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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Db-torque Wiki] Update of "212324" by 212324
Date Sat, 03 Jul 2010 00:56:33 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

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The "212324" page has been changed by 212324.
http://wiki.apache.org/db-torque/212324

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New page:
Multinational investment in China started in the late 70s of the 20th century than the newly
industrialized countries 10 years later to 20 years, but developing rapidly. As of 2004, accumulated
foreign direct investment 44.9 billion U.S. dollars, net foreign direct investment enterprises
to domestic investors reverse investment, total net foreign investment (the stock) has reached
44.8 billion U.S. dollars, the highest in the forefront of developing countries ; by the Ministry
of Commerce approved or filed more than 6,000 foreign enterprises in China, these foreign
companies located in more than 160 countries, production in many industries engaged in transnational
business activities. But with other countries, especially developing countries than multinational
corporations, multinational companies present in China is still in the preliminary stages,
so there are many less obvious. 

1. Size of the business strength of the weak, the low degree of international 
>>From the scale of strength, recent data show that in 2005, 500 of the total revenue,
total profit and total assets were only about 500 of the world in 2005 the same index of 8.4%,
7.0%, 6.0%, in 2005 the United States 500 companies of similar indicators for 17.2%, 12.5%,
18.2%. Degree from an international point of view, according to statistics, the world's largest
100 multinationals in overseas assets, sales, employees have been accounted for these national
assets, sales, and 41% of the total number of employees, 48% and 48%. Foreign Direct Investment
in China is relatively developed countries, the average investment level is low, most of the
mainly small and medium projects, the development of staying power; and the relative concentration
of investment in the region, less able to resist risks. According to Lu Tung (2000) empirical
research, Chinese enterprises in overseas operations of the following eight areas of weakness:
Sales Network, expenses, cultural differences, management personnel, lack of market information,
product and service quality, local knowledge and management level . The competitiveness of
Chinese enterprises is relatively low. 

2. Multinational innovation in China is weak, the overall level of equipment behind 
>>From the cross-products of production and management point of view, a world-leading
high-tech products less, more general products. China's overall technological level of major
sectors of industry than in developed countries 15 years to 20 years behind, focus on large
enterprises and enterprise groups with international advanced level, the ratio is not high.
According to statistics, China's industrial enterprises existing technical equipment, the
performance of only 13% of the more advanced enterprise product development capabilities low.
Fortune 500 companies R & D expenses as a percentage of sales ratio generally 5% to 10%,
while medium and large enterprises in China accounted for only about 1%, resulting in enterprise
product development capacity, and lack of ability to continue to develop unique products,
the lack of independent intellectual property rights products and technologies. 

3. Property rights are not clear, defect management system 
Property rights are not clear due to internal, the lack of incentives; most enterprises still
have not completed according to international practice, the establishment of modern enterprise
system, management system and management model, and not well adapted to the needs of corporate
international operations, resulted in mortality or Kuisun overseas investment . According
to incomplete statistics, in 1997 China has set up overseas corporate earnings and only 50%,
30% fair profit and loss, a loss of 20%. 

4. Transnational investment and lack of coordination between government departments 
Main features: (1) government departments on overseas investment enterprises lack effective
coordination and management of regional funds to invest in the business and industry to invest,
the Government lacks an overall strategy, but also a lack of policy guidance, arbitrary large
enterprises in overseas investment; the same time , long overseas investment management, lack
of effective coordination between departments, their own way, resulting in duplication and
omission of certain regulatory operations coexist. (2) approval of a rigid system, in the
fleeting opportunities of international economic activities, to some extent restricts the
transnational corporate investment and business activities. (3) Foreign investment in inefficient
and ineffective supervision of the late. (4) to encourage foreign investment enterprises with
preferential policies to support the lack of maneuverability, some preferential policies for
reporting procedures are complicated and involve a number of departments implementing some
preferential policies, the implementation is difficult. 
5. To encourage enterprises to multinational investment in building the legal system lags
behind 
There are two main aspects: (1) there is provision to the competent departments, administrative
regulations, the tendency to replace national laws, lack of standard companies overseas investment
and business law. (2) bilateral and multilateral international investment agreements, lag,
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