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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache CXF Documentation > JAX-RS OAuth
Date Tue, 08 Nov 2011 14:14:00 GMT
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    <h2><a href="https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CXF20DOC/JAX-RS+OAuth">JAX-RS
OAuth</a></h2>
    <h4>Page <b>edited</b> by             <a href="https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~sergey_beryozkin">Sergey
Beryozkin</a>
    </h4>
        <br/>
                         <h4>Changes (7)</h4>
                                 
    
<div id="page-diffs">
                    <table class="diff" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
    
            <tr><td class="diff-snipped" >...<br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" >Note that if a consumer originally
specified a list of scopes using an &quot;x_oauth_scope&quot; parameter then AuthorizationRequestService
will ask OAuthDataProvider to translate opaque names such as &quot;readCalendar&quot;
into [Permission|http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Permission.java]s
for a user to see a better description of these scopes. Also a Client representing the third-party
consumer may have been allocated some default scopes during the registration in which case
those scopes will also be taken into account when populating OAuthAuthorizationData. The same
for optional URIs - more on both scopes and URIs below. <br> <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-changed-lines" >Two other important OAuthAuthorizationData
properties are <span class="diff-changed-words"><span class="diff-added-chars"style="background-color:
#dfd;">&quot;</span>oauthToken<span class="diff-added-chars"style="background-color:
#dfd;">&quot;</span></span> and <span class="diff-changed-words"><span
class="diff-added-chars"style="background-color: #dfd;">&quot;</span>authenticityToken<span
class="diff-added-chars"style="background-color: #dfd;">&quot;</span>,</span>
both are important for processing the decision request coming from the authorization form.
The former is a request token key which will be used by AuthorizationRequestService to retrieve
the RequestToken again and the latter for validating that the current session has not been
hijacked - AuthorizationRequestService generates a random key, stores this in Servlet HTTPSession
and expects the returned authenticityToken value match it - this is a recommended approach
and it also implies that the authenticityToken value is kept is hidden from a user, for example,
it&#39;s kept in a &#39;hidden&#39; form field. <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" > <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-added-lines" style="background-color: #dfd;">The
helper &quot;replyTo&quot; property is an absolute URI identifying the AuthorizationRequestService
handler processing the user decision and can be used by view handlers when building the forms
or by other OAuthAuthorizationData handlers. <br> <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" >So the populated OAuthAuthorizationData
is finally returned. Note that it&#39;s a JAXB XMLRootElement-annotated bean and can be
processed by registered JAXB or JSON providers given that AuthorizationRequestService supports
producing &quot;application/xml&quot; and &quot;application/json&quot; (See
the OAuth Without Browser section below for more). But in this case we have the end user working
with a browser so an HTML form is what is really expected back. <br> <br>AuthorizationRequestService
supports producing &quot;text/html&quot; and it simply relies on a registered [RequestDispatcherProvider|http://cxf.apache.org/docs/jax-rs-redirection.html#JAX-RSRedirection-WithRequestDispatcherProvider]
to set the OAuthAuthorizationData bean as HttpServletRequest attribute and redirect to a view
handler (can be JSP or some other servlet) to actually build the form and return it to the
user. Alternatively, registering [XSLTJaxbProvider|http://cxf.apache.org/docs/jax-rs-advanced-xml.html#JAX-RSAdvancedXML-XSLTsupport]
would also be a good option for creating HTML views.   <br> <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-changed-lines" >Assuming RequestDispatcherProvider
is used, the following example log shows the <span class="diff-added-words"style="background-color:
#dfd;">initial</span> response from AuthorizationRequestService: <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-added-lines" style="background-color: #dfd;">{code:xml}
<br>08-Nov-2011 13:32:40 org.apache.cxf.jaxrs.provider.RequestDispatcherProvider logRedirection
<br>INFO: Setting an instance of &quot;org.apache.cxf.rs.security.oauth.data.OAuthAuthorizationData&quot;
as HttpServletRequest attribute &quot;data&quot; and redirecting the response to &quot;/forms/oauthAuthorize.jsp&quot;.
<br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" > <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-added-lines" style="background-color: #dfd;">08-Nov-2011
13:32:40 org.apache.cxf.interceptor.LoggingOutInterceptor <br>---------------------------
<br>Response-Code: 200 <br>Content-Type: text/html <br>{code} <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" > <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-added-lines" style="background-color: #dfd;">Note
that a &quot;/forms/oauthAuthorize.jsp&quot; view handler will create an HTML view
- this is a custom JSP handler and whatever HTML view is required can be created there, using
the OAuthAuthorizationData bean. <br> <br>Next the user makes a decision and selects
a button allowing or denying the consumer accessing the resources. AuthorizationRequestService
does not need to know how a user has been asked to make the decision, but it expects to receive
a form-based submission, for example: <br> <br>{code:xml} <br>Address: http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize/decision
<br>Http-Method: POST <br>Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded <br>Headers:
{ <br>Authorization=[Basic YmFycnlAc29jaWFsLmNvbToxMjM0], <br>Cookie=[JSESSIONID=eovucah9rwqp],
 <br>Referer=[http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09],
 <br>User-Agent=[Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:2.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0]}
<br>{code}  <br> <br>AuthorizationRequestService will use an authenticityToken
to validate that the session is valid and will process the user decision next. <br>If
it is set to &quot;allow&quot; then it will ask OAuthDataProvider to generate an authorization
key (verifier) and return this verifier alongside with the request token key and the state
if any by redirecting the current user back to the callback URI provided during the request
token request: <br> <br>{code:xml} <br>Response-Code: 303 <br>Headers:
{ <br>Location=[http://localhost:8080/services/reservations/reserve/complete?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09&amp;oauth_verifier=00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba]
<br>} <br>{code}   <br> <br>which leads to a browser redirecting the
user: <br> <br>{code:java} <br>Address: http://localhost:8080/services/reservations/reserve/complete?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09&amp;oauth_verifier=00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba
<br>Http-Method: GET <br>Content-Type:  <br>Headers: { <br>Authorization=[Basic
YmFycnlAc29jaWFsLmNvbToxMjM0],  <br>Cookie=[JSESSIONID=eovucah9rwqp], <br>Referer=[http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09],
 <br>User-Agent=[Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:2.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0]}
<br>{code} <br> <br>If a user decision was set to &quot;deny&quot;
then no verifier will be sent back to the consumer. <br> <br>Assuming the decision
was &quot;allow&quot;, the consumer has now got back a request token and the verifier
and is ready to exchange it for an access token. <br> <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" >h2. AccessTokenService  <br>
<br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-added-lines" style="background-color: #dfd;">The
role of AccessTokenService is to exchange an authorized request token for a new access token
which will be used by the consumer to access the end user&#39;s resources.  <br>Here
is an example request log: <br> <br>{code:xml} <br>Address: http://localhost:8080/services/oauth/token
<br>Http-Method: POST <br>Headers: { <br>Accept=[application/x-www-form-urlencoded],
 <br>Authorization=[OAuth oauth_signature_method=&quot;HMAC-SHA1&quot;,  <br>
                    oauth_consumer_key=&quot;123456789&quot;,  <br>        
            oauth_token=&quot;c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09&quot;,  <br>
                    oauth_verifier=&quot;00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba&quot;,
 <br>                     oauth_timestamp=&quot;1320760259&quot;,  <br>
                    oauth_nonce=&quot;16237669362301&quot;,  <br>          
          oauth_version=&quot;1.0&quot;,  <br>                     oauth_signature=&quot;dU%2BhXPNFfFpX2sC74IOxzTjdVrY%3D&quot;]
<br>} <br>{code}  <br> <br>This request is very similar to a temporarily
token request. Note that the request token key is also included and this key and the request
token secret pair is also used to calculate the signature. <br> <br>AccessTokenService
validates the signature, asks OAuthDataProvider to remove a RequestToken identified by the
&quot;oauth_token&quot; and create a new [AccessToken|http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/AccessToken.java]
based on this RequestToken. The resulting access token key and secret pair is returned back
to a consumer: <br>{code:xml} <br>Response-Code: 200 <br>Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
<br>Headers: {Date=[Tue, 08 Nov 2011 13:50:59 GMT]} <br>Payload: oauth_token=abc15aca-2073-4bde-b1be-1a02dc7ccafe&amp;oauth_token_secret=859dfe9e-ca4c-4b36-9e60-044434ab636c
<br>{code}  <br> <br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-unchanged" >h2. Writing OAuthDataProvider <br>
<br></td></tr>
            <tr><td class="diff-snipped" >...<br></td></tr>
    
            </table>
    </div>                            <h4>Full Content</h4>
                    <div class="notificationGreySide">
        <p><span style="font-size:2em;font-weight:bold"> JAX-RS: OAuth </span></p>


<div>
<ul>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-Introduction'>Introduction</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-Mavendependencies'>Maven dependencies</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-DevelopingOAuthServers'>Developing OAuth Servers</a></li>
<ul>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-RequestTokenService'>RequestTokenService</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-AuthorizationRequestService'>AuthorizationRequestService</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-AccessTokenService'>AccessTokenService</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-WritingOAuthDataProvider'>Writing OAuthDataProvider</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-OAuthServerJAXRSendpoints'>OAuth Server JAX-RS endpoints</a></li>
</ul>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-ProtectingresourceswithOAuthfilters'>Protecting
resources with OAuth filters</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-Clientsidesupport'>Client-side support</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-OAuthWithoutaBrowser'>OAuth Without a Browser</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-2legOAuthflow'>2-leg OAuth flow</a></li>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-Designconsiderations'>Design considerations</a></li>
<ul>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-SharingthesameURIpathbetweenendusersandconsumers'>Sharing
the same URI path between end users and consumers</a></li>
</ul>
    <li><a href='#JAX-RSOAuth-WhatIsNext'>What Is Next</a></li>
</ul></div>

<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>

<p>CXF 2.5.0 implements <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849" class="external-link"
rel="nofollow">OAuth 1.0</a>. </p>

<p>While <a href="http://oauth.net/2/" class="external-link" rel="nofollow">OAuth
2.0</a> (which is very close to becoming the final recommendation) is the next major
version of OAuth, OAuth 1.0 is being supported by many providers and the CXF OAuth module
should make it easy for developers to start writing OAuth applications, be it OAuth 1.0 or
OAuth 2.0 once the latter gets implemented.   </p>

<p>OAuth offers a complex yet elegant solution toward helping the end users (resource
owners) authorize third-party providers to access their resources.</p>

<p>The classical OAuth flow is also called a 3-leg OAuth flow as it involves 3 parties:
the end user (resource owner), the third party service (client, consumer) and the resource
server which is protected by OAuth filters. Typically a consumer offers a service feature
that an end user requests and which requires the former to access one or more resources of
this end user which are located at the resource server. For example, the consumer may need
to access the end user's photos in order to print them and post to the user or read and possibly
update a user's calendar in order to make a booking.</p>

<p>In order to make it happen, the third-party service application/consumer needs to
register itself with the OAuth server. This happens out-of-band and after the registration
the consumer gets back a consumer key and secret pair. For example, see this page for one
<a href="http://code.google.com/apis/accounts/docs/RegistrationForWebAppsAuto.html" class="external-link"
rel="nofollow">approach</a>. The registrations of third-party application does not
have to be very involved for simpler applications.  </p>

<p>From then on, the typical flows works like this:<br/>
1. End User requests the third-party service using a browser.</p>

<p>2. Third-party service requests a temporarily request token from OAuth RequestToken
Service; this token will represent a consumer's intention to access whatever end user resources
it needs to complete the current user's request.</p>

<p>3. After getting a request token back, the consumer redirects the end user to OAuth
Authorization Service and adds the request token to the target URI.</p>

<p>4. Authorization Service will get all the details about the current consumer using
a request token, build an HTML form and return it to the end user. The form will ask the user
if a given third-party application can be allowed to access some resources on behalf of this
user.     </p>

<p>5. If the user approves it then Authorization Service will redirect the user back
to the callback uri provided by the consumer when requesting a request token, including a
generated verifier (authorization key) which 'links' the user's approval with the request
token. </p>

<p>6. Now the third-party service requests an access token from OAuth AccessToken Service
by providing a request token and its verifier. </p>

<p>7. After getting an access token token, the service finally proceeds with accessing
the current user's resources and completes the user's request.</p>

<p>As noted above, the consumer needs to register first with the OAuth server. It's
a good practice to provide an application name and so called connect URI which is typically
a public URI of this application; the former will be used by OAuth Authorization Service at
step 4 above and the latter will be used at step 2 to validate the provided callback URI to
make sure it starts from the URI which was actually provided during the registration.</p>

<p>As you can see the flow can be complex yet it is functional. A number of issues may
need to be taken care along the way such as managing expired tokens, making sure that the
OAuth security layer is functioning properly and is not interfering with the end user itself
trying to access its own resources, etc.</p>

<p>CXF JAX-RS gives the best effort to making this process as simple as possible and
requiring only a minimum effort on behalf of OAuth server developers.<br/>
It also offers the utility code for greatly simplifying the way the third-party application
can interact with the OAuth service endpoints.</p>

<p>Now, as far this particular 3-leg flow is concerned, OAuth 2.0 simplifies it by effectively
making the steps 3 and 6 (requests for request and access tokens) redundant. Moving to OAuth
2.0 will be straightforward after learning how to build OAuth 1.0 servers with CXF. </p>

<p>Please check the <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849" class="external-link"
rel="nofollow">specification</a> and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OAuth"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Wikipedia article</a> as well as other resources
available on the WEB for more information you may need to know about OAuth. </p>

<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-Mavendependencies"></a>Maven dependencies</h1>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
<span class="code-tag">&lt;dependency&gt;</span>
  <span class="code-tag">&lt;groupId&gt;</span>org.apache.cxf<span
class="code-tag">&lt;/groupId&gt;</span>
  <span class="code-tag">&lt;artifactId&gt;</span>cxf-rt-rs-security-oauth<span
class="code-tag">&lt;/artifactId&gt;</span>
  <span class="code-tag">&lt;version&gt;</span>2.5.0<span class="code-tag">&lt;/version&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/dependency&gt;</span>
</pre>
</div></div>

<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-DevelopingOAuthServers"></a>Developing OAuth Servers</h1>

<p>OAuth server is the core piece of the complete OAuth-based solution. Typically it
contains 3 services for:</p>
<ul class="alternate" type="square">
	<li>Initiating the flows by issuing temporarily tokens to consumers</li>
	<li>Authorizing request tokens by asking the end users to let consumers access some
of their resources and returning the<br/>
  confirmation back to the consumer</li>
	<li>Exchanging authorized request tokens for access tokens</li>
</ul>


<p>CXF offers 3 JAX-RS service implementations that can be used to create functional
OAuth servers fast: <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/services/RequestTokenService.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">RequestTokenService</a>, <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/services/AuthorizationRequestService.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">AuthorizationRequestService</a> and <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/services/AccessTokenService.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">AccessTokenService</a>.</p>

<p>All of these 3 services rely on the custom <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/provider/OAuthDataProvider.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">OAuthDataProvider</a> which manages request
and access tokens. Writing your own OAuthDataProvider implementations is what is needed to
get the OAuth server up and running.</p>

<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-RequestTokenService"></a>RequestTokenService  </h2>

<p>The main responsibility of <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/services/RequestTokenService.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">RequestTokenService</a> is to create a temporarily
request token and return it back to the consumer. It supports POST and GET requests and return
a form payload containing the new request token and its secret.</p>

<p>Here is an example request log:</p>
<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Address: http://localhost:8080/services/oauth/initiate
Encoding: ISO-8859-1
Http-Method: POST
Content-Type: */*
Headers: {
Accept=[application/x-www-form-urlencoded], 

Content-Length=[0],

Authorization=[OAuth oauth_callback=<span class="code-quote">"http%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%3A8080%2Fservices%2Freservations%2Freserve%2Fcomplete"</span>,

                     oauth_nonce=<span class="code-quote">"e365fa02-772e-4e33-900d-00a766ccadf8"</span>,

                     oauth_consumer_key=<span class="code-quote">"123456789"</span>,

                     oauth_signature_method=<span class="code-quote">"HMAC-SHA1"</span>,

                     oauth_timestamp=<span class="code-quote">"1320748683"</span>,

                     oauth_version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>, 
                     oauth_signature=<span class="code-quote">"ztTQuqaJS7L6dNQwn%2Fqi1MdaqQQ%3D"</span>]

}
</pre>
</div></div>

<p>It is an empty POST request which includes an Authorization OAuth header. The value
of the header has a consumer key (obtained during the third-party registration), callback
URI pointing to where AuthorizationRequestService will return an authorized token and a signature
which was calculated using a consumer key and secret pair as <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849#section-3.4.2"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">described in the specification</a>.</p>

<p>First RequestTokenService validates the signature and then it retrieves a <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Client.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Client</a> instance from OAuthDataProvider using
a consumer key.</p>

<p>Before asking OAuthDataProvider to generate a request token, it attempts to validate
a callback URI against a <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Client.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Client</a>'s application URI.</p>

<p>Finally it delegates to OAuthDataProvider to create a request token, passing to it
a populated <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/RequestTokenRegistration.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">RequestTokenRegistration</a> bean. </p>

<p>This bean references a Client instance, callback URI and a state. State is something
that a consumer may also include during the request token request using a "state" parameter
and will be returned back to the consumer alongside the verifier after the request token has
been authorized. For example, it may represent a key that a consumer will use to retrieve
the state of the request that it was processing when requesting a token. For OAuth 1.0<br/>
consumers, the request token itself may represent a good enough key for such purposes, but
"state" may need to be used too and will become more useful for OAuth 2.0.</p>

<p>The bean also includes "issuedAt" and "lifetime" values which represent the time
a new token is about to be created and a configurable time in milliseconds that this token
will 'live' for. OAuthDataProvider will be free to reset those values if needed before actually
creating a request token.</p>

<p>Finally, two more properties may be set on this bean instance: list of scopes and
uris. List of scopes represents optional permissions that the consumer may need to access
the resources and a list of URIs represents an optional list of relative URIs the consumer
will want to use. These can be provided by "x_oauth_scope" (just "scope" in OAuth 2.0) and
"x_oauth_uri" request parameters, for example,</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Authorization=[OAuth ..., 
                     x_oauth_scope=<span class="code-quote">"readCalendar updateCalendar"</span>,

                     x_oauth_uri=<span class="code-quote">"/calendar"</span>]
</pre>
</div></div>  

<p>These two parameters will be covered later.</p>

<p>After a new request token has been created by OAuthDataProvider, RequestTokenService
returns the token key and secret pair to the consumer:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Response-Code: 200
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Headers: {Date=[Tue, 08 Nov 2011 10:38:03 GMT]}
Payload: 
oauth_callback_confirmed=true&amp;oauth_token=6dfd5e52-236c-4939-8df8-a53212f7d2a2&amp;oauth_token_secret=ca8273df-b9b0-43f9-9875-cfbb54ced550
</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The consumer is now ready to redirect the current end user to <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/services/AuthorizationRequestService.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">AuthorizationRequestService</a>.</p>

<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-AuthorizationRequestService"></a>AuthorizationRequestService</h2>

<p>The main responsibility of AuthorizationRequestService is to present an end user
with a form asking the user to allow or deny the consumer accessing some of the user resources.
</p>

<p>Remember that a third-party consumer redirects the current user to AuthorizationRequestService,
for example, here is how a redirection may happen:</p>
<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Response-Code: 303
Headers: {Location=[http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=f4415e16-56ea-465f-9df1-8bd769253a7d]}
</pre>
</div></div> 

<p>The consumer application asks the current user (the browser) to go to a new address
provided by the Location header and the follow-up request to AuthorizationRequestService will
look like this:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Address: http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=f4415e16-56ea-465f-9df1-8bd769253a7d
Http-Method: GET
Content-Type: 
Headers: {
Accept=[text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8],   
Referer=[http://localhost:8080/services/forms/reservation.jsp], 
...
}
</pre>
</div></div> 

<p>First, AuthorizationRequestService will retrieve <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/RequestToken.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">RequestToken</a> (which extends the base <a
href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Token.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Token</a> class) from OAuthDataProvider using
the value provided by the "oauth_token" query parameter. </p>

<p>Next it uses this token (which also links to Client) to populate an instance of <a
href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/OAuthAuthorizationData.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">OAuthAuthorizationData</a> bean and returns
it. OAuthAuthorizationData contains application name and URI properties, optional list of
<a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Permission.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Permission</a>s and URIs. </p>

<p>Note that if a consumer originally specified a list of scopes using an "x_oauth_scope"
parameter then AuthorizationRequestService will ask OAuthDataProvider to translate opaque
names such as "readCalendar" into <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/Permission.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">Permission</a>s for a user to see a better description
of these scopes. Also a Client representing the third-party consumer may have been allocated
some default scopes during the registration in which case those scopes will also be taken
into account when populating OAuthAuthorizationData. The same for optional URIs - more on
both scopes and URIs below.</p>

<p>Two other important OAuthAuthorizationData properties are "oauthToken" and "authenticityToken",
both are important for processing the decision request coming from the authorization form.
The former is a request token key which will be used by AuthorizationRequestService to retrieve
the RequestToken again and the latter for validating that the current session has not been
hijacked - AuthorizationRequestService generates a random key, stores this in Servlet HTTPSession
and expects the returned authenticityToken value match it - this is a recommended approach
and it also implies that the authenticityToken value is kept is hidden from a user, for example,
it's kept in a 'hidden' form field.</p>

<p>The helper "replyTo" property is an absolute URI identifying the AuthorizationRequestService
handler processing the user decision and can be used by view handlers when building the forms
or by other OAuthAuthorizationData handlers.</p>

<p>So the populated OAuthAuthorizationData is finally returned. Note that it's a JAXB
XMLRootElement-annotated bean and can be processed by registered JAXB or JSON providers given
that AuthorizationRequestService supports producing "application/xml" and "application/json"
(See the OAuth Without Browser section below for more). But in this case we have the end user
working with a browser so an HTML form is what is really expected back.</p>

<p>AuthorizationRequestService supports producing "text/html" and it simply relies on
a registered <a href="http://cxf.apache.org/docs/jax-rs-redirection.html#JAX-RSRedirection-WithRequestDispatcherProvider"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">RequestDispatcherProvider</a> to set the OAuthAuthorizationData
bean as HttpServletRequest attribute and redirect to a view handler (can be JSP or some other
servlet) to actually build the form and return it to the user. Alternatively, registering
<a href="http://cxf.apache.org/docs/jax-rs-advanced-xml.html#JAX-RSAdvancedXML-XSLTsupport"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">XSLTJaxbProvider</a> would also be a good option
for creating HTML views.  </p>

<p>Assuming RequestDispatcherProvider is used, the following example log shows the initial
response from AuthorizationRequestService:</p>
<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
08-Nov-2011 13:32:40 org.apache.cxf.jaxrs.provider.RequestDispatcherProvider logRedirection
INFO: Setting an instance of <span class="code-quote">"org.apache.cxf.rs.security.oauth.data.OAuthAuthorizationData"</span>
as HttpServletRequest attribute <span class="code-quote">"data"</span> and redirecting
the response to <span class="code-quote">"/forms/oauthAuthorize.jsp"</span>.

08-Nov-2011 13:32:40 org.apache.cxf.interceptor.LoggingOutInterceptor
---------------------------
Response-Code: 200
Content-Type: text/html
</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Note that a "/forms/oauthAuthorize.jsp" view handler will create an HTML view - this
is a custom JSP handler and whatever HTML view is required can be created there, using the
OAuthAuthorizationData bean.</p>

<p>Next the user makes a decision and selects a button allowing or denying the consumer
accessing the resources. AuthorizationRequestService does not need to know how a user has
been asked to make the decision, but it expects to receive a form-based submission, for example:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Address: http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize/decision
Http-Method: POST
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Headers: {
Authorization=[Basic YmFycnlAc29jaWFsLmNvbToxMjM0],
Cookie=[JSESSIONID=eovucah9rwqp], 
Referer=[http://localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09],

User-Agent=[Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:2.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0]}
</pre>
</div></div> 

<p>AuthorizationRequestService will use an authenticityToken to validate that the session
is valid and will process the user decision next.<br/>
If it is set to "allow" then it will ask OAuthDataProvider to generate an authorization key
(verifier) and return this verifier alongside with the request token key and the state if
any by redirecting the current user back to the callback URI provided during the request token
request:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Response-Code: 303
Headers: {
Location=[http://localhost:8080/services/reservations/reserve/complete?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09&amp;oauth_verifier=00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba]
}
</pre>
</div></div>  

<p>which leads to a browser redirecting the user:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-java">
Address: http:<span class="code-comment">//localhost:8080/services/reservations/reserve/complete?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09&amp;oauth_verifier=00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba
</span>Http-Method: GET
Content-Type: 
Headers: {
Authorization=[Basic YmFycnlAc29jaWFsLmNvbToxMjM0], 
Cookie=[JSESSIONID=eovucah9rwqp],
Referer=[http:<span class="code-comment">//localhost:8080/services/social/authorize?oauth_token=c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09],

</span>User-Agent=[Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:2.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0]}
</pre>
</div></div>

<p>If a user decision was set to "deny" then no verifier will be sent back to the consumer.</p>

<p>Assuming the decision was "allow", the consumer has now got back a request token
and the verifier and is ready to exchange it for an access token.</p>

<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-AccessTokenService"></a>AccessTokenService </h2>

<p>The role of AccessTokenService is to exchange an authorized request token for a new
access token which will be used by the consumer to access the end user's resources. <br/>
Here is an example request log:</p>

<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Address: http://localhost:8080/services/oauth/token
Http-Method: POST
Headers: {
Accept=[application/x-www-form-urlencoded], 
Authorization=[OAuth oauth_signature_method=<span class="code-quote">"HMAC-SHA1"</span>,

                     oauth_consumer_key=<span class="code-quote">"123456789"</span>,

                     oauth_token=<span class="code-quote">"c18c1ac0-2635-414f-aebb-d2f4a4a9ee09"</span>,

                     oauth_verifier=<span class="code-quote">"00bd8fa7-4233-42a2-8957-0a0a22c684ba"</span>,

                     oauth_timestamp=<span class="code-quote">"1320760259"</span>,

                     oauth_nonce=<span class="code-quote">"16237669362301"</span>,

                     oauth_version=<span class="code-quote">"1.0"</span>, 
                     oauth_signature=<span class="code-quote">"dU%2BhXPNFfFpX2sC74IOxzTjdVrY%3D"</span>]
}
</pre>
</div></div> 

<p>This request is very similar to a temporarily token request. Note that the request
token key is also included and this key and the request token secret pair is also used to
calculate the signature.</p>

<p>AccessTokenService validates the signature, asks OAuthDataProvider to remove a RequestToken
identified by the "oauth_token" and create a new <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/cxf/trunk/rt/rs/security/oauth-parent/oauth/src/main/java/org/apache/cxf/rs/security/oauth/data/AccessToken.java"
class="external-link" rel="nofollow">AccessToken</a> based on this RequestToken.
The resulting access token key and secret pair is returned back to a consumer:</p>
<div class="code panel" style="border-width: 1px;"><div class="codeContent panelContent">
<pre class="code-xml">
Response-Code: 200
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Headers: {Date=[Tue, 08 Nov 2011 13:50:59 GMT]}
Payload: oauth_token=abc15aca-2073-4bde-b1be-1a02dc7ccafe&amp;oauth_token_secret=859dfe9e-ca4c-4b36-9e60-044434ab636c
</pre>
</div></div> 

<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-WritingOAuthDataProvider"></a>Writing OAuthDataProvider</h2>

<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-OAuthServerJAXRSendpoints"></a>OAuth Server JAX-RS
endpoints </h2>

<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-ProtectingresourceswithOAuthfilters"></a>Protecting
resources with OAuth filters</h1>
<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-Clientsidesupport"></a>Client-side support</h1>
<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-OAuthWithoutaBrowser"></a>OAuth Without a Browser</h1>
<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-2legOAuthflow"></a>2-leg OAuth flow</h1>
<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-Designconsiderations"></a>Design considerations</h1>
<h2><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-SharingthesameURIpathbetweenendusersandconsumers"></a>Sharing
the same URI path between end users and consumers</h2>

<h1><a name="JAX-RSOAuth-WhatIsNext"></a>What Is Next</h1>

<p>Fine tuning the current OAuth 1.0 will be continued and the feedback from the implementers
will be welcomed.<br/>
OAuth 2.0 is going to become a very major specification in the whole RESTful space and CXF
will implement the selected OAuth 2.0 profiles. Among other things, OAuth 2.0 will also rely
on SAML in one of the extensions and we'll look into it too. Writing a complete OAuth application
will most likely require some SSO solution so some support from CXF is likely to come too.</p>

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