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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache Directory Server v1.5: Xdbm fast modifyDn proposal (page edited)
Date Tue, 07 Apr 2009 06:33:00 GMT
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<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/DIRxSRVx11">DIRxSRVx11</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/DIRxSRVx11/Xdbm+fast+modifyDn+proposal">Xdbm
fast modifyDn proposal</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/DIRxSRVx11/Xdbm+fast+modifyDn+proposal">Xdbm
fast modifyDn proposal</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~akarasulu">Alex
Karasulu</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Apr 06, 2009)</span>.
     </p>
    
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=114303&originalVersion=5&revisedVersion=6">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><h2><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-Introduction"></a>Introduction</h2>

<p>We will introduce some alterations to the Xdbm index structure to turn expensive,
non-atomic and error prone 0&#40;n) modifyDn operations into cheap constant time atomic
operations. </p>

<h2><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-Background"></a>Background</h2>

<p>Xdbm is a generalized partition design based on Table and Index data structures.
 These can be backed by any kind of key value based data structure in memory or on disk with
support for key sorting: b+trees on disk and AVL trees in memory are often used. Some background
on the organization before this change has/was made might be needed.  Please consult the following
page for more info: <a href="/confluence/display/DIRxSRVx11/Xdbm+Partition+Design" title="Xdbm
Partition Design">Xdbm Partition Design</a>.</p>

<h2><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-TheProblem"></a>The Problem</h2>

<p>This optimization dramatically improves the time taken to rename, move or rename
and move a subtree of the DIT when performing a modifyDn operation.  Currently this operation
is O&#40;n) where n is the number of descendants under the node being altered.  Besides
requiring n updates to the NDN and UPDN tables for each descendant, the entry for each descendant
must be retrieved from the master table in order to change the DN stored with it.  The massive
number of master table accesses churns the cache erasing cache memory and resulting in a lot
of object creation with subsequent garbage collection, <span class="nobr"><a href="/confluence/pages/createpage.action?spaceKey=DIRxSRVx11&amp;title=de&amp;linkCreation=true&amp;fromPageId=114303"
title="Create Page: de" class="createlink">de<sup><img class="rendericon" src="/confluence/images/icons/plus.gif"
height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"/></sup></a></span>serialization,
and IO to disk. This has a massive negative impact on any Java based LDAP server's ability
to perform. In all likelihood a modifyDn operation on a parent with a large number of descendants
will fail before completion, most likely with an OutOfMemoryException.</p>

<p>Besides the performance issues associated with this problem, there are several other
issues associated with LDAP operation semantics namely in the areas of atomicity, consistency
and isolation.  If the number of descendants are huge, this operation could take a long time
to complete.  The probability of search requests issued by other clients during this period
increases with n.  </p>

<p>At any point in time before the modifyDn operation completes the DIT will be inconsistent.
 Entire branches under the modified entry will disappear as their parents or ancestors are
being modified before they are.  ModifyDN operations in progress and in the scope of a concurrent
search operation will produce an inconsistent view of the DIT.  Not only does this present
a consistency issue but there is a greater exposure to a lack of isolation.</p>

<p>A modifyDn operation must alter all descendants to properly complete and be consistent.
 If at any point a failure causes this operation to halt the DIT is left inconsistent. There
is little that can be done to rollback the change at this point in our design (this should
change in the future). If however the change was to a single entry, then any failure during
the course of the operation would effectively make the operation follow LDAP's atomicity rules.
 The operation will have failed and the change would not hold. </p>

<h2><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-TheSolution"></a>The Solution</h2>

<p>We propose removing the DN from the entries stored in the master table and doing
away with both dn indices: the normalized ndn index and the user provided updn index.  In
place of these a new rdn index is added. This index will store the rdn of an entry mapped
to the ID in both directions as all indices do.  </p>

<p>The DN of an entry can be constructed using this rdn index in concert with the one
level hierarchy index. The rdn stored is a serialized form of Rdn objects which contains both
the normalized rdn and the user provided rdn.  When a candidate needs it's DN constructed
the candidate's ID is used to extract an Rdn, then the process is repeated with the parent
which is discovered via the one level index.  Eventually all the Rdn values in the entire
DN are retrieved and the LdapDN is constructed.</p>

<p>This optimization now allows entry DN modifications to be constant time, requiring
only a single change on the rdn index.  The operation is constant time and atomic with full
isolation.</p>

<table cellpadding='5' width='85%' cellspacing='8px' class='noteMacro' border="0" align='center'><colgroup><col
width='24'><col></colgroup><tr><td valign='top'><img src="/confluence/images/icons/emoticons/warning.gif"
width="16" height="16" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"></td><td>
<p>Both the rdn and the one level indices should have ample amounts of cache enabled
since they will be aggressively accessed in this new design.</p></td></tr></table>
 

<p>Let's take a look at an example DIT structure and the contents of the indices. Here's
a quick and dirty picture of what the new organization looks like:</p>

<p><img src="/confluence/download/attachments/114303/fast_moddn.png" align="absmiddle"
border="0" /></p>

<p>Here you see the rdn and one level indices as well as the master table which stores
the entries.  An example DIT has been drawn to the right of the image with annotations showing
the ID of the entry. The Rdn values are shown in the rdn index mapped to the integer IDs of
the entries.  The one level index has all the parent to child mappings for this example directory
structure.</p>

<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-DNResolution"></a>DN Resolution</h3>

<p>DN resolution from entry ID values takes n-1 reverse lookups into the rdn index and
n-1 reverse lookups into the one level index where n is the depth of the entry.  An example
resolution is performed on entry 5, uid=ayyagari,ou=Users,ou=system.  Here are the steps taken:</p>

<ol>
	<li>reverse lookup on rdn index with ID=5 to get uid=ayyagari</li>
	<li>reverse lookup on one level index with ID=5 to get parent ID 3</li>
	<li>reverse lookup on rdn index with ID=3 to get ou=Users</li>
	<li>reverse lookup on one level index with ID=3 to get parent ID 1</li>
	<li>ID 1 is special and tracked for the context entry of the partition so a reverse
lookup is not required to get the suffix ou=system</li>
</ol>


<p>During this process the LdapDN for ID 5 entry is assembled.</p>

<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-ModifyDNisFast"></a>ModifyDN is Fast</h3>

<p>A modifyDn operation in this case is a constant time operation reduced to a simple
update on the rdn table.  For example if we modify ou=Users,ou=system to ou=People,ou=system,
then this operation will update the index entry for (ou=Users, 3) to now be (ou=People, 3).
The change is atomic and occurs rapidly without making changes to the children or requiring
access to the master table.</p>

<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-IDResolution"></a>ID Resolution</h3>

<p>Resolving the ID of an entry requires lookups on ...</p>


<h2><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-ProsandCons"></a>Pros and Cons</h2>


<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-SlowerSearch%3F"></a>Slower Search?</h3>

<p>The problem with this approach is that it will slow down search to a degree with
more accesses to the rdn and one level index. However most directories are flat or less deep
then they were years ago.  Because of this reason the average depth of an entry can be expected
to be small.  Also an optimization is possible with search since it provides a base.  The
base can be used as a starter to construct the DN of the entries returned by search.  This
way the lookup process to construct the DN starts with the rdn of the returning search result
entry and stops with the base.  If the base has a depth of b then n-b-1 lookups are performed
on both the one level and the rdn index.</p>

<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-Masterisnotenough"></a>Master is not
enough</h3>

<p>All the information needed to reconstruct the database is not present in the master
table.  The rdn index and one level index are needed.  </p>

<h3><a name="XdbmfastmodifyDnproposal-DNduplicatesinformationandcostsmoretoextract"></a>DN
duplicates information and costs more to extract </h3>

<p>DN lookups are more costly since more data is serialized back and forth. Plus there's
a great amount of redundant information stored in the dn indices.  If there are 1 million
people under the ou=Users,ou=system entry then 1 million copies of ou=User,ou=system are started
in the DN indices.  With the new configuration there is no duplication, and the size of the
data is minimized with just the Rdn.  </p>





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