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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache CXF 2.0 Documentation: HTTP Binding (page edited)
Date Tue, 05 Dec 2006 02:42:00 GMT
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** when this stylesheet is used for the Tiny MCE Wysiwyg editor's edit area, we can't
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/* Added as a temporary fix for CONF-4223. The table elements appear to be inheriting the
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table.confluenceTable td.confluenceTd
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table.confluenceTable th.confluenceTh
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th.confluenceTh
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DIV.small {
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H1.pagename {
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IMG.inline  {}

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/* The text how the "This is a preview" comment should be shown. */
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/* How the preview content should be shown */
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/* How the system messages should be shown (DisplayMessage.jsp) */
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/* How the "This page has been modified..." -comment should be shown. */
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}
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}

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}

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margin-left: 3px;
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border-bottom: none;
background: #3c78b5;
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CXF20DOC">CXF20DOC</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CXF20DOC/HTTP+Binding">HTTP
Binding</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/CXF20DOC/HTTP+Binding">HTTP
Binding</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~dandiep">Dan
Diephouse</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Dec 04, 2006)</span>.
     </p>
    
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=31896&originalVersion=1&revisedVersion=2">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><p>CXF includes an "HTTP binding" which
makes it easy to build REST style services. The HTTP binding allows you to take any operation
and map it to arbitrary URIs and HTTP verbs (i.e. GET, PUT, POST, DELETE).</p>

<h1><a name="HTTPBinding-Conventionbasedservices"></a>Convention based services</h1>
<p>If you have a simple CRUD based Java class, CXF can try to build up a set of resources
automatically for you with no annotations or configuration. This is best explained through
an example. Lets take a look at a typical CRUD class:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span
class="code-keyword">interface</span> PeopleService {
  Collection&lt;Person&gt; getPeople();
  Person getPerson(<span class="code-object">long</span> id);
  void addPerson(Person person);
  void updatePerson(<span class="code-object">long</span> id, Person person);
  void deletePerson(<span class="code-object">long</span> id);
}</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Using CXF's convention based mapping, a set of resources will be created and mapped
to these operations. </p>

<p><b>1: Collection&lt;Person&gt; getPeople()</b> is mapped to an
HTTP GET on /people</p>

<p>That's straightforward enough. We see "get", we map it to a GET operation. Then people
is extracted from the operation name and turned into a simple URI. Accessing <span class="nobr"><a
href="http://server/people" title="Visit page outside Confluence" rel="nofollow">http://server/people<sup><img
class="rendericon" src="/confluence/images/icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle"
alt="" border="0"/></sup></a></span> would result in a document like
so:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;getPeople&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;Person&gt;</span>...<span class="code-tag">&lt;/Person&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;Person&gt;</span>...<span class="code-tag">&lt;/Person&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/getPeople&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p><b>2: Person getPerson(id)</b> is mapped to an HTTP GET on /people/{id}.</p>

<p>Here we're again extracting a resource name from the operation, but you'll notice
we're pluralizing it. Underneath the covers CXF is using a class which can take most English
words and pluralize them. There are also hooks where you can add your own signular to plural
mappings or even your own language if you desire.</p>

<p>All the parameters from the operation get appended to the resource name. If there
were two parameters, "bit" and "bob" it would become /people/{bit}/{bob}. CXF will only map
bit and bob though if they're XML schema primitives (int, string, dateTime, etc).</p>

<p><b>3: void addPerson(Person person)</b> is mapped to an HTTP POST on
/people.</p>

<p>We're recognizing the "add" here as a "POST" operation. "create" is also acceptable.
And again some pluralizer magic to map the add to /people.</p>

<p><b>4: void updatePerson(long id, Person person)</b> is mapped to an HTTP
PUT on /people/{id}.</p>

<p>The same rules here as #2 except we're mapping "update" operations to PUTs.</p>

<p><b>5: void deletePerson(long id)</b> is mapped to an HTTP DELETE on /people/{id}</p>

<p>The same rules here as #2 and #4 except we're looking for "delete" and "remove" in
the operation and mapping it to an HTTP DELETE.</p>

<h2><a name="HTTPBinding-Configuringtheservice"></a>Configuring the service</h2>
<p>You can create a service which uses the HTTP binding by using JaxWsFactoryBean:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">JaxWsServerFactoryBean sf = <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
JaxWsServerFactoryBean();
sf.setServiceClass(PeopleService.class);
sf.getServiceFactory().setWrapped(<span class="code-keyword">true</span>);
sf.setBindingFactory(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> HttpBindingInfoFactoryBean());
sf.setAddress(<span class="code-quote">"http:<span class="code-comment">//localhost:9001/"</span>);
</span>
PeopleService peopleService = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> PeopleServiceImpl();
sf.getServiceFactory().setInvoker(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> BeanInvoker(peopleService));

Server svr = sf.create();</pre>
</div></div>

<p>A couple things to note:</p>
<ul>
	<li>The JaxWsServerFactory bean creates a Server inside CXF which starts listening
for requests on the URL specified.</li>
	<li>The HttpBindingInfoFactoryBean is responsible for configuring how your service
operations get mapped to resources.</li>
	<li>We're telling the ServiceFactory to work in "wrapped" mode. This just means that
our xml documents will be wrapped with the operation name, allowing us to have multiple input
parameters. More on this further down.</li>
</ul>


<h1><a name="HTTPBinding-JavaRESTAnnotations"></a>Java REST Annotations</h1>

<p>The Java REST Annotations are annotations which provide information to CXF on how
to map operations to arbitrary URI/HTTP verb combinations.</p>

<p>Lets say I want to build an HTTP service that shares and manipulates customer data.
The first thing I might want to do is create a URI that returns a document of all the customers
in my database. With the JRA annotations this would be done like so:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">@Get 
@HttpResource(location=<span class="code-quote">"/customers"</span>)
Collection&lt;Customer&gt; getCustomers();</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The @Get annotation maps the operation to the GET verb and the @HttpResource maps
it to the URI "/customers". The List gets sent off the databinding implementation you're using
and will be serialized as a document. So far very simple!</p>

<p>Now lets say I want to pull down a specific customer, from /customers/ID:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">@Get 
@HttpResource(location=<span class="code-quote">"/customers/{id}"</span>) 
Customer getCustomers(GetCustomer getCustomer);</pre>
</div></div>

<p>The major new concept in this example is URI templates. The GetCustomer object has
a single property named "id":</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> class GetCustomer
{
  <span class="code-object">String</span> getId() { .. }
  void setId(<span class="code-object">String</span> id) { .. }</pre>
</div></div>
<p>The URI parameters get mapped to the XML document according to its schema and the
WSDL 2 rules. So if you access the URL /customers/123 CXF will actually synthesize an incoming
XML document like this:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;getCustomer&gt;</span><span
class="code-tag">&lt;id&gt;</span>123/id&gt;<span class="code-tag">&lt;/getCustomer&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>

<p>The databinding layer will then convert this into the GetCustomer object. Lets move
on to a more complex example - a PUT operation which updates the customer:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">@Put
@HttpResource(location=<span class="code-quote">"/customers/{id}"</span>) 
Customer updateCustomer(Customer customer);</pre>
</div></div>

<p>Instead of synthesizing a document this time, we're actually merging the URI parameters
into the incoming document. This means {id} will get mapped to the /customer/id of the incoming
customer document. Since the document will most likely already have the customer ID in it,
the {id} is primarily there to create nice looking URI.</p>

<p>For a final example, lets look at adding a customer:</p>

<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">@Post 
@HttpResource(location=<span class="code-quote">"/customers"</span>) 
void addCustomer(Customer customer);</pre>
</div></div>

<p>This will allow users to do a POST to the /customers URI with their document and
add it to the collection of customers contained there.</p>

<h2><a name="HTTPBinding-ConfiguringtheService"></a>Configuring the Service</h2>
<p>Configuration for JRA style services is exactly the same as the convention based
services. However, in this example, the service is not in "wrapped" mode. So the configuration
is slightly different as we don't need to explicitly set the wrapped setting:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">JaxWsServerFactoryBean sf = <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
JaxWsServerFactoryBean();
sf.setServiceClass(CustomerService.class);
sf.setBindingFactory(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> HttpBindingInfoFactoryBean());
sf.setAddress(<span class="code-quote">"http:<span class="code-comment">//localhost:9001/"</span>);
</span>
CustomerService customerService = <span class="code-keyword">new</span> CustomerServiceImpl();
sf.getServiceFactory().setInvoker(<span class="code-keyword">new</span> BeanInvoker(customerService));

Server svr = sf.create();</pre>
</div></div>

<h1><a name="HTTPBinding-Wrappedvs.UnwrappedMode"></a>Wrapped vs. Unwrapped
Mode</h1>
<p>In REST style services we can only send and receive one XML element. Wrapping is
the process of wrapping the XML requests/responses with the operation names to allow multiple
parameters to your operation. For instance, say we had an operation "Customer findCustomer(String
name, String company)". It would not be valid to create an XML POST request like this:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;name&gt;</span>Dan<span
class="code-tag">&lt;/name&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;company&gt;</span>Acme Inc<span class="code-tag">&lt;/company&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>
<p>That has two root XML elements, which isn't allowed. Instead we would have to "wrap"
the POST with the operation name:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;findCustomers&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;name&gt;</span>Dan<span class="code-tag">&lt;/name&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;company&gt;</span>Acme Inc<span class="code-tag">&lt;/company&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/findCustomers&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>
<p>You may be wondering why don't we always turn on wrapping? Well wrapping creates
uglier XML. Take this operation for instance: Collection&lt;Customer&gt; getCustomers().
The resulting XML would be:</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-xml"><span class="code-tag">&lt;getCustomersResponse&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;Customers&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;Customer&gt;</span>..<span class="code-tag">&lt;/Customer&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;Customer&gt;</span>..<span class="code-tag">&lt;/Customer&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/Customers&gt;</span>
<span class="code-tag">&lt;/getCustomersResponse&gt;</span></pre>
</div></div>
<p>The getCustomersResponse element is not needed and makes the response uglier. CXF
allows you to chose which style you desire. In Wrapped mode you can write your service interface
however you desire. </p>

<p>In unwrapped mode you must only receive a single input and respond with a single
output. If you wish to take multiple parameters, you must combine them in an object. With
the findCustomer example above, you would want to create a FindCustomer type which name and
company properties.</p></div>


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