class="code-keyword">extends</span> Bundle
+{
+    void init();
+    FrameworkEvent waitForStop();
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>An additional requirement for framework implementations not captured
+in the interface definitions is that they must implement a public
+constructor that accepts a <tt>Map</tt>, which is used to pass in configuration properties. When you instantiate the <tt>Felix</tt>
+class, the resulting object is the actual System Bundle that bundles
+inside the framework will see if they get bundle 0, which is the System
+Bundle as defined by the OSGi specification.</p>
+
+<table class="warningMacro" align="center" border="0" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="8" width="85%"><colgroup><col width="24"><col></colgroup><tbody><tr><td valign="top"><img src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/forbidden.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle" border="0" height="16" width="16"></td><td><b class="strong">WARNING</b><br>
+<p>This API is undergoing changes and is not completely finalized, so future changes are possible.</p></td></tr></tbody></table>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-creatingandconfiguring"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-CreatingandConfiguringtheFrameworkInstance"></a>Creating and Configuring the Framework Instance</h2>
+
+<p>To create a framework instance, simply instantiate the <tt>Felix</tt> class. A newly created framework instance is in the <tt>Bundle.INSTALLED</tt> state. You configure the instance by passing the constructor a <tt>Map</tt> containing its configurations properties. The configuration map may contain the following OSGi standard properties:</p>
+
+<ul>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.system.packages</tt> - specifies a
+list of packages the system bundle should export from the environment;
+if this is not set, then the framework uses a reasonable default fault.</li>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.system.packages.extra</tt>
+- specifies a list of additional packages the system bundle should
+export from the environment that are appended to the packages specified
+in <tt>org.osgi.framework.system.packages</tt>; there is no default value for this property.</li>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.bootdelegation</tt>
+- specifies a list of packages that should be made implicitly available
+to all bundles from the environment (i.e., no need to import them);
+there is no default value for this property and its use should be
+avoided.</li>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.storage</tt> - specifies the
+path to a directory, which will be created if it does not exist, to use
+for bundle cache storage; the default value for this property is "<tt>felix-cache</tt>" in the current working directory.</li>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.storage.clean</tt>
+- specifies whether the bundle cache should be flushed; the default
+value for this property is "none", but it can be changed to
+"onFirstInit" to flush the bundle cache when the framework is
+initialized.</li>
+	<li><tt>org.osgi.framework.startlevel</tt> - specifies the start level the framework enters upon startup; the default value for this property is 1.</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p>Felix also has the following, non-standard configuration properties:</p>
+
+<ul>
+	<li><tt>felix.cache.rootdir</tt> - specifies which directory should be used to calculate absolute paths when relative paths are used for the <tt>org.osgi.framework.storage</tt> property; the default value for this property is the current working directory.</li>
+	<li><tt>felix.systembundle.activators</tt> - specifies a <tt>List</tt> of <tt>BundleActivator</tt>
+instances that are started/stopped when the System Bundle is
+started/stopped; the specified instances will receive the System
+Bundle's <tt>BundleContext</tt> when invoked.</li>
+	<li><tt>felix.log.logger</tt> - specifies an instance of <tt>org.apache.felix.framework.util.Logger</tt> that the framework uses as its default logger.</li>
+	<li><tt>felix.log.level</tt> - specifies an integer <tt>String</tt>
+whose value indicates the degree of logging reported by the framework;
+the default value is "1" and "0" turns off logging completely,
+otherwise log levels match those specified in the OSGi Log Service
+(i.e., 1 = error, 2 = warning, 3 = information, and 4 = debug).</li>
+	<li><tt>felix.startlevel.bundle</tt> - specifies the start level for newly installed bundles; the default value is 1.</li>
+	<li><tt>framework.service.urlhandlers</tt>
+- specifies whether or not to activate the URL Handlers service for the
+framework instance; the default value is "&lt;tt&gt;true&lt;/tt&gt;",
+which results in the
+&lt;tt&gt;URL.setURLStreamHandlerFactory()&lt;/tt&gt; and
+&lt;tt&gt;URLConnection.setContentHandlerFactory()&lt;/tt&gt; being
+called.</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p>The configuration map passed into the constructor is copied and the
+keys are treated as case insensitive. You are not able to change the
+framework's configuration after construction. If you need a different
+configuration, you must create a new framework instance.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-startinginstance"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-StartingtheFrameworkInstance"></a>Starting the Framework Instance</h2>
+
+<p>The <tt>start()</tt> method is used to start the framework instance. If the <tt>init()</tt> method was not invoked prior to calling <tt>start()</tt>, then it is implicitly invoked from <tt>start()</tt>. The two methods result in two different framework state transitions:</p>
+
+<ul>
+	<li><tt>init()</tt> results in the framework instance in the <tt>Bundle.STARTING</tt> state.</li>
+	<li><tt>start()</tt> results in the framework instance in the <tt>Bundle.ACTIVE</tt> state.</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p>The <tt>init()} method is necessary since the framework does not have a {{BundleContext</tt> when it is first created, so a transition to the <tt>Bundle.STARTING</tt> state is required to acquire its context (via <tt>Bundle.getBundleContext()</tt>) for performing various tasks, such as installing bundles. Note that Felix also provides the <tt>felix.systembundle.activators</tt> property that serves a similar purpose. After the <tt>init()</tt> method completes, the follow actions have been performed:</p>
+
+<ul>
+	<li>Event handling is enabled.</li>
+	<li>The security manager is installed if it is enabled.</li>
+	<li>The framework is set to start level 0.</li>
+	<li>All bundles in the bundle caches are reified and their state is set to <tt>Bundle.INSTALLED</tt>.</li>
+	<li>The framework gets a valid <tt>BundleContext</tt>.</li>
+	<li>All framework-provided services are made available (e.g., PackageAdmin, StartLevel, etc.).</li>
+	<li>The framework enters the <tt>Bundle.STARTING</tt> state.</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<p>A call to <tt>start()</tt> is necessary to start the framework instance, if the <tt>init()</tt> method is invoked manually. Invoking <tt>init()</tt> or <tt>start()</tt> on an already started framework as no effect.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-stoppinginstance"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-StoppingtheFrameworkInstance"></a>Stopping the Framework Instance</h2>
+
+<p>To stop the framework instance, invoke the <tt>stop()</tt> method, which will asynchronously stop the framework. To know when the framework has finished its shutdown sequence, use the <tt>waitForStop()</tt> method to wait until it is complete. A stopped framework will be in the <tt>Bundle.RESOLVED</tt> state. It is possible to restart the framework, using the normal combination of <tt>init()</tt>/<tt>start()</tt> methods as previously described.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-launching"></a></p>
+
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-LaunchingFelix"></a>Launching Felix</h1>
+
+<p>Launching Felix is fairly simple and involves only three steps:</p>
+
+<ol>
+	<li>Define some configuration properties.</li>
+	<li>Create an instance of <tt>org.apache.felix.framework.Felix</tt> with the configuration properties.</li>
+	<li>Invoke the <tt>org.apache.felix.framework.Felix.start()</tt> method.</li>
+</ol>
+
+
+<p>In reality, the first step is optional, since all properties will
+have reasonable defaults, but if you are creating a launcher you will
+generally want to more than that, such as automatically installing and
+starting bundles when you start the framework instance. The default
+Felix launcher defines reusable functionality to automatically install
+and/or start bundles upon framework startup; see the <a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/apache-felix-usage-documentation.html#ApacheFelixUsageDocumentation-configuringfelix" title="configuring-felix on Apache Felix Usage Documentation">usage document</a> for more information on configuring Felix and on the various configuration properties.</p>
+
+<p>The remainder of this section describes how the standard Felix
+launcher works as well as how to create a custom launcher for Felix.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-standardlauncher"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-StandardFelixLauncher"></a>Standard Felix Launcher</h2>
+
+<p>The standard Felix launcher is very simple and is not intended to
+solve every possible requirement; it is intended to work for most
+standard situations. Most special launching requirements should be
+resolved by creating a custom launcher. This section describes how the
+standard launcher works. The following code represents the complete <tt>main()</tt> method of the standard launcher, each numbered comment will be described in more detail below:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-keyword">static</span> void main(<span class="code-object">String</span>[] argv) <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> Exception
+{
+    <span class="code-comment">// (1) Check <span class="code-keyword">for</span> proper command line usage.
+</span>    <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (args.length &gt; 1)
+    {
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Usage: [&lt;bundle-cache-dir&gt;]"</span>);
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(0);
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// (2) Load system properties.
+</span>    Main.loadSystemProperties();
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// (3) Read configuration properties.
+</span>    Properties configProps = Main.loadConfigProperties();
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// (4) Copy framework properties from the system properties.
+</span>    Main.copySystemProperties(configProps);
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// (5) If specified, use command-line argument as path to bundle cache.
+</span>    <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (args.length &gt; 0)
+    {
+        configProps.setProperty(Constants.FRAMEWORK_STORAGE, args[0]);
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// (6) Create a list <span class="code-keyword">for</span> custom framework activators and
+</span>    <span class="code-comment">// add an instance of the auto-activator it <span class="code-keyword">for</span> processing
+</span>    <span class="code-comment">// auto-install and auto-start properties. Add <span class="code-keyword">this</span> list
+</span>    <span class="code-comment">// to the configuration properties.
+</span>    List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+    list.add(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> AutoActivator(configProps));
+    configProps.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);
+
+    <span class="code-comment">// Print welcome banner.
+</span>    <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"\nWelcome to Felix."</span>);
+    <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"=================\n"</span>);
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// (7) Create an instance and start the framework.
+</span>
+        m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configProps);
+        m_felix.start();
+        <span class="code-comment">// (8) Wait <span class="code-keyword">for</span> framework to stop to exit the VM.
+</span>        m_felix.waitForStop();
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(0);
+    }
+    <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+    {
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(<span class="code-quote">"Could not create framework: "</span> + ex);
+        ex.printStackTrace();
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(-1);
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>The general steps of the standard launcher are quite straightforward:</p>
+
+<ol>
+	<li>The launcher only supports a single, optional command-line
+argument, which is the path to the bundle cache, so check for this and
+issue a usage message it there are more than one arguments.</li>
+	<li>Load any system properties specified in the <tt>system.properties</tt> file; this file is typically located in the <tt>conf/</tt> directory of the Felix installation directory, but it can be specified directly using the <tt>felix.system.properties</tt>
+system property. This file is not needed to launch Felix and is
+provided merely for convenience when system properties must be
+specified. The file is a standard Java properties file, but it also
+supports property substitution using <tt>${&lt;property-name</tt>} syntax. Property substitution can be nested; only system properties will be used for substitution.</li>
+	<li>Load any configuration properties specified in the <tt>config.properties</tt> file; this file is typically located in the <tt>conf/</tt> directory of the Felix installation directory, but it can be specified directly using the <tt>felix.config.properties</tt>
+system property. This file is used to configure the Felix instance
+created by the launcher. The file is a standard Java properties file,
+but it also supports property substitution using "<tt>${&lt;property-name</tt>}"
+syntax. Property substitution can be nested; configuration and system
+properties will be used for substitution with configuration properties
+having precedence.</li>
+	<li>For convenience, any configuration
+properties that are set as system properties will be copied into the
+set of configuration properties to provide an easy way to add to or
+override configuration properties specified in the <tt>config.properties</tt> file.</li>
+	<li>If there is a single command-line argument, then use that to set the value of <tt>org.osgi.framework.storage</tt>; relative paths are relative to the current directory unless the <tt>felix.cache.rootdir</tt> property is set.</li>
+	<li>Create a list to hold custom framework activators and add an instance of <tt>org.apache.felix.main.AutoActivator</tt>, which will process <tt>felix.auto.install</tt> and <tt>felix.auto.start</tt> configuration properties during framework startup to automatically install and/or start bundles; see the <a href="http://felix.apache.org/site/apache-felix-usage-documentation.html#ApacheFelixUsageDocumentation-configuringfelix" title="configuring-felix on Apache Felix Usage Documentation">usage document</a> for more information configuration properties.</li>
+	<li>Create the Felix instance passing in the configuration properties, then call <tt>start()</tt>.</li>
+	<li>Invoke <tt>waitForStop()</tt> to wait for the framework to stop to force the VM to exit; this is necessary because the framework never calls <tt>System.exit()</tt> and some libraries (e.g., Swing) create threads that will not allow the VM to exit.</li>
+</ol>
+
+
+<p>The framework is not active until the <tt>start()</tt> method is
+called. If no shell bundles are installed and started or if there is
+difficulty locating the shell bundles specified in the auto-start
+property, then it will appear as if the framework is hung, but it is
+actually running without any way to interact with it since the shell
+bundles provide the only means of interaction.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-customlauncher"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-CustomFelixLauncher"></a>Custom Felix Launcher</h2>
+
+<p>This section creates a bare-bones launcher to demonstrate the
+minimum requirements for creating an interactive launcher for the Felix
+framework. This example uses the standard Felix shell bundles for
+interactivity, but any other bundles could be used instead. For
+example, the shell service and telnet bundles could be used to launch
+Felix and make it remotely accessible.</p>
+
+<p>This example launcher project has the following directory structure:</p>
+
+<div class="preformatted"><div class="preformattedContent">
+<pre>launcher/
+   lib/
+      org.apache.felix.main-1.4.0.jar
+   bundle/
+      org.apache.felix.shell-1.0.2.jar
+      org.apache.felix.shell.tui-1.0.2.jar
+   src/
+      example/
+         Main.java
+</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>The <tt>lib/</tt> directory contains Felix' main JAR file, which
+also contains the OSGi core interfaces. The main JAR file is used so
+that we can reuse the default launcher's auto-install/auto-start
+configuration property handling; if these capabilities are not needed,
+then it would be possible to use the framework JAR file instead of the
+main JAR file. The <tt>bundle/</tt> directory contains the shell
+service and textual shell interface bundles that will be used for
+interacting with the framework instance. Note: If you do not launch
+Felix with interactive bundles, it will appear as if the framework
+instance is hung, but it is actually just sitting there waiting for
+someone to tell it to do something. The <tt>src/example/</tt> directory contains the following <tt>Main.java</tt> file, which is a very simplistic Felix launcher.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> example;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.List;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.Map;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.HashMap;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.Constants;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.Felix;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.util.FelixConstants;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.main.AutoActivator;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class Main
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-keyword">static</span> Felix m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-keyword">static</span> void main(<span class="code-object">String</span>[] argv) <span class="code-keyword">throws</span> Exception
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Print welcome banner.
+</span>        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"\nWelcome to Felix."</span>);
+        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"=================\n"</span>);
+
+        Map configMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();
+        configMap.put(AutoActivator.AUTO_START_PROP + <span class="code-quote">".1"</span>,
+            <span class="code-quote">"file:bundle/org.apache.felix.shell-1.0.2.jar "</span> +
+            <span class="code-quote">"file:bundle/org.apache.felix.shell.tui-1.0.2.jar"</span>);
+        List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+        list.add(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> AutoActivator(configMap));
+        configMap.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);
+
+        <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+        {
+            m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configMap);
+            m_felix.start();
+            m_felix.waitForStop();
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(0);
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+        {
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(<span class="code-quote">"Could not create framework: "</span> + ex);
+            ex.printStackTrace();
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(-1);
+        }
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This launcher has all information hard coded in it, unlike the
+default Felix launcher, which loads configuration properties from files
+and performs variable substitution. This simple launcher provides a
+good starting point if the features of the default launcher are not
+necessary. Since very few configuration properties are specified, the
+default values are used. In the case of the framework bundle cache, it
+will use "<tt>felix-cache</tt>" in the current directory.</p>
+
+<p>By breaking down the above source code into small chunks, it is quite easy to see what is going on.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java">Map configMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This simply creates a map to hold configuration properties.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java">configMap.put(AutoActivator.AUTO_START_PROP + <span class="code-quote">".1"</span>,
+            <span class="code-quote">"file:bundle/org.apache.felix.shell-1.0.2.jar "</span> +
+            <span class="code-quote">"file:bundle/org.apache.felix.shell.tui-1.0.2.jar"</span>);</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This sets the <tt>AutoActivator.AUTO_START_PROP</tt> configuration property (string value "<tt>felix.auto.start</tt>"),
+which is a space-delimited list of bundle URLs that the framework will
+automatically install and start when the framework starts. However,
+this property key cannot be used as is; it must be appended with a "."
+and then a number, where the number represents the start level for the
+bundle when it is installed. In this particular example, ".1" is
+appended to the property name, thus the two bundles will be installed
+into start level one. This example uses relative <tt>file:</tt> URLs, which will load the bundles from the <tt>bundle/</tt>
+directory assuming that the launcher is started from the root directory
+of the launcher project. It is also possible to specify absolute URLs
+or remote URLs.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java">List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+        list.add(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> AutoActivator(configMap));
+        configMap.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This above creates a list to hold custom framework activators and adds an instance of <tt>org.apache.felix.main.AutoActivator</tt>
+to it, which will process the auto-install and auto-start configuration
+properties during framework startup. The list of activators is then
+added to the configuration map.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java">m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configMap);
+            m_felix.start();</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>These steps create the framework instance and start it. The configuration property map is passed into the <tt>Felix</tt> constructor.</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java">m_felix.waitForStop();
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.exit(0);</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>These final steps cause the launching application thread to wait for
+the framework to stop and when it does the launching thread calls <tt>System.exit()</tt> to make sure the VM actually exits.</p>
+
+<p>The following command compiles the launcher when run from the root directory of the launcher project:</p>
+
+<div class="preformatted"><div class="preformattedContent">
+<pre>javac -d . -classpath lib/org.apache.felix.main-1.4.0.jar src/example/Main.java
+</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>After executing this command, an <tt>example/</tt> directory is
+created in the current directory, which contains the generated class
+file. The following command executes the simple launcher when run from
+the root directory of the launcher project:</p>
+
+<div class="preformatted"><div class="preformattedContent">
+<pre>java -cp .:lib/org.apache.felix.main-1.4.0.jar example.Main
+</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>After executing this command, a "<tt>felix-cache/</tt>" directory is created that contains the installed bundles, which were installed from the <tt>bundle/</tt> directory.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-embedding"></a></p>
+
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-EmbeddingFelix"></a>Embedding Felix</h1>
+
+<p>Embedding Felix into a host application is a simple way to provide a
+sophisticated extensibility mechanism (i.e., a plugin system) to the
+host application. Embedding Felix is very similar to launching Felix as
+described above, the main difference is that the host application
+typically wants to interact with the framework instance and/or
+installed bundles/services from the outside. This is fairly easy to
+achieve with Felix, but there are some subtle issues to understand.
+This section presents the mechanisms for embedding Felix into a host
+application and the issues in doing so.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostinteraction"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-Host/FelixInteraction"></a>Host/Felix Interaction</h2>
+
+<p>In the section on <a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-launching" title="launching on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">launching</a> Felix above, the <tt>Felix</tt> accepts a configuration property called <tt>felix.systembundle.activators</tt>,
+which is a list of bundle activator instances. These bundle activator
+instances provide a convenient way for host applications to interact
+with the Felix framework. The ability offered by these activators can
+also be accomplished by invoking <tt>init()</tt> on the framework instance and the using <tt>getBundleContext()</tt> to get the System Bundle's context, but it can be more convenient to use an activator instance.</p>
+
+<p>Each activator instance passed into the constructor effectively becomes part of the System Bundle. This means that the <tt>start()</tt>/<tt>stop()</tt> methods of each activator instance in the list gets invoked when the System Bundle's activator <tt>start()</tt>/<tt>stop()</tt> methods gets invoked, respectively. Each activator instance will be given the System Bundle's <tt>BundleContext</tt> object so that they can interact with the framework. Consider following snippet of a bundle activator:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostActivator <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> BundleActivator
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> BundleContext m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void start(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        m_context = context;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void stop(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> Bundle[] getBundles()
+    {
+        <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (m_context != <span class="code-keyword">null</span>)
+        {
+            <span class="code-keyword">return</span> m_context.getBundles();
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>Given the above bundle activator, it is now possible to embed Felix
+into a host application and interact with it as the following snippet
+illustrates:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostApplication
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> HostActivator m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> Felix m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> HostApplication()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create a configuration property map.
+</span>        Map configMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create host activator;
+</span>        m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HostActivator();
+        List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+        list.add(m_activator);
+        configMap.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);
+
+        <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+        {
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now create an instance of the framework with
+</span>            <span class="code-comment">// our configuration properties.
+</span>            m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configMap);
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now start Felix instance.
+</span>            m_felix.start();
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+        {
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(<span class="code-quote">"Could not create framework: "</span> + ex);
+            ex.printStackTrace();
+        }
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> Bundle[] getInstalledBundles()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Use the system bundle activator to gain external
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// access to the set of installed bundles.
+</span>        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> m_activator.getBundles();
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void shutdownApplication()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Shut down the felix framework when stopping the
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// host application.
+</span>        m_felix.stop();
+        m_felix.waitForStop();
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>Notice how the <tt>HostApplication.getInstalledBundles()</tt> method
+uses its activator instance to get access to the System Bundle's
+context in order to interact with the embedded Felix framework
+instance. This approach provides the foundation for all interaction
+between the host application and the embedded framework instance.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostservices"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-ProvidingHostApplicationServices"></a>Providing Host Application Services</h2>
+
+<p>Providing services from the host application to bundles inside the
+embedded Felix framework instance follows the basic approach laid out
+in <a href="#ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostinteraction" title="host-interaction on Apache Felix Framework Launching and Embedding">above</a>.
+The main complication for providing a host application service to
+bundles is the fact that both the host application and the bundles must
+be using the same class definitions for the service interface classes.
+Since the host application cannot import classes from a bundle, this
+means that the service interface classes <b>must</b> be accessible on
+the class path, typically as part of the host application itself. The
+host application then must export the service interface package via the
+system bundle so that bundles installed into the embedded framework
+instance can import it. This is achieved using the <tt>org.osgi.framework.system.packages.extra</tt> configuration property previously presented.</p>
+
+<p>Consider the follow simple property lookup service:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.service.lookup;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class Lookup
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">Object</span> lookup(<span class="code-object">String</span> name);
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This package is simply part of the host application, which is potentially packaged into a JAR file and started with the "<tt>java -jar</tt>"
+command. Now consider the following host application bundle activator,
+which will be used to register/unregister the property lookup service
+when the embedded framework instance starts/stops:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.core;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.Map;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.BundleActivator;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.BundleContext;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.ServiceRegistration;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> host.service.lookup;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostActivator <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> BundleActivator
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> Map m_lookupMap = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> BundleContext m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> ServiceRegistration m_registration = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> HostActivator(Map lookupMap)
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Save a reference to the service's backing store.
+</span>        m_lookupMap = lookupMap;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void start(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Save a reference to the bundle context.
+</span>        m_context = context;
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create a property lookup service implementation.
+</span>        Lookup lookup = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Lookup() {
+            <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">Object</span> lookup(<span class="code-object">String</span> name)
+            {
+                <span class="code-keyword">return</span> m_lookupMap.get(name);
+            }
+        };
+        <span class="code-comment">// Register the property lookup service and save
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// the service registration.
+</span>        m_registration = m_context.registerService(
+            Lookup.class.getName(), lookup, <span class="code-keyword">null</span>);
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void stop(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Unregister the property lookup service.
+</span>        m_registration.unregister();
+        m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>Given the above host application bundle activator, the following
+code snippet shows how the host application could create an embedded
+version of the Felix framework and provide the property lookup service
+to installed bundles:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.core;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.List;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.Map;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.HashMap;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> host.service.lookup.Lookup;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.Felix;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.util.FelixConstants;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.Constants;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostApplication
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> HostActivator m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> Felix m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> Map m_lookupMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> HostApplication()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Initialize the map <span class="code-keyword">for</span> the property lookup service.
+</span>        m_lookupMap.put(<span class="code-quote">"name1"</span>, <span class="code-quote">"value1"</span>);
+
+        m_lookupMap.put(<span class="code-quote">"name2"</span>, <span class="code-quote">"value2"</span>);
+        m_lookupMap.put(<span class="code-quote">"name3"</span>, <span class="code-quote">"value3"</span>);
+        m_lookupMap.put(<span class="code-quote">"name4"</span>, <span class="code-quote">"value4"</span>);
+
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create a configuration property map.
+</span>        Map configMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();
+        <span class="code-comment">// Export the host provided service <span class="code-keyword">interface</span> <span class="code-keyword">package</span>.
+</span>        configMap.put(Constants.FRAMEWORK_SYSTEMPACKAGES_EXTRA,
+            <span class="code-quote">"host.service.lookup; version=1.0.0"</span>);
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create host activator;
+</span>        m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HostActivator(m_lookupMap);
+        List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+        list.add(m_activator);
+        configMap.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);
+
+        <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+        {
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now create an instance of the framework with
+</span>            <span class="code-comment">// our configuration properties.
+</span>            m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configMap);
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now start Felix instance.
+</span>            m_felix.start();
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+        {
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(<span class="code-quote">"Could not create framework: "</span> + ex);
+            ex.printStackTrace();
+        }
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void shutdownApplication()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Shut down the felix framework when stopping the
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// host application.
+</span>        m_felix.stop();
+        m_felix.waitForStop();
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>Rather than having the host application bundle activator register
+the service, it is also possible for the the host application to simply
+get the bundle context from the bundle activator and register the
+service directly, but the presented approach is perhaps a little
+cleaner since it allows the host application to register/unregister the
+service when the system bundle starts/stops.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-hostserviceusage"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-UsingServicesProvidedbyBundles"></a>Using Services Provided by Bundles</h2>
+
+<p>Using services provided by bundles follows the same general approach
+of using a host application bundle activator. The main complication for
+the host application using a service from a bundle is the fact that
+both the host application and the bundle must be using the same class
+definitions for the service interface classes. Since the host
+application cannot import classes from a bundle, this means that the
+service interface classes <b>must</b> be accessible on the class path,
+typically as part of the host application itself. The host application
+then must export the service interface package via the system bundle so
+that bundles installed into the embedded framework instance can import
+it. This is achieved using the <tt>org.osgi.framework.system.packages.extra</tt> configuration property previously presented.</p>
+
+<p>Consider the following simple command service interface for which
+bundles provide implementations, such as might be used to create an
+extensible interactive shell:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.service.command;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class Command
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> getName();
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> getDescription();
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span> execute(<span class="code-object">String</span> commandline);
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>This package is simply part of the host application, which is potentially packaged into a JAR file and started with the "<tt>java -jar</tt>"
+command. Now consider the previously introduced host application bundle
+activator below, which simply provides access to the system bundle
+context:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.core;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.BundleActivator;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.BundleContext;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostActivator <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> BundleActivator
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> BundleContext m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void start(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        m_context = context;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void stop(BundleContext context)
+    {
+        m_context = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> BundleContext getContext()
+    {
+        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> m_context;
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>With this bundle activator, the host application can use command
+services provided by bundles installed inside its embedded Felix
+framework instance. The following code snippet illustrates one possible
+approach:</p>
+
+<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
+<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">package</span> host.core;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.List;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> java.util.Map;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> host.service.command.Command;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.Felix;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.util.FelixConstants;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.apache.felix.framework.cache.BundleCache;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.framework.Constants;
+<span class="code-keyword">import</span> org.osgi.util.tracker.ServiceTracker;
+
+<span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HostApplication
+{
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> HostActivator m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> Felix m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> ServiceTracker m_tracker = <span class="code-keyword">null</span>;
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> HostApplication()
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create a configuration property map.
+</span>        Map configMap = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HashMap();
+        <span class="code-comment">// Export the host provided service <span class="code-keyword">interface</span> <span class="code-keyword">package</span>.
+</span>        configMap.put(Constants.FRAMEWORK_SYSTEMPACKAGES_EXTRA,
+            <span class="code-quote">"host.service.command; version=1.0.0"</span>);
+        <span class="code-comment">// Create host activator;
+</span>        m_activator = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> HostActivator();
+        List list = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ArrayList();
+        list.add(m_activator);
+        configMap.put(FelixConstants.SYSTEMBUNDLE_ACTIVATORS_PROP, list);
+
+        <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+        {
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now create an instance of the framework with
+</span>            <span class="code-comment">// our configuration properties.
+</span>            m_felix = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> Felix(configMap);
+            <span class="code-comment">// Now start Felix instance.
+</span>            m_felix.start();
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+        {
+            <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(<span class="code-quote">"Could not create framework: "</span> + ex);
+            ex.printStackTrace();
+        }
+
+        m_tracker = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> ServiceTracker(
+            m_activator.getContext(), Command.class.getName(), <span class="code-keyword">null</span>);
+        m_tracker.open();
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span> execute(<span class="code-object">String</span> name, <span class="code-object">String</span> commandline)
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// See <span class="code-keyword">if</span> any of the currently tracked command services
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// match the specified command name, <span class="code-keyword">if</span> so then execute it.
+</span>        <span class="code-object">Object</span>[] services = m_tracker.getServices();
+        <span class="code-keyword">for</span> (<span class="code-object">int</span> i = 0; (services != <span class="code-keyword">null</span>) &amp;&amp; (i &lt; services.length); i++)
+        {
+            <span class="code-keyword">try</span>
+            {
+                <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (((Command) services[i]).getName().equals(name))
+                {
+                    <span class="code-keyword">return</span> ((Command) services[i]).execute(commandline);
+                }
+            }
+            <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> (Exception ex)
+            {
+                <span class="code-comment">// Since the services returned by the tracker could become
+</span>                <span class="code-comment">// invalid at any moment, we will <span class="code-keyword">catch</span> all exceptions, log
+</span>                <span class="code-comment">// a message, and then ignore faulty services.
+</span>                <span class="code-object">System</span>.err.println(ex);
+            }
+        }
+        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-keyword">false</span>;
+    }
+
+    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void shutdownApplication()
+    {
+    {
+        <span class="code-comment">// Shut down the felix framework when stopping the
+</span>        <span class="code-comment">// host application.
+</span>        m_felix.stop();
+        m_felix.waitForStop();
+    }
+}</pre>
+</div></div>
+
+<p>The above example is overly simplistic with respect to concurrency
+issues and error conditions, but it demonstrates the overall approach
+for using bundle-provided services from the host application.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-servicereflection"></a></p>
+
+<h3><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-UsingBundleServicesviaReflection"></a>Using Bundle Services via Reflection</h3>
+
+<p>It possible for the host application to use services provided by
+bundles without having access to the service interface classes and thus
+not needing to put the service interface classes on the class path. To
+do this, the host application uses the same general approach to acquire
+the system bundle context object, which it can use to look up service
+objects. Using either an LDAP filter or the service interface class
+name, the host application can retrieve the service object and then use
+standard Java reflection to invoke methods on the service object.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-serviceother"></a></p>
+
+<h3><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-OtherApproaches"></a>Other Approaches</h3>
+
+<p>The <span class="nobr"><a href="http://code.google.com/p/transloader/" title="Visit page outside Confluence" rel="nofollow">Transloader<sup><img class="rendericon" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/linkext7.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle" border="0" height="7" width="7"></sup></a></span> project is another attempt at dealing with issues of classes loaded from different class loaders and may be of interest.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-caveat"></a></p>
+
+<h1><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-Caveat"></a>Caveat</h1>
+
+<p>The code in this document has not been thoroughly tested nor even
+compiled and may be out of date with respect to the current Felix
+source code. If you find errors please report them so the that they can
+be corrected.</p>
+
+<p><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-feedback"></a></p>
+
+<h2><a name="ApacheFelixFrameworkLaunchingandEmbedding-Feedback"></a>Feedback</h2>
+
+<p>Subscribe to the Felix users mailing list by sending a message to <span class="nobr"><a href="mailto:users-subscribe@felix.apache.org" title="Send mail to users-subscribe@felix.apache.org" rel="nofollow">users-subscribe@felix.apache.org<sup><img class="rendericon" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding_files/mail_small.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle" border="0" height="12" width="13"></sup></a></span>; after subscribing, email questions or feedback to <span class="nobr"><a href="mailto:users@felix.apache.org" title="Send mail to users@felix.apache.org" rel="nofollow">users@felix.apache.org<sup><img class="rendericon" src="apache-felix-framework-launching-and-embedding-Dateien/mail_small.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle" border="0" height="12" width="13"></sup></a></span>.</p>
+    </div>
+  </body></html>

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+<html><head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><!-- ads start -->
+</head><body><a href="http://www.us.apachecon.com/" target="_blank"><img src="button_data/2008-usa-125x125.png" title="ApacheCon US 2008" border="0" height="125" width="125"></a>
+<!-- ads end -->
+</body></html>
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+/* @override http://felix.apache.org/site/media.data/site.css */
+
+body { background-color: #ffffff; color: #3b3b3b; font-family: Tahoma, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt; line-height: 140% }
+h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 { font-weight: normal; color: #000000; line-height: 100%; margin-top: 0px}
+h1 { font-size: 200% }
+h2 { font-size: 175% }
+h3 { font-size: 150% }
+h4 { font-size: 140% }
+h5 { font-size: 130% }
+h6 { font-size: 120% }
+a { color: #1980af }
+a:visited { color: #1980af }
+a:hover { color: #1faae9 }
+.title { position: absolute; left: 1px; right: 1px; top:25px; height: 81px; background: url(http://felix.apache.org/site/media.data/gradient.png) repeat-x; background-position: bottom; }
+.logo { position: absolute; width: 15em; height: 81px; text-align: center; }
+.header { text-align: right; margin-right: 20pt; margin-top: 30pt;}
+.menu { border-top: 10px solid #f9bb00; position: absolute; top: 107px; left: 1px; width: 15em; bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; background-color: #fcfcfc }
+.menu ul { background-color: #fdf5d9; list-style: none; padding-left: 4em; margin-top: 0px; padding-top: 2em; padding-bottom: 2em; margin-left: 0px; color: #4a4a43}
+.menu a { text-decoration: none; color: #4a4a43 }
+.main { position: absolute; border-top: 10px solid #cde0ea; top: 107px; left: 15em; right: 1px; margin-left: 2px; padding-right: 4em; padding-left: 1em; padding-top: 1em;}
+.code { background-color: #eeeeee; border: solid 1px black; padding: 0.5em }
+.code-keyword { color: #880000 }
+.code-quote { color: #008800 }
+.code-object { color: #0000dd }
+.code-java { margin: 0em }
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