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From build...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r836397 - in /websites/staging/directory/trunk/content: ./ apacheds/basic-ug/ apacheds/basic-ug/images/
Date Sun, 28 Oct 2012 08:02:43 GMT
Author: buildbot
Date: Sun Oct 28 08:02:42 2012
New Revision: 836397

Log:
Staging update by buildbot for directory

Added:
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/1.2-some-background.html
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/images/cover_howes_100.gif
  (with props)
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/images/cover_zoerner_100.gif
  (with props)
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/images/de.png   (with props)
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/images/fromX500toLDAP.png 
 (with props)
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/images/ldap-tools.png   (with
props)
Modified:
    websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/   (props changed)

Propchange: websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/
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--- cms:source-revision (original)
+++ cms:source-revision Sun Oct 28 08:02:42 2012
@@ -1 +1 @@
-1402948
+1402949

Added: websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/1.2-some-background.html
==============================================================================
--- websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/1.2-some-background.html (added)
+++ websites/staging/directory/trunk/content/apacheds/basic-ug/1.2-some-background.html Sun
Oct 28 08:02:42 2012
@@ -0,0 +1,243 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+    contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+    this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+    The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+    (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+    the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+    distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+    WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+    See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+    limitations under the License.
+-->
+<html>
+	<head>
+		<title>1.1 - What Apache DS is &mdash; Apache Directory</title>
+		
+        <link href="./../../css/common.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
+    	<link href="./../../css/green.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
+    
+	</head>
+	<body>
+	    <div id="container">
+            <div id="header">
+                <div id="subProjectsNavBar">
+                    <a href="./../../">
+                        
+                        Apache Directory Project
+                        
+                    </a>
+                    &nbsp;|&nbsp;
+                    <a href="./../../apacheds">
+                        
+                        <STRONG>ApacheDS</STRONG>
+                        
+                    </a>
+                    &nbsp;|&nbsp;
+                    <a href="./../../studio">
+                        
+                        Apache Directory Studio
+                        
+                    </a>
+                    &nbsp;|&nbsp;
+                    <a href="./../../api">
+                        
+                        Apache LDAP API
+                        
+                    </a>
+                </div><!-- subProjectsNavBar -->
+            </div><!-- header -->
+            <div id="content">
+                <div id="leftColumn">
+                    
+<div id="navigation">
+    
+    <h5>ApacheDS 2.0</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/">Home</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/features.html">Features</a></li>
+    </ul>
+    <h5>Downloads</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/downloads.html">ApacheDS 2.0.0-M8</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<img
src="./../../images/new_badge.gif" alt="" style="margin- bottom:- 3px;" border="0"></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/download-old-versions.html">Older versions</a></li>
+    </ul>
+    <h5>Documentation</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/basic-users-guide.html">Basic User's Guide
</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/advanced-users-guide.html">Advanced User's
Guide</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../apacheds/developers-guide.html">Developer's Guide</a></li>
+        <!--li><a href="./../../apacheds/gen-docs/latest">Generated Reports (e.g.
JavaDocs)</a></li-->
+    </ul>
+    
+    
+    <h5>Support</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="./../../mailing-lists-and-irc.html">Mailing Lists &amp;
IRC</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../sources.html">Sources</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../issue-tracking.html">Issue Tracking</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../commercial-support.html">Commercial Support</a></li>
+    </ul>
+    <h5>Community</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="./../../contribute.html">How to Contribute</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../team.html">Team</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../original-project-proposal.html">Original Project
Proposal</a></li>
+        <li><a href="./../../special-thanks.html" class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Special
Thanks</a></li>
+    </ul>
+    <h5>About Apache</h5>
+    <ul>
+        <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a></li>
+        <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/">License</a></li>
+        <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/foundation/sponsorship.html">Sponsorship</a></li>
+        <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/foundation/thanks.html">Thanks</a></li>
+        <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/security/">Security</a></li>
+    </ul>
+    
+</div><!-- navigation -->
+
+                </div><!-- leftColumn -->
+                <div id="rightColumn">
+
+
+    <div class="nav">
+        <div class="nav_prev">
+        
+            <a href="1.1-what-apacheds-is.html">1.1 - What Apache Directory Server
is</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="nav_up">
+        
+            <a href="1-how-to-begin.html">1.1 - How to begin</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="nav_next">
+        
+            <a href="1.3-installing-and-starting.html">1.3 - Installing and starting
the server</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="clearfix"></div>
+    </div>
+
+
+<h1 id="some-background-directories-directory-services-and-ldap">Some Background. Directories,
directory services and LDAP</h1>
+<p>This section provides a brief overview about directories, directory services and
LDAP. Furthermore you find links to different resources (books, online resources, ...), which
may act as introduction to the topic. If you are already an LDAP expert, you'll probably skip
this section. </p>
+<div class="toc">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#some-background-directories-directory-services-and-ldap">Some Background.
Directories, directory services and LDAP</a><ul>
+<li><a href="#directories-and-directory-services">Directories and directory services</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ldap-the-lightweight-directory-access-protocol">LDAP -- the Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol</a><ul>
+<li><a href="#what-is-it-some-history">What is it? Some history.</a></li>
+<li><a href="#information-model-primer">Information model primer</a></li>
+<li><a href="#common-applications-of-ldap-based-directories">Common applications
of LDAP based directories</a></li>
+<li><a href="#examples-of-software-components-which-support-ldap">Examples of
software components which support LDAP</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#ldap-resources">LDAP resources</a><ul>
+<li><a href="#books">Books</a><ul>
+<li><a href="#understanding-and-deploying-ldap-directory-services">Understanding
and Deploying LDAP Directory Services</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ldap-fuer-java-entwickler">LDAP fuer Java-Entwickler</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#articles-forums-blogs-and-other-online-resources">Articles, forums,
blogs and other online resources</a><ul>
+<li><a href="#blogs">Blogs</a></li>
+<li><a href="#articles-and-other-online-resources">Articles and other online
resources</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<h2 id="directories-and-directory-services">Directories and directory services</h2>
+<p>Generally speaking, a directory is a collection or list of data. Real world examples
are telephone books (public or within organizations), church/land registers and listings of
works (e.g. the Koechel-index, which lists all compositions of Mozart). All these examples
have the purpose to preserve information and to make it available on demand to whom it may
concern.</p>
+<p>Within information technology the term <em>directory</em> is used for
a special kind of data storage. It allows the structured storage and efficient retrieval of
objects which are often derived from the real world (e.g. persons, IT equipment). Characteristic:
+<em> all data is stored in so called </em>entries<em>
+</em> the set of entries within a directory forms a tree (hierarchical database)</p>
+<p>A <em>directory service</em> is a solution which offers users access
to the information stored in the directory. A directory assistance (call center agent) is
a good real world example for such a service. Within information technologies, such services
are normally provided by software components. Directory services provide access to the content
of a directory via a well-defined interface. If a network is used, an appropriate protocol
has to be defined. LDAP (see below) is such a protocol.</p>
+<p>The real world examples mentioned above may be stored in such a directory, although
other types of storage systems can be more appropriate (this depends on circumstance/requirements).
At first sight directories compete thereby as data storage with the established relational
data bases. However in the most large enterprises and organizations both directory services
and relational databases are actually used. Read how Vikas Mahajan describes directories and
databases as complementary, not competitive, solutions in his excellent article <a href="http://support.novell.com/techcenter/articles/ana20011101.html">"Should
I Use a Directory, a Database, or Both?"</a>.</p>
+<h2 id="ldap-the-lightweight-directory-access-protocol">LDAP -- the Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol</h2>
+<h3 id="what-is-it-some-history">What is it? Some history.</h3>
+<p>The comprehensive standard <em>X.500</em>, finalized in 1988, builds
the foundation for many of today's directory solutions. Within this standard, the client accesses
the server via the Directory Access Protocol (<em>DAP</em>), which is OSI protocol
stack based. With the Internet boom in the nineties, the accessibility of directories via
TCP/IP became more and more important. Hence a TCP/IP-based access method, which in functionality
was a subset of DAP, was standardized in 1993: the <em>Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol (LDAP)</em>. First LDAP implementations were gateway solutions, they mediated
between LDAP clients and X.500 servers.  In 1995 the University of Michigan presented the
first native LDAP server; in the meantime the work is continued by the <a href="http://www.openldap.org/">OpenLDAP</a>
project. 1996 Netscape followed with the first commercial LDAP server (Netscape Directory
Server, foundation of several later LDAP servers). Other examples (among many 
 others) include <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/ad/">Microsoft Active Directory</a>
and <a href="http://www.novell.com/products/edirectory/">Novell eDirectory</a>.
The figure below shows the development of directory protocols from X.500/DAP to LDAP.</p>
+<p><img alt="From X500 to LDAP" src="images/fromX500toLDAP.png" /></p>
+<h3 id="information-model-primer">Information model primer</h3>
+<p>Within the information model of LDAP, data is stored in entries, which build up
a hierarchical, tree like structure. Each entry has a unique name (<em>DN</em>,
<em>Distinguished Name</em>), which depicts its position within the tree. An entry
consists of key/value pairs, the <em>attributes</em>. Some attributes may occur
more than once within an entry (single or multi valued, e.g. a person can have more than one
telephone number). So called <em>object classes</em> define, which attributes
an entry may have, and which of them are required. The classes build up a hierarchy with <em>top</em>
as root; there is a parallelism to the object oriented world. top forces only the attribute
objectclass, which assigns an entry its object classes. A <em>schema</em> consists
object classes and attribute types, and therefore defines, what kind of entries can be stored
within the directory. Directory servers ship a schema out-of-the-box, often with elements
standardized by RFCs. In additi
 on, most directory solutions allow you to define custom object classes and attributes. But
in practice, the pre-defined elements are used. Sometimes they get extended according to special
requirements.</p>
+<h3 id="common-applications-of-ldap-based-directories">Common applications of LDAP
based directories</h3>
+<p>LDAP operations include entry creation, modification, deletion and search. As a
general rule, LDAP directories are optimized for read and search operations, at the cost of
write performance. Data, which will be modified often, therefore better suits in a relational
database, which offers better support for transactions and referential integrity as well.
Directories are rather used if comparatively stable data has to be provided centrally.<br
/>
+Common examples are network resources (printers, services) and user data  (including credentials
and rights for the resources). As a notable feature, many directory products offer replicas,
which permit better access times and higher availability especially in geographically dispersed
organizations. Not for nothing, the most common LDAP application is the enterprise phone book.
That even Microsoft Outlook may be an LDAP client in this case - most average users probably
don't know.</p>
+<h3 id="examples-of-software-components-which-support-ldap">Examples of software components
which support LDAP</h3>
+<p><img alt="LDAP tools" src="images/ldap-tools.png" /></p>
+<p>Very different types of software products may act as LDAP clients, consuming data
for authentication, authorization or data presentation etc.</p>
+<ul>
+<li>E-Mail clients (e.g. Mozilla Thunderbird)</li>
+<li>LDAP tools (e.g. Apache Directory Studio)</li>
+<li>Web servers (e.g. Apache Tomcat, Apache HTTP Server)</li>
+<li>Mail servers (e.g. Apache James)</li>
+<li>...</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Configuration details for several of these programs in conjunction with ApacheDS
are described in later sections.</p>
+<h2 id="ldap-resources">LDAP resources</h2>
+<h3 id="books">Books</h3>
+<p>There are several good LDAP books available. Here are two examples which provide
sample chapters on their homepages.</p>
+<h4 id="understanding-and-deploying-ldap-directory-services">Understanding and Deploying
LDAP Directory Services</h4>
+<p><img alt="cover" src="images/cover_howes_100.gif" /></p>
+<p>Understanding and Deploying LDAP Directory Services (2nd Edition) <br/>
+by Timothy A. Howes, Mark C. Smith, Gordon S. Good, Tim Howes <br/>
+Addison-Wesley Professional, 2nd Edition 2003 <br/>
+ISBN: 0-672323-16-8 <br/></p>
+<p><a href="http://awprofessional.com/title/0672323168">Book's Homepage (Howes)</a></p>
+<h4 id="ldap-fuer-java-entwickler">LDAP fuer Java-Entwickler</h4>
+<p><img alt="cover" src="images/cover_zoerner_100.gif" /></p>
+<p>LDAP fuer Java-Entwickler -- Einstieg und Integration. <img alt="DE" src="images/de.png"
/> <br/>
+von Stefan Zoerner <br/>
+Software und Support Verlag, 3. aktualisierte Auflage 2007 <br/>
+ISBN: 978-3-939084-07-5 <br/></p>
+<p><a href="http://www.entwickler-press.de/buecher/ldap/">Webseite zum Buch (Zoerner)</a></p>
+<h3 id="articles-forums-blogs-and-other-online-resources">Articles, forums, blogs and
other online resources</h3>
+<h4 id="blogs">Blogs</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="http://blogs.sun.com/roller/page/DirectoryManager">cn=Directory
Manager - All about Directory Server</a>, Sun Blog</li>
+</ul>
+<h4 id="articles-and-other-online-resources">Articles and other online resources</h4>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/SG244986.html?Open">Understanding
LDAP - Design and Implementation</a>, IBM RedBook, July 2006</li>
+<li><a href="http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/sysadmin/2006/07/27/demystifying-ldap.html">Demystifying
LDAP</a> by Brian K. Jones, O'Reilly Network</li>
+<li><a href="http://www.mitlinx.de/ldap/">LDAP verstehen mit linx</a>,
by Petra Haberer <img alt="DE" src="images/de.png" /></li>
+</ul>
+
+
+    <div class="nav">
+        <div class="nav_prev">
+        
+            <a href="1.1-what-apacheds-is.html">1.1 - What Apache Directory Server
is</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="nav_up">
+        
+            <a href="1-how-to-begin.html">1.1 - How to begin</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="nav_next">
+        
+            <a href="1.3-installing-and-starting.html">1.3 - Installing and starting
the server</a>
+		
+        </div>
+        <div class="clearfix"></div>
+    </div>
+
+
+                </div><!-- rightColumn -->
+                <div id="endContent"></div>
+            </div><!-- content -->
+            <div id="footer">&copy; 2003-2012, <a href="http://www.apache.org">The
Apache Software Foundation</a> - <a href="privacy-policy.html">Privacy Policy</a><br
/>
+                Apache Directory, ApacheDS, Apache Directory Server, Apache Directory Studio,
Apache LDAP API, Apache Triplesec, Triplesec, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache
Directory project logos are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.
+            </div>
+        </div><!-- container -->
+    </body>
+</html>
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