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From "Rick Hillegas (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Updated] (DERBY-4437) Concurrent inserts into table with identity column perform poorly
Date Fri, 24 Jun 2011 16:31:47 GMT

     [ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/DERBY-4437?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel

Rick Hillegas updated DERBY-4437:

    Attachment: Experiments_4437.html

Attaching a couple files:

1) derby-4437-06-aa-selfTuning - This is an experimental patch, not intended for commit. This
patch adds a crude heuristic to the default range preallocator. The heuristic attempts to
tune the size of the preallocation range based on the rate at which identity values are being

2) Experiments_4437.html - This is a webpage of results from some experiments which I ran,
measuring the throughput of Knut's experiment with various hardcoded range lengths and with
the crude heuristic.

Based on my experiments, I believe that I can offer the following modest conclusions:

i) I don't know  how to write useful self-tuning logic which will accomplish what Mike wants.
This feels like a research project to me. Someone else may want to pick up this project but
I do not feel I can spend any more time on it.

ii) Derby is able to keep boosting the throughput as you keep boosting the size of the preallocated
range. Derby will keep delivering better throughput  as you boost the size of that range well
past your tolerance for leaked values.

iii) I can't offer the customer anything better than a knob which declares how many values
the app is willing to leak.

I can do the following additional work on this issue. Let me know if you think I should do
this work:

A) Add a knob so that apps can tune the size of the default preallocated range.

B) Change the current default range size of 5 to some other number. If you think this is useful,
let me know what a better number would be.

Devising self-tuning logic sounds like an interesting project but one which should happen
under another JIRA.

> Concurrent inserts into table with identity column perform poorly
> -----------------------------------------------------------------
>                 Key: DERBY-4437
>                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/DERBY-4437
>             Project: Derby
>          Issue Type: Improvement
>          Components: SQL
>    Affects Versions:
>            Reporter: Knut Anders Hatlen
>            Assignee: Rick Hillegas
>         Attachments: D4437PerfTest.java, D4437PerfTest2.java, Experiments_4437.html,
derby-4437-01-aj-allTestsPass.diff, derby-4437-02-ac-alterTable-bulkImport-deferredInsert.diff,
derby-4437-03-aa-upgradeTest.diff, derby-4437-04-aa-reclaimUnusedValuesOnShutdown.diff, derby-4437-05-aa-pluggablePreallocation.diff,
derby-4437-06-aa-selfTuning.diff, insertperf.png, insertperf2.png, prealloc.png
> I have a multi-threaded application which is very insert-intensive. I've noticed that
it sometimes can come into a state where it slows down considerably and basically becomes
single-threaded. This is especially harmful on modern multi-core machines since most of the
available resources are left idle.
> The problematic tables contain identity columns, and here's my understanding of what
> 1) Identity columns are generated from a counter that's stored in a row in SYS.SYSCOLUMNS.
During normal operation, the counter is maintained in a nested transaction within the transaction
that performs the insert. This allows the nested transaction to commit the changes to SYS.SYSCOLUMN
separately from the main transaction, and the exclusive lock that it needs to obtain on the
row holding the counter, can be releases after a relatively short time. Concurrent transactions
can therefore insert into the same table at the same time, without needing to wait for the
others to commit or abort.
> 2) However, if the nested transaction cannot lock the row in SYS.SYSCOLUMNS immediately,
it will give up and retry the operation in the main transaction. This prevents self-deadlocks
in the case where the main transaction already owns a lock on SYS.SYSCOLUMNS. Unfortunately,
this also increases the time the row is locked, since the exclusive lock cannot be released
until the main transaction commits. So as soon as there is one lock collision, the waiting
transaction changes to a locking mode that increases the chances of others having to wait,
which seems to result in all insert threads having to obtain the SYSCOLUMNS locks in the main
transaction. The end result is that only one of the insert threads can execute at any given
time as long as the application is in this state.

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