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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache Felix: iPOJO Advanced Tutorial (page edited)
Date Fri, 31 Aug 2007 12:00:00 GMT
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/FELIX">FELIX</a> :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/FELIX/iPOJO+Advanced+Tutorial">iPOJO Advanced Tutorial</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/FELIX/iPOJO+Advanced+Tutorial">iPOJO Advanced Tutorial</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~clement.escoffier">Clement Escoffier</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Aug 31, 2007)</span>.
     </p>
    
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=63270&originalVersion=3&revisedVersion=4">(View changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><p>This tutorial presents some iPOJO features and shows:</p>
<ul>
	<li>How a component can provide two services</li>
	<li>How to attach a service property to provided service</li>
	<li>How a service property can be dynamically updated by component code</li>
	<li>How to configure instances</li>
	<li>How a service dependency can filter providers</li>
	<li>How to create instance(s) for a component not contained in the same bundle</li>
	<li>How configuring instances</li>
	<li>How to use the lifecycle controller handler</li>
</ul>


<p>The sources of this tutorial are available <span class="nobr"><a href="/confluence/download/attachments/63270/vendor.zip?version=1" title="vendor.zip attached to iPOJO Advanced Tutorial">here<sup><img class="rendericon" src="/confluence/images/icons/link_attachment_7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"/></sup></a></span>. This tutorial uses the <a href="/confluence/display/FELIX/iPOJO+Eclipse+Plug-in" title="iPOJO Eclipse Plug-in">iPOJO Eclipse plugin</a>.</p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Context"></a>Context</h1>
<p>This tutorial is based on a very simple application; customers are using a vendor service to buy hot dog or pop corn according to the availability of appropriate providers. Both of the vendors implement (and provide) the vendor service. The hot dog vendor depends on two other services to get the ingredients. It depends on a bun service and a wiener service.</p>

<p><img src="/confluence/download/attachments/63270/vendor.png" align="absmiddle" border="0" /></p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Writingacomponentprovidingtwoservices"></a>Writing a component providing two services</h1>
<p>The hot dog vendor requires at the same time the bun service and the wiener service. In our application these services are provided by the same component. This component can be implemented as follows:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class BunWienerProvider <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> BunService, WienerService {
    
    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void getBun() {
        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Get a bun"</span>);
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void getWiener() {
        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Get a wiener"</span>);
    }
}</pre>
</div></div>
<p>This class just implements the two service interfaces. Its descriptor is:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">&lt;ipojo&gt;
&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.provider.BunWienerProvider"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"<span class="code-keyword">false</span>"</span>&gt;
	&lt;provides/&gt;
&lt;/component&gt;

&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span>/&gt;
&lt;/ipojo&gt;</pre>
</div></div>

<p>In the descriptor we declare a component type for our component which contains the implementation class. The "classname" attribute contains the qualified name of the component implementation. The "name" attribute is the component type name. It is only used to refer to this type.</p>

<p>The "factory=false" attribute disables factory exposition. A component type publishing a factory provides a way to create instance of this type from outside this descriptor. In our case, we want to guarantee that only one instance will be created.</p>

<p>IPOJO manages service publication and providing automatically at runtime. The "&lt;provides/&gt;" element means that the component provides services. If this element is not present, iPOJO will publish all implemented interfaces by the implementation class. In our case, it will publish only BunService and WienerService interfaces.</p>

<p>Finally, we create one instance of our component. The instance contains the component attribute describing the component type to use. We use the component type name to target the wanted component type.<br/>
At runtime, the bundle containing this component will create an instance which provides the BunService and the WienerService.</p>


<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Publishingaserviceproperty"></a>Publishing a service property</h1>

<p>The hot dog vendor only provides the Vendor service. To provide this service, it uses a bun service and a wiener service. The following code snippet shows a very simple implementation of this component:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class HotDogVendor <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> VendorService {
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> BunService bunProvider;
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> WienerService wienerProvider;
    
    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> getName() {
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-quote">"The Best Hot Dogs"</span>;
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> sell() {
        bunProvider.getBun();
        wienerProvider.getWiener();
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-quote">"sell an hotdog"</span>;
    }
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The field attributes in the "requires" elements are used to inject the required services. At runtime, iPOJO injects automatically a BunService provider in the "bunProvider" field and a WienerService provider in the "wienerProvider" field. The implementation uses these fields the same way it would have used any other fields (as illustrated in the sell method).<br/>
This type of metadatas are very simple: </p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.hotdog.HotDogVendor"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"bunProvider"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"wienerProvider"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>The component type declares a provided service (the Vendor Service). Then, the component declares the two service dependencies (using the "requires" element). However, we would like to add a service property on the Vendor service describing the sale product (here, "hotdog"). To achieve this, we just need to add a property element in the "provides" tags: </p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.hotdog.HotDogVendor"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"product"</span> type=<span class="code-quote">"string"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"hotdog"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;/provides&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"bunProvider"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"wienerProvider"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>IPOJO then publishes the "product" property in the "vendor" service registration. This property has the "hotdog" value.</p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Publishinga%27dynamic%27property"></a>Publishing a 'dynamic' property</h1>

<p>The bun service and the wiener service can also expose service properties. In our case, these service properties will describe the stock of ingredients. Each time the service is used, the property is decreased.<br/>
To achieve this, we modify the current implementation to add a field representing the property:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class BunProvider <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> BunService, WienerService {
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-object">int</span> bunStock;
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-object">int</span> wienerStock;

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void getBun() {
        bunStock = bunStock - 1;
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> void getWiener() {
        wienerStock = wienerStock - 1;
    }
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The component type metadata must also be modified in order to describe this property:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.provider.BunProvider"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"buns"</span> field=<span class="code-quote">"bunStock"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"10"</span>/&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"wieners"</span> field=<span class="code-quote">"wienerStock"</span> va	lue=<span class="code-quote">"10"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;/provides&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>In the "provides" element, two properties are added. This property contains a "field" attribute aiming to attach the service property with a field of the implementation class. Then a default value is given. In the code, the property fields will obtain the initial value (10). Then each time the fields are modified, the service property is updated (as well as the OSGi™ service registration). </p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Configuringinstances"></a>Configuring instances</h1>

<p>In the previous example, the properties were configured in the component type description. It is also possible to customize any value in the instance declaration. This way, each instance can obtain different values.</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.provider.BunProvider"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"buns"</span> field=<span class="code-quote">"bunStock"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"10"</span>/&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"wieners"</span> field=<span class="code-quote">"wienerStock"</span> va	lue=<span class="code-quote">"10"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;/provides&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"buns_and_wieners"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"buns"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"9"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"wieners"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"8"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>The previous metadata shows how to push a configuration in instance declarations. The instance declaration contains two property elements containing the name of the value of the property. Instance configuration override component type initial value. If a property does not have an initial value, the instance must provide a value for this unvalued property. </p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Usingfilterinservicerequirement"></a>Using filter in service requirement</h1>

<p>Now that bun and wiener providers are publishing their remaining stock, the hot dog provider can look for a bun service and a wiener service with a non empty stock. To achieve this, we must describe an LDAP filter in the service dependency description. The following XML snipped shows this metadata:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.hotdog.HotDogVendor"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"product"</span> type=<span class="code-quote">"string"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"hotdog"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;/provides&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"bunProvider"</span> filter=<span class="code-quote">"(buns&gt;</span>=1)"</span>/&gt;
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"wienerProvider"</span> filter=<span class="code-quote">"(wieners&gt;</span>=1)"</span>/&gt;
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"HD"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>When a provider does no more matches with the LDAP filter, the provider is no more used, and another (matching with the filter) is looked for. If no provider fulfilling the constraint is found, the instance becomes invalid and waits a matching provider.</p>

<p><em>Note:</em> when an instance becomes invalid, provided services are withdraw from the service registry. </p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Immediatecomponentinstance"></a>Immediate component instance</h1>

<p>Now that we get the hot dog provider, we are going to implement customers. A customer simply looks for a vendor service and buys a product:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class Customer {
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> VendorService vendor;
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> name;
    
    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> Customer() {
        <span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Customer "</span> + name + <span class="code-quote">" bought "</span> +  vendor.sell() + <span class="code-quote">" from "</span> + vendor.getName());
    }</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The previous code shows a possible implementation of a customer. However, the "sell" method is called in a constructor, and the constructor can only be called only if an object of the class is created. With iPOJO there are two different way to "activate" an instance as soon as it becomes valid. <br/>
The first one uses the lifecycle callback (described in the previous tutorial). <br/>
The second one is by declaring the component as an immediate component. An immediate component instance creates an object of its implementation as soon as it becomes valid. </p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.customer.Customer"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span> immediate=<span class="code-quote">"true"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;requires field=<span class="code-quote">"vendor"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;properties&gt;</span>
		<span class="code-tag">&lt;property field=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span>/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;/properties&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"my_customer"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>To declare a component immediate, just add "immediate=true" in the component descriptor. Then as soon as the vendor service is available, the object is created. </p>

<p><em>Note:</em> There is a difference between immediate component and component with a 'validate' lifecycle callback. Indeed, the callback is call at each time the instance becomes valid and calls the constructor only if no object already exists. On the other side, the immediate component's constructor is called each time.</p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Creatinginstancesfromanexternalcomponenttype"></a>Creating instances from an external component type</h1>

<p>In the previous section we have declared a customer component type, which does not have the "factory=false" attribute. This feature allows separate deployment from instance creation.<br/>
Another metadata file can be used to declare instances from the customer types, this descriptor being contained in another bundle. The following descriptor creates 10 customer instances:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-1"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-2"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-3"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-4"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-5"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-6"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-7"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-8"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-9"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"customer"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;property name=<span class="code-quote">"name"</span> value=<span class="code-quote">"customer-10"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/instance&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>Once deployed, this bundle looks for the required factory. If it's not available the bundle waits for the factory to be created. When this bundle is stopped, all instances are destroyed. </p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Usingthelifecyclecontroller"></a>Using the lifecycle controller</h1>
<p>Sometimes you want to invalidate your instance in the code (for example: to unregister a service). That's possible with the lifecycle controller handler.<br/>
Imagine the popcorn vendor with a corn stock. Each time it sells some popcorns, its stock decreases. When the stock reaches 0, it cannot sell popcorns any more (so the vendor service needs to be withdrawn).</p>

<p>The following implementation uses a field to control the lifecycle.</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class PopCornVendor <span class="code-keyword">implements</span> VendorService {
    
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-object">int</span> m_corn_stock = 5;
    <span class="code-keyword">private</span> <span class="code-object">boolean</span> m_can_sell = <span class="code-keyword">true</span>;
    
    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> getName() {
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-quote">"Eat my pop corn !"</span>; 
    }

    <span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span class="code-object">String</span> sell() {
        m_corn_stock = m_corn_stock - 1;
        <span class="code-keyword">if</span> (m_corn_stock == 0 &amp;&amp; m_can_sell) {
            m_can_sell = <span class="code-keyword">false</span>;
        }
        <span class="code-keyword">return</span> <span class="code-quote">"popcorn"</span>; 
    }
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Once the field is set to "false", the instance is invalidated (the vendor service is no more available). To configure the controller, you can use the following metadata :</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;ipojo&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;component classname=<span class="code-quote">"org.apache.felix.ipojo.example.vendor.popcorn.PopCornVendor"</span> name=<span class="code-quote">"popcorn"</span> factory=<span class="code-quote">"false"</span> architecture=<span class="code-quote">"true"</span>&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;provides/&gt;</span>
	<span class="code-tag">&lt;controller field=<span class="code-quote">"m_can_sell"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/component&gt;</span>

<span class="code-tag">&lt;instance component=<span class="code-quote">"popcorn"</span>/&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/ipojo&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>
<p>The instance can be re-validated by setting the field to true.</p>

<h1><a name="iPOJOAdvancedTutorial-Conclusion"></a>Conclusion</h1>

<p>This small tutorial has presented some of the main iPOJO features. If you have comments or questions, do not hesitate to send email to: <span class="error">&#91;clement.escoffier@gmail.com&#93;</span>.</p></div>


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