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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Couchdb Wiki] Update of "Security_Features_Overview" by FilipeManana
Date Sat, 15 May 2010 20:53:22 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Couchdb Wiki" for change notification.

The "Security_Features_Overview" page has been changed by FilipeManana.
http://wiki.apache.org/couchdb/Security_Features_Overview?action=diff&rev1=10&rev2=11

--------------------------------------------------

  = Security Features Overview =
  <<TableOfContents()>>
  
- An overview of security features focusing on what CouchDB provides out of the box.
+ An overview of the security features that CouchDB 0.11 provides out of the box.
  
  == Authentication ==
- CouchDB ships with basic authentication that compares user credentials to Admin accounts.
See [[Setting_up_an_Admin_account]] for more details.
  
- You can specify a custom authentication handler and the web authentication scheme in the
configuration file. The example below specifies that CouchDB will use the default_authentication_handler
method defined in the [[http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/couchdb/trunk/src/couchdb/couch_httpd.erl?view=markup|couch_httpd]]
module:
+ CouchDB 0.11 ships with several authentication handlers:
+ 
+  * OAuth authentication handler
+ 
+  * cookie authentication handler (the cookie is a timestamped and tamper-proof token)
+ 
+  * default authentication handler (looks for HTTP basic authentication as defined by RFC
2617)
+ 
+ For each HTTP request that CouchDB receives, one or more authentication handlers are invoked
to authenticate the user. Once an authentication handler succeeds, the remaining ones are
not executed. Which authentication handlers are used, as well as the order under which they
will be invoked, is defined in the .ini configuration files. The default setting, from the
etc/couchdb/default.ini file, is:
  
  {{{
- authentication_handler = {couch_httpd, default_authentication_handler}
- WWW-Authenticate = Basic realm="administrator"
+ [httpd]
+ authentication_handlers = {couch_httpd_oauth, oauth_authentication_handler}, {couch_httpd_auth,
cookie_authentication_handler}, {couch_httpd_auth, default_authentication_handler}
  }}}
  
- Other notes: The "null_authentication_handler" in "couch_httpd" allows any user credentials
to run as admin. Web servers such as Apache or Nginx can also provide an authentication layer
as a reverse-proxy to CouchDB.
+ '''Note:''' for testing purposes the authentication handler ''{couch_httpd_auth, null_authentication_handler}''
can be used. It authenticates any request as being being originated by a server admin user.
  
  == Authorization ==
- CouchDB supports one role, the "admin" group, which can execute any of the HTTP API on any
database in the CouchDB instance. See [[Setting_up_an_Admin_account]] for more details.
  
- CouchDB does not support other roles at this time. Support for read access restriction is
planned for the 1.0 release. 
+ As of CouchDB 0.11, three types of users can be defined:
  
- == Validation ==
+   * database readers - Defined per database. They can read all types of documents from the
DB, and they can write (and edit) documents to the DB except for design documents.
+ 
+   * database admins - Defined per database. They have all the privileges readers have plus
the privileges: write (and edit) design documents, add/remove database admins and readers,
set the database revisions limit (''/somedb/_revs_limit'' API) and execute temporary views
against the database (''/somedb/_temp_view'' API). They can not create a database and neither
delete a database.
+ 
+   * server admins - Defined per CouchDB server. They have all the privileges.
+ 
+ Server admins are defined in the ''admins'' section of the .ini configuration files. See
[[Setting_up_an_Admin_account]] for more details.
+ 
+ Database admins and readers are defined in the security object of a database. This security
object is a JSON document having the following structure:
+ 
+ {{{
+ {
+   "admins" : {
+      "names" : ["joe", "phil"],
+      "roles" : ["boss"]
+    },
+    "readers" : {
+      "names" : ["dave"],
+      "roles" : ["producer", "consumer"]
+    }
+ }
+ }}}
+ 
+ Note that security objects are not regular versioned documents (that is, they are not under
MVCC rules). This is a design choice to speedup authorization checks (avoids traversing a
database's documents B-Tree).
+ 
+ If both the names and roles fields of either the admins or readers properties are empty
arrays, it means the database has no admins or readers. Having no admins, any user has all
the privileges associated to a database. Having no readers, any user can write regular documents
(any non-design document) and read documents from the database.
+ 
+ Each user name mentioned in a database security object refers to a user that is defined
in the authentication database. The default name of this database is ''_users'' but it is
configurable in the .ini configuration files:
+ 
+ {{{
+ [couch_httpd_auth]
+ authentication_db = _users
+ require_valid_user = false
+ }}}
+ 
+ The ''require_valid_user'' configuration parameter shown above causes CouchDB to have the
following behaviour:
+ 
+   1. No server admins are configured:
+     1. ''require_valid_user'' is set to false: the request will be validated (by the handler
''{couch_httpd_auth, default_authentication_handler}'') as if it originated from a server
admin, but only if the handler did not found any authentication credentials in the user's
HTTP request message
+     1. ''require_valid_user'' is set to true: if none of the configured authentication handlers
succeeds, an HTTP message with error code 401 (unauthorized) will be sent back to the requester
+ 
+   1. There are one or more server admins configured:
+     1. ''require_valid_user'' is set to false: the request will be validated as "anonymous"
(unnamed user, no roles)
+     1. ''require_valid_user'' is set to true: if none of the configured authentication handlers
succeeds, an HTTP message with error code 401 (unauthorized) will be sent back to the requester
+ 
+ Currently the documents in the authentication database can only have the type attribute
set to "user". Such documents have the following structure:
+ 
+ {{{
+ {
+   "_id"          : "org.couchdb.user:joe",
+   "type"         : "user",
+   "name"         : "joe",
+   "roles"        : ["erlanger"],
+   "password_sha" : "fe95df1ca59a9b567bdca5cbaf8412abd6e06121",
+   "salt"         : "4e170ffeb6f34daecfd814dfb4001a73"
+ }
+ }}}
+ 
+ The "_id" attribute value must be prefixed with the string "org.couchdb.user:" and the rest
must match the value of the attribute "name". The roles attribute must be an array of roles
(and each role is a string). The "password_sha" attribute is an hexadecimal representation
of the SHA-1 hash computed over a string that matches the user password concatenated with
a salt (ideally a random string). The salt attribute is the hexadecimal representation of
the salt used to generate the user's password hash.
+ 
+ Some rules regarding user documents:
+ 
+   * when created by a non server admin user, the "roles" attribute must be an empty array
+ 
+   * a non server admin user can only update his own user document
+ 
+   * when updated by a non server admin user, the "roles" attribute must remain unchanged
+ 
+   * role names can not start with an underscore - such role names are used for system roles
+ 
+   * user names can not start with an underscore - such user names are reserved for internal
system operations
+ 
+ Finally, server admins can create user documents that represent themselves. This is useful
if server admins (which always have the role "_admin") want to have other roles (application
specific roles). User documents that represent server admins do not need to have the "password_sha"
and "salt" attributes defined - their authentication credentials are stored in the .ini configuration
files.
+ 
+ All these rules regarding authentication database documents are enforced by the validate
document update function stored in the design document with ID "_design/_auth" found in the
authentication database (it is automatically created by CouchDB).
+ 
+ == Document Update Validation ==
  
  See [[Document_Update_Validation]].
  

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