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From ste...@apache.org
Subject [38/52] [abbrv] [partial] docs commit: CB-12747: added 7.x docs
Date Thu, 04 May 2017 15:02:19 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cordova-docs/blob/5ad93d20/www/docs/en/7.x/guide/cli/template.md
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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Cordova App Templates
+description: Learn how to find, use, and create templates in Cordova.
+toc_title: Templates for apps
+
+---
+
+# Cordova App Templates
+
+## Use a Template
+
+Templates allow you to use preexisting code to jumpstart your project. 
+
+![]({{ site.baseurl }}/static/img/guide/cli/template.png)
+
+Find a template to create your app from by seaching for the keyword `cordova:template` on [npm](https://www.npmjs.com/search?q=cordova%3Atemplate). You can also use local templates on your computer, or a Git repository.
+
+After locating a template you wish to use. Create your project using that template, by specifying the `--template` flag during the `create` command, followed by your template source.
+
+Creating a cordova project from an NPM package, Git repository, or local path:
+```
+$ cordova create hello com.example.hello HelloWorld --template <npm-package-name>
+$ cordova create hello com.example.hello HelloWorld --template <git-remote-url>
+$ cordova create hello com.example.hello HelloWorld --template <path-to-template>
+```
+
+After succesfully using a template to create your project, you'll want to indicate the platforms that you intend to target with your app. Go into your project folder and [add platforms](http://cordova.apache.org/docs/en/latest/guide/cli/index.html#add-platforms).
+
+## Create a Template
+
+Begin by creating a cordova app that will become the basis for your template. Then you'll take the contents of your app and put them into the following structure. When your template is used, all of the contents within `template_src` will be used to create the new project, so be sure to include any necessary files in that folder. Reference [this example](https://github.com/apache/cordova-template-reference) for details.
+
+```
+template_package/
+├── package.json   	(optional; needed to publish template on npm)
+├──	index.js 		(required)
+└── template_src/ 	(required)
+	└── CONTENTS OF APP TEMPLATE
+```
+> __NOTE__: `index.js` should export a reference to `template_src` and `package.json` should reference `index.js`. See [the example](https://github.com/carynbear/cordova-template) for details on how that is done.
+
+To finish off your template, edit `package.json` to contain the keyword `"cordova:template"`.
+```javascript
+{
+  ...
+  "keywords": [
+    "ecosystem:cordova",
+    "cordova:template"
+  ]
+  ...
+}
+```
+
+Congrats! You've made a template for creating a Cordova project. Share your template on npm so that everyone can benefit from your hard work.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cordova-docs/blob/5ad93d20/www/docs/en/7.x/guide/hybrid/plugins/index.md
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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Plugin Development Guide
+toc_title: Create a plugin
+description: Develop your own plugin.
+---
+
+# Plugin Development Guide
+
+A _plugin_ is a package of injected code that allows the Cordova webview within
+which the app renders to communicate with the native platform on
+which it runs.  Plugins provide access to device and platform
+functionality that is ordinarily unavailable to web-based apps. All
+the main Cordova API features are implemented as plugins, and many
+others are available that enable features such as bar code scanners,
+NFC communication, or to tailor calendar interfaces. You can search for available plugins
+on [Cordova Plugin Search page](/plugins/).
+
+Plugins comprise a single JavaScript interface along with
+corresponding native code libraries for each supported platform.  In essence
+this hides the various native code implementations behind a common
+JavaScript interface.
+
+This section steps through a simple _echo_ plugin that passes a string from
+JavaScript to the native platform and back, one that you can use as a
+model to build far more complex features.  This section discusses the
+basic plugin structure and the outward-facing JavaScript interface.
+For each corresponding native interface, see the list at the end of
+this section.
+
+In addition to these instructions, when preparing to write a plugin it
+is best to look over [existing plugins](http://cordova.apache.org/contribute)
+for guidance.
+
+## Building a Plugin
+
+Application developers use the CLI's [plugin add command][cdv_plugin] to add a plugin to a project. The
+argument to that command is the URL for a _git_ repository containing
+the plugin code.  This example implements Cordova's Device API:
+
+```bash
+cordova plugin add https://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cordova-plugin-device.git
+```
+
+The plugin repository must feature a top-level `plugin.xml` manifest
+file. There are many ways to configure this file, details for which
+are available in the [Plugin Specification](../../../plugin_ref/spec.html). This abbreviated version of the `Device` plugin provides a simple example to use as a model:
+
+```xml
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<plugin xmlns="http://apache.org/cordova/ns/plugins/1.0"
+        id="cordova-plugin-device" version="0.2.3">
+    <name>Device</name>
+    <description>Cordova Device Plugin</description>
+    <license>Apache 2.0</license>
+    <keywords>cordova,device</keywords>
+    <js-module src="www/device.js" name="device">
+        <clobbers target="device" />
+    </js-module>
+    <platform name="ios">
+        <config-file target="config.xml" parent="/*">
+            <feature name="Device">
+                <param name="ios-package" value="CDVDevice"/>
+            </feature>
+        </config-file>
+        <header-file src="src/ios/CDVDevice.h" />
+        <source-file src="src/ios/CDVDevice.m" />
+    </platform>
+</plugin>
+```
+
+The top-level `plugin` tag's `id` attribute uses the same
+reverse domain format to identify the plugin package as the apps
+they're added to.  The `js-module` tag specifies the path to the common
+JavaScript interface.  The `platform` tag specifies a corresponding
+set of native code, for the `ios` platform in this case.  The
+`config-file` tag encapsulates a `feature` tag that is injected into
+the platform-specific `config.xml` file to make the platform aware of
+the additional code library.  The `header-file` and `source-file` tags
+specify the path to the library's component files.
+
+## Validating a Plugin using Plugman
+
+You can use the `plugman` utility to check whether the plugin installs
+correctly for each platform.  Install `plugman` with the following
+[node](http://nodejs.org/) command:
+
+```bash
+npm install -g plugman
+```
+
+You need a valid app source directory, such as the top-level `www`
+directory included in a default CLI-generated project, as described in the
+[Create your first app](../../cli/index.html) guide.
+
+Then run a command such as the following to test whether iOS
+dependencies load properly:
+
+```bash
+plugman install --platform ios --project /path/to/my/project/www --plugin /path/to/my/plugin
+```
+
+For details on `plugman` options, see [Using Plugman to Manage Plugins](../../../plugin_ref/plugman.html). For information on how to actually _debug_ plugins, see each platform's native interface listed at the bottom of this page.
+
+## The JavaScript Interface
+
+The JavaScript interface provides the front-facing interface, making it perhaps
+the most important part of the plugin.  You can structure your
+plugin's JavaScript however you like, but you need to call
+`cordova.exec` to communicate with the native platform, using the
+following syntax:
+
+```javascript
+cordova.exec(function(winParam) {},
+             function(error) {},
+             "service",
+             "action",
+             ["firstArgument", "secondArgument", 42, false]);
+```
+
+Here is how each parameter works:
+
+- `function(winParam) {}`: A success callback function. Assuming your
+  `exec` call completes successfully, this function executes along
+  with any parameters you pass to it.
+
+- `function(error) {}`: An error callback function. If the operation
+  does not complete successfully, this function executes with an
+  optional error parameter.
+
+- `"service"`: The service name to call on the native side. This
+  corresponds to a native class, for which more information is
+  available in the native guides listed below.
+
+- `"action"`: The action name to call on the native side. This
+  generally corresponds to the native class method. See the native
+  guides listed below.
+
+- `[/* arguments */]`: An array of arguments to pass into the native
+  environment.
+
+## Sample JavaScript
+
+This example shows one way to implement the plugin's JavaScript
+interface:
+
+```javascript
+window.echo = function(str, callback) {
+    cordova.exec(callback, function(err) {
+        callback('Nothing to echo.');
+    }, "Echo", "echo", [str]);
+};
+```
+
+In this example, the plugin attaches itself to the `window` object as
+the `echo` function, which plugin users would call as follows:
+
+```javascript
+window.echo("echome", function(echoValue) {
+    alert(echoValue == "echome"); // should alert true.
+});
+```
+
+Look at the last three arguments passed to the `cordova.exec` function. The
+first calls the `Echo` _service_, a class name. The second requests
+the `echo` _action_, a method within that class. The third is an array
+of arguments containing the echo string, which is the `window.echo`
+function's first parameter.
+
+The success callback passed into `exec` is simply a reference to the
+callback function of `window.echo`. If the native platform fires
+the error callback, it simply calls the success callback and passes it
+a default string.
+
+## Native Interfaces
+
+Once you define JavaScript for your plugin, you need to complement it
+with at least one native implementation. Details for each platform are
+listed below, and each builds on the simple Echo Plugin example above:
+
+- [Android Plugins](../../platforms/android/plugin.html)
+- [iOS Plugins](../../platforms/ios/plugin.html)
+- [BlackBerry 10 Plugins](../../platforms/blackberry10/plugin.html)
+- [Windows Phone 8 Plugins](../../platforms/wp8/plugin.html)
+- [Windows Plugins](../../platforms/win8/plugin.html)
+
+## Publishing Plugins
+
+You can publish your plugin to any `npmjs`-based registry, but the recommended one is the [npm registry](https://www.npmjs.com). Other developers can install your plugin automatically using either `plugman` or the Cordova CLI.
+
+To publish a plugin to npm you need to follow these steps:
+
+  * install the `plugman` CLI:
+
+    ```bash
+    $ npm install -g plugman
+    ```
+
+  * create a `package.json` file for your plugin:
+
+    ```bash
+    $ plugman createpackagejson /path/to/your/plugin
+    ```
+
+  * publish it:
+
+    ```bash
+    $ npm adduser # that is if you don't have an account yet
+    $ npm publish /path/to/your/plugin
+    ```
+
+For more details on npm usage, refer to [Publishing npm Packages](https://docs.npmjs.com/getting-started/publishing-npm-packages) on the npm documentation site.
+
+## Integrating with Plugin Search
+
+To surface the plugin in [Cordova Plugin Search](/plugins/), add the `ecosystem:cordova` keyword to the `package.json` file of your plugin before publishing.
+
+To indicate support for a particular platform, add a keyword in the format `**cordova-<platformName>**` to the list of keywords in package.json.
+Plugman's `createpackagejson` command does this for you, but if you did not use it to generate your `package.json`, you should manually edit it as shown below.
+
+For example, for a plugin that supports Android, iOS & Windows, the keywords in `package.json` should include:
+
+```json
+"keywords": [
+    "ecosystem:cordova",
+    "cordova-android",
+    "cordova-ios",
+    "cordova-windows"
+]
+```
+
+For a more detailed example of a package.json, review the [package.json file of cordova-plugin-device](https://github.com/apache/cordova-plugin-device/blob/master/package.json).
+
+## Specifying Cordova Dependencies
+
+**Cordova 6.1.0** added support for specifying the Cordova-related dependencies of a plugin
+as part of the plugin's `package.json` file. Plugins may list the dependencies for multiple
+releases to provide guidance to the Cordova CLI when it is selecting the version of a
+plugin to fetch from npm. The CLI will choose the latest release of a plugin that is
+compatible with the local project's installed platforms and plugins as well as the
+the local Cordova CLI version. If no releases of the plugin are compatible, the CLI will warn
+the user about the failed requirements and fall back to the old behavior of fetching the
+latest release.
+
+This feature is intended to eventually replace the [engines element](../../../plugin_ref/spec.html#engines-and-engine) in plugin.xml.
+Listing dependencies is a good way to ensure that your plugin will not appear broken or cause
+build errors when fetched from npm. If the latest release of the plugin is not compatible with
+a project, the CLI will give the app developer a list of unmet project requirements so that
+they are aware of incompatibilites and can update their project to support your plugin. This
+allows your plugin to respond to breaking changes without fear of confusing devlopers who
+are building against old platforms and plugins.
+
+To specify Cordova-related dependencies for a plugin, alter the `engines` element in
+`package.json` to include a `cordovaDependencies` object with the following
+structure:
+
+```javascript
+"engines": {
+    "cordovaDependencies": {
+        PLUGIN_VERSION: {
+            DEPENDENCY: SEMVER_RANGE,
+            DEPENDENCY: SEMVER_RANGE,
+            ...
+        },
+        ...
+    }
+}
+```
+
+* `PLUGIN_VERSION` specifies the version of your plugin. It should adhere to the syntax for a single version as defined by [npm's semver package][npm-semver] or an upper bound (see [below](#upper-bounds))
+* `DEPENDENCY` may be one of the following:
+    * The Cordova CLI: `"cordova"`
+    * A Cordova platform: `"cordova-android"`, `"cordova-ios"`, `"cordova-windows"`, etc.
+    * Another Cordova plugin: `"cordova-plugin-camera"`, etc.
+* `SEMVER_RANGE` should adhere to the syntax for a range as defined by [npm's semver package][npm-semver]
+
+**NOTE:** A Cordova platform `DEPENDENCY` refers to the Cordova platform and not
+the OS, i.e. `cordova-android` rather than the Android OS.
+
+Your `cordovaDependencies` may list any number of `PLUGIN_VERSION` requirements
+and any number of `DEPENDENCY` constraints. Versions of your plugin
+that do not have their dependencies listed will be assumed to have the same
+dependency information as the highest `PLUGIN_VERSION` listed below them. For
+example, consider the following entry:
+
+```javascript
+"engines": {
+    "cordovaDependencies": {
+        "1.0.0": { "cordova-android": "<3.0.0"},
+        "2.1.0": { "cordova-android": ">4.0.0"}
+    }
+}
+```
+All plugin versions below the lowest entry (1.0.0 in this example) are assumed
+to have no dependencies. Any version of the plugin between 1.0.0 and 2.1.0 is
+assumed to have the same dependencies as version 1.0.0 (a cordova-android
+version less than 3.0.0). This lets you only update your `cordovaDependencies`
+information when there are breaking changes.
+
+### Upper Bounds
+
+In addition to a single version, a `PLUGIN_VERSION` in `cordovaDependencies`
+may also specify an upper bound to amend entries for older releases
+of your plugin. This is useful when a breaking change occurs in a `DEPENDENCY`
+and a new constraint must be added for all older versions of a plugin that do
+not support it. These bounds should be written as a `<` followed by a single
+[semver][npm-semver] version (**Not an arbitrary range!**). This will apply
+whatever `DEPENDENCY` values are given to all versions of the plugin below the
+specified version. For example, consider the following entry:
+
+```javascript
+"engines": {
+    "cordovaDependencies": {
+        "0.0.1":  { "cordova-ios": ">1.0.0" },
+        "<1.0.0": { "cordova-ios": "<2.0.0" },
+        "<2.0.0": { "cordova-ios": "<5.0.0" }
+    }
+}
+```
+
+Here we specify one plugin version (0.0.1) and two upper bounds (<1.0.0 and <2.0.0)
+that constrain cordova-ios. The two upper bounds do not override the constraint
+of 0.0.1, they are combined via AND at evaluation time. When the CLI checks the
+cordova-ios version of the project, the constraint that will be evaluated for
+plugin version 0.0.1 will be the combination of these three:
+
+```
+    cordova-ios >1.0.0 AND cordova-ios <2.0.0 AND cordova-ios <5.0.0
+```
+
+Please note that the only `PLUGIN_VERSION` values allowed are single versions or
+upper bounds; no other semver ranges are supported.
+
+[cdv_plugin]: ../../../reference/cordova-cli/index.html#cordova-plugin-command
+[npm-semver]: https://www.npmjs.com/package/semver

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cordova-docs/blob/5ad93d20/www/docs/en/7.x/guide/hybrid/webviews/index.md
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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Embedding WebViews
+toc_title: Embed Cordova in native apps
+description: Include the Cordova WebView in your native project.
+---
+
+# Embedding WebViews
+
+Cordova applications are ordinarily implemented as a browser-based
+_WebView_ within the native mobile platform. This section shows how,
+for supporting platforms, to create your own WebView components that
+make full use of Cordova APIs. You can then deploy these Cordova
+application components along with native components in a hybrid
+application.
+
+To deploy a WebView, you need to be familiar with each native
+programming environment. The following provides instructions for
+supported platforms:
+
+- [Android WebViews](../../platforms/android/webview.html)
+- [iOS WebViews](../../platforms/ios/webview.html)
+- [Windows Phone 8.0 WebViews](../../platforms/wp8/webview.html)

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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Next Steps
+description: A look at topics that new Cordova developers will encounter.
+---
+
+# Next Steps
+
+For developers who have an understanding of how to use the Cordova CLI and make use of plugins, there are a few things you may want to consider researching next to build better, more performant Cordova applications. The following document offers advice on various topics relating to best practices, testing, upgrades, and other topics, but is not meant to be prescriptive. Consider this your launching point for your growth as a Cordova developer. Also, if you see something that can be improved, please [contribute](http://cordova.apache.org/contribute/)!
+
+This guide contains the following topics:
+
+* Best Practices
+* Handling Upgrades
+* Testing Cordova apps
+* Debugging Cordova apps
+* User Interface
+* Special Considerations
+* Keeping Up
+* Getting Help
+
+# Best Practices Cordova app development
+
+## 1) SPA Is Your Friend
+
+First and foremost - your Cordova applications should adopt the SPA (Single Page Application) design. Loosely defined, a SPA is a client-side application that is run from one request of a web page. The user loads an initial set of resources (HTML, CSS, and JavaScript) and further updates (showing a new view, loading data) is done via AJAX. SPAs are commonly used for more complex client-side applications. GMail is a great example of this. After you load GMail, mail views, editing, and organization are all done by updating the DOM instead of actually leaving the current page to load a completely new one.
+
+Using a SPA can help you organize your application in a more efficient manner, but it also has specific benefits for Cordova applications. A Cordova application must wait for the [deviceready][DeviceReadyEvent] event to fire before any plugins may be used. If you do not use a SPA, and your user clicks to go from one page to another, you will have to wait for [deviceready][DeviceReadyEvent] to fire again before you make use of a plugin. This is easy to forget as your application gets larger.
+
+Even if you choose not to use Cordova, creating a mobile application without using a single page architecture will have serious performance implications. This is because navigating between pages will require scripts, assets, etc., to be reloaded. Even if these assets are cached, there will still be performance issues.
+
+Examples of SPA libraries you can use in your Cordova applications are:
+
+* [AngularJS](http://angularjs.org)
+* [EmberJS](http://emberjs.com)
+* [Backbone](http://backbonejs.org)
+* [Kendo UI](http://www.telerik.com/kendo-ui)
+* [Monaca](http://monaca.mobi/en/)
+* [ReactJS](http://facebook.github.io/react/)
+* [Sencha Touch](http://www.sencha.com/products/touch/)
+* [jQuery Mobile](http://jquerymobile.com)
+
+And many, many, more.
+
+## 2) Performance Considerations
+
+Consider the following issues to improve the performance in your mobile applications:
+
+**Click versus Touch** - The biggest and simplest mistake you can make is to use click events. While these "work" just fine on mobile, most devices impose a 300ms delay on them in order to distinguish between a touch and a touch "hold" event. Using `touchstart`, or `touchend`, will result in a dramatic improvement - 300ms doesn't sound like much, but it can result in jerky UI updates and behavior. You should also consider the fact that “touch” events are not supported on non-webkit browsers, see [CanIUse](http://caniuse.com/#search=touch). In order to deal with these limitations, you can checkout various libraries like HandJS and Fastclick.
+
+**CSS Transitions versus DOM Manipulation** - Using hardware accelerated CSS transitions will be dramatically better than using JavaScript to create animations. See the list of resources at the end of this section for examples.
+
+**Networks Suck** - Ok, networks don't always suck, but the latency of mobile networks, even good mobile networks, is far worse than you probably think. A desktop app that slurps down 500 rows of JSON data, every 30 seconds, will be both slower on a mobile device as well as a battery hog. Keep in mind that Cordova apps have multiple ways to persist data in the app (LocalStorage and the file system for example). Cache that data locally and be cognizant of the amount of data you are sending back and forth. This is an especially important consideration when your application is connected over a cellular network.
+
+**Additional Performance Articles and Resources**
+
+* ["You half assed it"](http://sintaxi.com/you-half-assed-it)
+* ["Top Ten Performance Tips for PhoneGap and Hybrid Apps"](http://coenraets.org/blog/2013/10/top-10-performance-techniques-for-phonegap-and-hybrid-apps-slides-available/)
+* ["Fast Apps and Sites with JavaScript"][1]
+
+ [1]: https://channel9.msdn.com/Events/Build/2013/4-313
+
+## 3) Recognize and Handle Offline Status
+
+See the previous tip about networks. Not only can you be on a slow network, it is entirely possible for your application to be completely offline. Your application should handle this in an intelligent manner. If your application does not, people will think your application is broken. Given how easy it is to handle (Cordova supports listening for both an offline and online event), there is absolutely no reason for your application to not respond well when run offline. Be sure to test (see the Testing section below) your application and be sure to test how your application handles when you start in one state and then switch to another.
+
+Note that the online and offline events, as well as the Network Connection API is not perfect. You may need to rely on using an XHR request to see if the device is truly offline or online. At the end of the day, be sure add some form of support for network issues - in fact, the Apple store (and probably other stores) will reject apps that don’t properly handle offline/online states. For more discussion on this topic, see
+["Is This Thing On?"](http://blogs.telerik.com/appbuilder/posts/13-04-23/is-this-thing-on-%28part-1%29)
+
+# Handling Upgrades
+
+## Upgrading Cordova Projects
+
+If your existing project was created using Cordova 3.x, you can upgrade the project by issuing the following:
+
+    cordova platform update platform-name ios, android, etc.
+
+If your existing project was created under a version prior to Cordova 3.x, it would probably be best to create a new Cordova 3.x project, and then copy your existing project’s code and assets to the new project. Typical steps:
+
+* Create a new Cordova 3.x project (cordova create ...)
+* Copy the www folder from your old project to the new project
+* Copy any configuration settings from the old project to the new project
+* Add any plugins used in the old project to the new project
+* Build your project
+* Test, test, test!
+
+Regardless of the project's prior version, it is absolutely critical that you read up on what was changed in the updated version, as the update may break your code. The best place to find this information will be in the release notes published both in the repositories and on the Cordova blog. You will want to test your app thoroughly in order to verify that it is working correctly after you perform the update.
+
+Note: some plugins may not be compatible with the new version of Cordova. If a plugin is not compatible, you may be able to find a replacement plugin that does what you need, or you may need to delay upgrading your project. Alternatively, alter the plugin so that it does work under the new version and contribute back to the community.
+
+## Plugin Upgrades
+Currently there is no mechanism for upgrading changed plugins using a single command. Instead, remove the plugin and add it back to your project, and the new version will be installed:
+
+```
+cordova plugin rm "some-plugin"
+cordova plugin add "some-plugin"
+```
+Refer to [Manage versions and platforms](../../platform_plugin_versioning_ref/index.html) for more details.
+
+Be sure to check the updated plugin's documentation, as you may need to adjust your code to work with the new version. Also, double check that the new version of the plugin works with your project’s version of Cordova.
+
+Always test your apps to ensure that installing the new plugin has not broken something that you did not anticipate.
+
+If your project has a lot of plugins that you need updated, it might save time to create a shell or batch script that removes and adds the plugins with one command.
+
+# Testing Cordova apps
+
+Testing your applications is super important. The Cordova team uses Jasmine but any web friendly unit testing solution will do.
+
+## Testing on a simulator vs. on a real device
+
+It’s not uncommon to use desktop browsers and device simulators/emulators when developing a Cordova application. However, it is incredibly important that you test your app on as many physical devices as you possibly can:
+
+* Simulators are just that: simulators. For example, your app may work in the iOS simulator without a problem, but it may fail on a real device (especially in certain circumstances, such as a low memory state). Or, your app may actually fail on the simulator while it works just fine on a real device.
+* Emulators are just that: emulators. They do not represent how well your app will run on a physical device. For example, some emulators may render your app with a garbled display, while a real device has no problem. (If you do encounter this problem, disable the host GPU in the emulator.)
+* Simulators are generally faster than your physical device. Emulators, on the other hand, are generally slower. Do not judge the performance of your app by how it performs in a simulator or an emulator. Do judge the performance of your app by how it runs on a spectrum of real devices.
+* It's impossible to get a good feel for how your app responds to your touch by using a simulator or an emulator. Instead, running the app on a real device can point out problems with the sizes of user interface elements, responsiveness, etc.
+* Although it would be nice to be able to test only on one device per platform, it is best to test on many devices sporting many different OS versions. For example, what works on your particular Android smartphone may fail on another Android device. What works on an iOS 7 device may fail on an iOS 6 device.
+
+It is, of course, impossible to test on every possible device on the market. For this reason, it’s wise to recruit many testers who have different devices. Although they won’t catch every problem, chances are good that they will discover quirks and issues that you would never find alone.
+
+Tip: It is possible on Android Nexus devices to easily flash different versions of Android onto the device. This simple process will allow you to easily test your application on different levels of Android with a single device, without voiding your warranty or requiring you to “jailbreak” or “root” your device. Refer to the [Google Android factory images and instructions](https://developers.google.com/android/nexus/images#instructions).
+
+# Debugging Cordova apps
+
+Debugging Cordova requires some setup. Unlike a desktop application, you can't simply open dev tools on your mobile device and start debugging, luckily there are some great alternatives.
+
+## iOS Debugging
+
+### Xcode
+With Xcode you can debug the iOS native side of your Cordova application. Make sure the Debug Area is showing (View -> Debug Area). Once your app is running on the device (or simulator), you can view log output in the debug area. This is where any errors or warnings will print. You can also set breakpoints within the source files. This will allow you to step through the code one line at a time and view the state of the variables at that time. The state of the variables is shown in the debug area when a breakpoint is hit. Once your app is up and running on the device, you can bring up Safari's web inspector (as described below) to debug the webview and js side of your application. For more details refer to the [Apple Support](https://developer.apple.com/support/debugging/) docs.
+
+### Safari Remote Debugging with Web Inspector
+With Safari's web inspector you can debug the webview and js code in your Cordova application. This works only on OSX and only with iOS 6 (and higher). It uses Safari to connect to your device (or the simulator) and will connect the browser's dev tools to the Cordova application. You get what you expect from dev tools - DOM inspection/manipulation, a JavaScript debugger, network inspection, the console, and more. Like Xcode, with Safari's web inspector you can set breakpoints in the JavaScript code and view the state of the variables at that time. You can view any errors, warnings or messages that are printed to the console. You can also run JavaScript commands directly from the console as your app is running. For more details on how to set it up and what you can do, see the blog post about [Enabling Remote Web Inspector in iOS 6](http://moduscreate.com/enable-remote-web-inspector-in-ios-6/) and [Safari Web Inspector Guide](https://developer.apple.com/library/safari/documentation/Ap
 pleApplications/Conceptual/Safari_Developer_Guide/Introduction/Introduction.html).
+
+## Chrome Remote Debugging
+Virtually the same as the Safari version, this works with Android only but can be used from any desktop operating system. It requires a minimum of Android 4.4 (KitKat), minimum API level of 19, and Chrome 30+ (on the desktop). Once connected, you get the same Chrome Dev Tools experience for your mobile applications as you do with your desktop applications. Even better, the Chrome Dev Tools have a mirror option that shows your app running on the mobile device. This is more than just a view - you can scroll and click from dev tools and it updates on the mobile device. More details on Chrome Remote Debugging may be found here: [https://developers.google.com/chrome/mobile/docs/debugging](https://developers.google.com/chrome/mobile/docs/debugging)
+
+If you can see your device in the inspect devices section, but you can't see the Cordova webview you may need to add `android:debuggable="true"` in the `<application>` node of your `AndroidManifest.xml`.
+
+It is possible to use Chrome Dev Tools to inspect iOS apps, through a WebKit proxy: [https://github.com/google/ios-webkit-debug-proxy/](https://github.com/google/ios-webkit-debug-proxy/)
+
+## Ripple
+Ripple is a desktop based emulator for Cordova projects. Essentially it lets you run a Cordova application in your desktop application and fake various Cordova features. For example, it lets you simulate the accelerometer to test shake events. It fakes the camera API by letting you select a picture from your hard drive. Ripple lets you focus more on your custom code rather than worrying about Cordova plugins. You can find out more about Ripple here: [http://ripple.incubator.apache.org/](http://ripple.incubator.apache.org/)
+
+## Weinre
+Weinre creates a local server that can host a remote debug client for your Cordova applications. After you've installed and started it up, you copy a line of code into your Cordova application and then restart it. You can then open a dev tool panel on your desktop to work with the application. Weinre is not quite as fancy as Chrome and Safari Remote debugging but has the benefit of working with a much greater range of operating systems and platforms. More information may be found here: [http://people.apache.org/~pmuellr/weinre/docs/latest/](http://people.apache.org/~pmuellr/weinre/docs/latest/)
+
+## Other Options
+
+* BlackBerry 10 supports debugging as well: [Documentation]( https://developer.blackberry.com/html5/documentation/v2_0/debugging_using_web_inspector.html)
+* For more examples and explanation of the above debugging tips, see: [http://developer.telerik.com/featured/a-concise-guide-to-remote-debugging-on-ios-android-and-windows-phone/](http://developer.telerik.com/featured/a-concise-guide-to-remote-debugging-on-ios-android-and-windows-phone/)
+
+# User Interface
+
+Building a Cordova application that looks nice on mobile can be a challenge, especially for developers. Many people chose to use a UI framework to make this easier. Here is a short list of options you may want to consider.
+
+* [jQuery Mobile](http://jquerymobile.com) - jQuery Mobile automatically enhances your layout for mobile optimization. It also handles creating a SPA for you automatically.
+* [ionic](http://ionicframework.com/) - This powerful UI framework actually has its own CLI to handle project creation.
+* [Ratchet](http://goratchet.com/) - Brought to you by the people who created Bootstrap.
+* [Kendo UI](http://www.telerik.com/kendo-ui) - Open source UI and application framework from Telerik.
+* [Topcoat](http://topcoat.io)
+* [ReactJS](http://facebook.github.io/react/)
+
+When building your user interface, it is important to think about all platforms that you are targeting and the differences between the user’s expectations. For example, an Android application that has an iOS-style UI will probably not go over well with users. This sometimes is even enforced by the various application stores. Because of this, it is important that you respect the conventions of each platform and therefore are familiar with the various Human Interface Guidelines:
+
+* [iOS](https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/userexperience/conceptual/MobileHIG/index.html)
+* [Android](http://developer.android.com/design/index.html)
+* [Windows Phone](https://dev.windows.com/en-us/design)
+
+## Additional UI Articles and Resources
+
+Although browser engines become more and more standards complaint, we still live in a prefixed world (-webkit and -ms.) The following article is valuable when developing UI’s in for cross browser apps: [http://blogs.windows.com/windows_phone/b/wpdev/archive/2012/11/15/adapting-your-webkit-optimized-site-for-internet-explorer-10.aspx](http://blogs.windows.com/windows_phone/b/wpdev/archive/2012/11/15/adapting-your-webkit-optimized-site-for-internet-explorer-10.aspx)
+
+# Special Considerations
+
+Although Cordova makes cross-platform development easier, it's just not possible to provide 100% isolation from the underlying native platform. So do be aware of restrictions.
+
+## Platform Quirks
+
+While reading the documentation, look for sections which outline different behaviors or requirements on multiple platforms. If present, these would be in a section titled "Android Quirks", "iOS Quirks", etc. Read through these quirks and be aware of them as you work with Cordova.
+
+## Loading Remote Content
+
+Invoking Cordova JavaScript functions from a remotely-loaded HTML page (an HTML page not stored locally on the device) is an unsupported configuration. This is because Cordova was not designed for this, and the Apache Cordova community does no testing of this configuration. While it can work in some circumstances, it is not recommended nor supported. There are challenges with the same origin policy, keeping the JavaScript and native portions of Cordova synchronized at the same version (since they are coupled via private APIs which may change), the trustworthiness of remote content calling native local functions, and potential app store rejection.
+
+The display of remotely-loaded HTML content in a webview should be done using Cordova's InAppBrowser. The InAppBrowser is designed so that JavaScript running there does not have access to the Cordova JavaScript APIs for the reasons listed above. Please refer to the [Security Guide](../appdev/security/index.html).
+
+# Keeping Up
+
+Here are a few ways to keep up to date with Cordova.
+
+* Subscribe to the [Cordova blog](http://cordova.apache.org/#news).
+* Subscribe to the [developer list](http://cordova.apache.org/#mailing-list). Note - this is not a support group! Rather this is a place where development of Cordova is discussed.
+
+# Getting Help
+
+The following links are the best places to get help for Cordova:
+
+* StackOverflow: [http://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/cordova](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/cordova)
+By using the Cordova tag, you can view and browse all Cordova questions. Note that StackOverflow automatically converts the "Phonegap" tag to "Cordova", so this way you will be able to access historical questions as well
+* PhoneGap Google Group: [https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/phonegap](https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/phonegap)
+This Google Group was the old support forum when Cordova was still called PhoneGap. While there are still a lot of Cordova users that frequently visit this group, the Cordova community has expressed an interest in focusing less on this group and instead using StackOverflow for support
+* Meetup: [http://phonegap.meetup.com](http://phonegap.meetup.com) -
+Consider finding a local Cordova/PhoneGap meetup group
+
+
+[DeviceReadyEvent]: ../../cordova/events/events.html#deviceready

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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Architectural overview of Cordova platform
+toc_title: Overview
+description: Start here if you are new to Cordova. Includes installation and next steps.
+---
+
+# Overview
+
+Apache Cordova is an open-source mobile development framework. It allows you
+to use standard web technologies - HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript
+for cross-platform development. Applications execute within wrappers targeted
+to each platform, and rely on standards-compliant API bindings to
+access each device's capabilities such as sensors, data, network status, etc.
+
+Use Apache Cordova if you are:
+
+* a mobile developer and want to extend an application across more
+  than one platform, without having to re-implement it with each
+  platform's language and tool set.
+
+* a web developer and want to deploy a web app that's packaged for
+  distribution in various app store portals.
+
+* a mobile developer interested in mixing native application
+  components with a _WebView_ (special browser window) that can access
+  device-level APIs, or if you want to develop a plugin interface
+  between native and WebView components.
+
+# Architecture
+
+There are several components to a cordova application. The following
+diagram shows a high-level view of the cordova application architecture.
+
+![]({{ site.baseurl }}/static/img/guide/cordovaapparchitecture.png)
+
+## WebView
+
+The Cordova-enabled WebView may provide the application with its
+entire user interface. On some platforms, it can also be a component
+within a larger, hybrid application that mixes the WebView with native
+application components.
+(See [Embedding WebViews](../hybrid/webviews/index.html) for details.)
+
+## Web App
+
+This is the part where your application code resides. The application itself is
+implemented as a web page, by default a local file named _index.html_, that
+references CSS, JavaScript, images, media files, or other resources
+are necessary for it to run. The app executes in a _WebView_ within the native
+application wrapper, which you distribute to app stores.
+
+This container has a very crucial file - [config.xml](../../config_ref/index.html)
+file that provides information about the app and specifies parameters affecting how it
+works, such as whether it responds to orientation shifts.
+
+## Plugins
+
+Plugins are an integral part of the cordova ecosystem. They provide
+an interface for Cordova and native components to communicate with each
+other and bindings to standard device APIs. This enables you to invoke native
+code from JavaScript.
+
+Apache Cordova project maintains a set of plugins called the
+[Core Plugins](../support/index.html#core-plugin-apis). These core
+plugins provide your application to access device capabilities such as
+battery, camera, contacts, etc.
+
+In addition to the core plugins, there are several third-party plugins which
+provide additional bindings to features not necessarily available on all
+platforms. You can search for Cordova plugins using [plugin search](/plugins/) or [npm](https://www.npmjs.com/search?q=ecosystem%3Acordova). You can also
+develop your own plugins, as described in the
+[Plugin Development Guide](../hybrid/plugins/index.html). Plugins may be
+necessary, for example, to communicate between Cordova and custom native
+components.
+
+__NOTE__: When you create a Cordova project it does not have
+any plugins present. This is the new default behavior. Any plugins you
+desire, even the core plugins, must be explicitly added.
+
+Cordova does not provide any UI widgets or MV* frameworks. Cordova provides
+only the runtime in which those can execute. If you wish to use UI widgets
+and/or an MV* framework, you will need to select those and include them in
+your application.
+
+## Development Paths
+
+Cordova provides you two basic workflows to create a mobile
+app. While you can often use either workflow to accomplish the same
+task, they each offer advantages:
+
+- __Cross-platform (CLI) workflow__: Use this workflow if you want your app
+  to run on as many different mobile operating systems as possible,
+  with little need for platform-specific development. This workflow
+  centers around the `cordova` CLI. The CLI is a high-level tool that allows you to build projects
+  for many platforms at once, abstracting away much of the functionality of
+  lower-level shell scripts. The CLI copies a common set of web assets into
+  subdirectories for each mobile platform, makes any necessary
+  configuration changes for each, runs build scripts to generate
+  application binaries. The CLI also provides a common interface to
+  apply plugins to your app. To get started follow the steps in the
+  [Create your first app] guide. Unless you have a need for the platform-centered workflow, the cross-platform workflow is recommended.
+
+- __Platform-centered workflow__: Use this workflow if you want to
+  focus on building an app for a single platform and need to be able
+  to modify it at a lower level. You need to use this approach, for
+  example, if you want your app to mix custom native components with
+  web-based Cordova components, as discussed in
+  [Embedding WebViews](../hybrid/webviews/index.html). As a rule of thumb, use
+  this workflow if you need to modify the project within the SDK. This
+  workflow relies on a set of lower-level shell scripts that are tailored for
+  each supported platform, and a separate Plugman utility that allows you to
+  apply plugins. While you can use this workflow to build cross-platform
+  apps, it is generally more difficult because the lack of a
+  higher-level tool means separate build cycles and plugin
+  modifications for each platform.
+
+When first starting out, it may be easiest to use the cross-platform
+workflow to create an app, as described in [Create your first app] guide.
+You then have the option to switch to a platform-centered workflow if
+you need the greater control the SDK provides.
+
+> __NOTE__: Once you switch from the CLI-based workflow to one centered
+around the platform-specific SDKs and shell tools, you can't go back.
+The CLI maintains a common set of cross-platform source code, which on
+each build it uses to write over platform-specific source code. To
+preserve any modifications you make to the platform-specific assets,
+you need to switch to the platform-centered shell tools, which ignore
+the cross-platform source code, and instead relies on the
+platform-specific source code.
+
+## Installing Cordova
+
+The installation of Cordova will differ depending on the workflow above
+you choose:
+
+  * Cross-platform workflow: See [Create your first app] guide.
+
+  * Platform-centered workflow.
+
+After installing Cordova, it is recommended that you review the
+```Develop for Platforms``` section for the mobile platforms that you
+will be developing for. It is also recommended that you also review the
+[Privacy Guide](../appdev/privacy/index.html) and
+[Security Guide](../appdev/security/index.html).
+
+[Create your first app]:../cli/index.html

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+---
+license: >
+    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+    or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+    distributed with this work for additional information
+    regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+    to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+    "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+    with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+    software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+    "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+    KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+    specific language governing permissions and limitations
+    under the License.
+
+title: Android Platform Guide
+toc_title: Android
+---
+
+# Android Platform Guide
+
+This guide shows how to set up your SDK environment to deploy Cordova
+apps for Android devices, and how to optionally use Android-centered
+command-line tools in your development workflow.  You need to install
+the Android SDK regardless of whether you want to use these
+platform-centered shell tools or cross-platform Cordova CLI for
+development. For a comparison of the two development paths, see the
+[Overview](../../overview/index.html#development-paths). For details on
+the CLI, see [Cordova CLI Reference][cli_reference].
+
+## Requirements and Support
+
+Cordova for Android requires the Android SDK which can be installed
+on OS X, Linux or Windows. See the Android SDK's
+[System Requirements](http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html#Requirements).
+Cordova's latest Android package supports up to Android [API Level](http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/uses-sdk-element.html#ApiLevels) 25.
+The supported Android API Levels for the past few cordova-android releases can
+be found in this table:
+
+cordova-android Version | Supported Android API-Levels
+------------------------|-----------------------------
+6.X.X                   | 16 - 25
+5.X.X                   | 14 - 23
+4.1.X                   | 14 - 22
+4.0.X                   | 10 - 22
+3.7.X                   | 10 - 21
+
+Please note that the versions listed here are for Cordova's Android package,
+[cordova-android](https://github.com/apache/cordova-android), and not for the
+Cordova CLI. To determine what version of Cordova's Android package is installed
+in your Cordova project, run the command `cordova platform ls` in the directory
+that holds your project.
+
+As a general rule, Android versions become unsupported by Cordova as
+they dip below 5% on Google's
+[distribution dashboard](http://developer.android.com/about/dashboards/index.html).
+
+## Installing the Requirements
+
+### Java Development Kit (JDK)
+
+Install [Java Development Kit (JDK) 8](http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/jdk8-downloads-2133151.html)
+or later.
+
+When installing on Windows you also need to set `JAVA_HOME` Environment Variable
+according to your JDK installation path (see [Setting Environment Variables](#setting-environment-variables))
+
+#### Android SDK
+
+Install [Android Studio][android_studio].
+Detailed installation instructions are on Android's developer site.
+
+#### Adding SDK Packages
+
+After installing the Android SDK, you must also install the packages for
+whatever [API level](http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/uses-sdk-element.html#ApiLevels)
+you wish to target. It is recommended that you install the highest SDK version
+that your version of cordova-android supports (see [Requirements and Support](#requirements-and-support)).
+
+Open the Android SDK Manager (run `android` or `sdkmanager` from the terminal)
+and make sure the following are installed:
+
+1. Android Platform SDK for your targeted version of Android
+1. Android SDK build-tools version 19.1.0 or higher
+1. Android Support Repository (found under "Extras")
+
+See Android's documentation on [Installing SDK Packages](https://developer.android.com/studio/intro/update.html)
+for more details.
+
+### Setting environment variables
+
+Cordova's CLI tools require some environment variables to be set in order to
+function correctly. The CLI will attempt to set these variables for you, but
+in certain cases you may need to set them manually. The following variables
+should be updated:
+
+1. Set the `JAVA_HOME` environment variable to the location of your JDK
+   installation
+2. Set the `ANDROID_HOME` environment variable to the location of your Android
+   SDK installation
+3. It is also recommended that you add the Android SDK's `tools`, `tools/bin`,
+   and `platform-tools` directories to your `PATH`
+
+#### OS X and Linux
+
+On a Mac or Linux, you can use a text editor to create or modify the
+`~/.bash_profile` file. To set an environment variable, add a line that uses
+`export` like so (substitute the path with your local installation):
+
+```bash
+export ANDROID_HOME=/Development/android-sdk/
+```
+
+To update your `PATH`, add a line resembling the following (substitute the paths
+with your local Android SDK installation's location):
+
+```bash
+export PATH=${PATH}:/Development/android-sdk/platform-tools:/Development/android-sdk/tools
+```
+
+Reload your terminal to see this change reflected or run the following command:
+
+```bash
+$ source ~/.bash_profile
+```
+
+#### Windows
+
+These steps may vary depending on your installed version of Windows. Close and
+reopen any command prompt windows after making changes to see them reflected.
+
+1. Click on the __Start__ menu in the lower-left corner of the desktop
+
+1. In the search bar, search for __Environment Variables__ and select __Edit the
+   system Environment Variables__ from the options that appear
+
+1. In the window that appears, click the __Environment Variables__ button
+
+##### To create a new environment variable:
+
+1. Click __New...__ and enter the variable name and value
+
+##### To set your __PATH__:
+
+1. Select the __PATH__ variable and press __Edit__.
+
+1. Add entries for the relevant locations to the __PATH__. For example
+(substitute the paths with your local Android SDK installation's location):
+
+    ```
+    C:\Development\android-sdk\platform-tools
+    C:\Development\android-sdk\tools
+    ```
+
+## Project Configuration
+
+### Setting up an Emulator
+
+If you wish to run your Cordova app on an Android emulator, you will first need
+to create an Android Virtual Device (AVD). See the Android documentation for
+[managing AVDs](https://developer.android.com/studio/run/managing-avds.html),
+[configuring the emulator](https://developer.android.com/studio/run/emulator.html#about),
+and [setting up hardware acceleration](https://developer.android.com/studio/run/emulator-acceleration.html).
+
+Once your AVD is configured correctly, you should be able to deploy your Cordova
+application to the emulator by running:
+
+```bash
+$ cordova run --emulator
+```
+
+### Configuring Gradle
+
+As of **cordova-android@4.0.0**, Cordova for Android projects are built using
+[Gradle](http://www.gradle.org/). For instructions on building with Ant, refer
+to older versions of the documentation. Please note that Ant builds are
+deprecated as of the Android SDK Tools 25.3.0.
+
+#### Setting Gradle Properties
+
+It is possible to configure the Gradle build by setting the values of certain
+[Gradle properties](https://docs.gradle.org/current/userguide/build_environment.html)
+that Cordova exposes. The following properties are available to be set:
+
+| Property                          | Description
+|-----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------
+| `cdvBuildMultipleApks`            | If this is set, then multiple APK files will be generated: One per native platform supported by library projects (x86, ARM, etc). This can be important if your project uses large native libraries, which can drastically increase the size of the generated APK. If not set, then a single APK will be generated which can be used on all devices
+| `cdvVersionCode`                  | Overrides the versionCode set in `AndroidManifest.xml`
+| `cdvReleaseSigningPropertiesFile` | *Default: `release-signing.properties`*<br>Path to a .properties file that contains signing information for release builds (see [Signing an App](#signing-an-app))
+| `cdvDebugSigningPropertiesFile`   | *Default: `debug-signing.properties`*<br>Path to a .properties file that contains signing information for debug builds (see [Signing an App](#signing-an-app)). Useful when you need to share a signing key with other developers
+| `cdvMinSdkVersion`                | Overrides the value of `minSdkVersion` set in `AndroidManifest.xml`. Useful when creating multiple APKs based on SDK version
+| `cdvBuildToolsVersion`            | Overrides the automatically detected `android.buildToolsVersion` value
+| `cdvCompileSdkVersion`            | Overrides the automatically detected `android.compileSdkVersion` value
+
+You can set these properties in one of four ways:
+
+  1. By setting environment variables like so:
+
+      ```bash
+      $ export ORG_GRADLE_PROJECT_cdvMinSdkVersion=20
+      $ cordova build android
+      ```
+
+  2. By using the `--gradleArg` flag in your Cordova `build` or `run` commands:
+
+      ```bash
+      $ cordova run android -- --gradleArg=-PcdvMinSdkVersion=20
+      ```
+
+  3. By placing a file called `gradle.properties` in your Android platform
+      folder (`<your-project>/platforms/android`) and setting the properties in it
+      like so:
+
+      ```
+      # In <your-project>/platforms/android/gradle.properties
+      cdvMinSdkVersion=20
+      ```
+
+  4. By extending `build.gradle` via a [`build-extras.gradle` file](#extending-build-gradle)
+    and setting the property like so:
+
+      ```groovy
+      // In <your-project>/platforms/android/build-extras.gradle
+      ext.cdvMinSdkVersion = 20
+      ```
+
+The latter two options both involve including an extra file in your Android
+platform folder. In general, it is discouraged that you edit the contents of
+this folder because it is easy for those changes to be lost or overwritten.
+Instead, these two files should be copied from another location into that folder
+as part of the build command by using the `before_build`
+[hook](../../appdev/hooks/index.html).
+
+#### Extending build.gradle
+
+If you need to customize `build.gradle`, rather than edit it directly, you
+should create a sibling file named `build-extras.gradle`. This file will be
+included by the main `build.gradle` when present. This file must be placed in
+the android platform directory (`<your-project>/platforms/android`), so it is
+recommended that you copy it over via a script attached to the `before_build`
+[hook](../../appdev/hooks/index.html).
+
+Here's an example:
+
+```groovy
+// Example build-extras.gradle
+// This file is included at the beginning of `build.gradle`
+ext.cdvDebugSigningPropertiesFile = '../../android-debug-keys.properties'
+
+// When set, this function allows code to run at the end of `build.gradle`
+ext.postBuildExtras = {
+    android.buildTypes.debug.applicationIdSuffix = '.debug'
+}
+```
+
+Note that plugins can also include `build-extras.gradle` files via:
+
+```xml
+<framework src="some.gradle" custom="true" type="gradleReference" />
+```
+
+### Setting the Version Code
+
+To change the [version code](https://developer.android.com/studio/publish/versioning.html)
+for your app's generated apk, set the `android-versionCode` attribute in the widget
+element of your application's [config.xml file](../../../config_ref/index.html).
+If the `android-versionCode` is not set, the version code will be determined
+using the `version` attribute. For example, if the version is `MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH`:
+
+```
+versionCode = MAJOR * 10000 + MINOR * 100 + PATCH
+```
+
+If your application has enabled the `cdvBuildMultipleApks` Gradle property (see
+[Setting Gradle Properties](#setting-gradle-properties)), the version code of
+your app will also be multiplied by 10 so that the last digit of the code can be
+used to indicate the architecture the apk was built for. This multiplication
+will happen regardless of whether the version code is taken from the
+`android-versionCode` attribute or generated using the `version`. Be aware that
+some plugins added to your project (including cordova-plugin-crosswalk-webview)
+may set this Gradle property automatically.
+
+**Please Note:** When updating the `android-versionCode` property, it is unwise
+to increment the version code taken from built apks. Instead, you should
+increment the code based off the value in your `config.xml` file's
+`android-versionCode` attribute. This is because the `cdvBuildMultipleApks`
+property causes the version code to be multiplied by 10 in the built apks and
+thus using that value will cause your next version code to be 100 times the
+original, etc.
+
+## Signing an App
+
+First, you should read the [Android app signing requirements](https://developer.android.com/studio/publish/app-signing.html).
+
+### Using Flags
+
+To sign an app, you need the following parameters:
+
+| Parameter             | Flag              | Description
+|-----------------------|-------------------|-----------------------------------
+| Keystore              | `--keystore`      | Path to a binary file which can hold a set of keys
+| Keystore Password     | `--storePassword` | Password to the keystore
+| Alias                 | `--alias`         | The id specifying the private key used for signing
+| Password              | `--password`      | Password for the private key specified
+| Type of the Keystore  | `--keystoreType`  | *Default: auto-detect based on file extension*<br>Either pkcs12 or jks
+
+These parameters can be specified using the command line arguments above to
+the [Cordova CLI][cli_reference] `build` or `run` commands.
+
+__Note__: You should use double `--` to indicate that these are platform-specific arguments, for example:
+
+`cordova run android --release -- --keystore=../my-release-key.keystore --storePassword=password --alias=alias_name --password=password`.
+
+### Using build.json
+
+Alternatively, you could specify them in a build configuration file (`build.json`)
+using the `--buildConfig` argument to the same commands. Here's a sample of a
+build configuration file:
+
+```json
+{
+    "android": {
+        "debug": {
+            "keystore": "../android.keystore",
+            "storePassword": "android",
+            "alias": "mykey1",
+            "password" : "password",
+            "keystoreType": ""
+        },
+        "release": {
+            "keystore": "../android.keystore",
+            "storePassword": "",
+            "alias": "mykey2",
+            "password" : "password",
+            "keystoreType": ""
+        }
+    }
+}
+```
+
+For release signing, passwords can be excluded and the build system will issue a
+prompt asking for the password.
+
+There is also support to mix and match command line arguments and parameters in
+`build.json`. Values from the command line arguments will get precedence.
+This can be useful for specifying passwords on the command line.
+
+### Using Gradle
+
+You can also specify signing properties by including a `.properties` file and
+pointing to it with the `cdvReleaseSigningPropertiesFile` and
+`cdvDebugSigningPropertiesFile` Gradle properties (see [Setting Gradle Properties](#setting-gradle-properties)).
+The file should look like this:
+
+```
+storeFile=relative/path/to/keystore.p12
+storePassword=SECRET1
+storeType=pkcs12
+keyAlias=DebugSigningKey
+keyPassword=SECRET2
+```
+
+`storePassword` and `keyPassword` are optional, and will be prompted for if omitted.
+
+## Debugging
+
+For details on the debugging tools that come packaged with the Android SDK, see
+[Android's developer documentation for debugging](https://developer.android.com/studio/debug/index.html).
+Additionally, Android's developer documentation for [debugging web apps](http://developer.android.com/guide/webapps/debugging.html)
+provides an introduction for debugging the portion of your app running in the
+Webview.
+
+### Opening a Project in Android Studio
+
+Cordova for Android projects can be opened in the Android IDE,
+[Android Studio][android_studio].
+This can be useful if you wish to use Android Studio's built in Android
+debugging/profiling tools or if you are developing Android plugins. Please note
+that when opening your project in Android studio, it is recommended that you do
+NOT edit your code in the IDE. This will edit the code in the `platforms` folder
+of your project (not `www`), and changes are liable to be overwritten. Instead,
+edit the `www` folder and copy over your changes by running `cordova build`.
+
+Plugin developers wishing to edit their native code in the IDE should use the
+`--link` flag when adding their plugin to the project via `cordova plugin add`.
+This will link the files so that changes to the plugin files in the `platforms`
+folder are reflected in your plugin's source folder (and vice versa).
+
+To open a Cordova for Android project in Android Studio:
+
+  1. Launch __Android Studio__.
+
+  1. Select __Import Project (Eclipse ADT, Gradle, etc)__.
+
+      ![]({{ site.baseurl }}/static/img/guide/platforms/android/asdk_import_project.png)
+
+  1. Select the Android platform directory in your project (`<your-project>/platforms/android`).
+
+      ![]({{ site.baseurl }}/static/img/guide/platforms/android/asdk_import_select_location.png)
+
+  1. For the `Gradle Sync` question you can simply answer __Yes__.
+
+Once it finishes importing, you should be able to build and run the app directly
+from __Android Studio__. See [Android Studio Overview](https://developer.android.com/studio/intro/index.html)
+and [Building and Running from Android Studio](https://developer.android.com/studio/run/index.html)
+for more details.
+
+![]({{ site.baseurl }}/static/img/guide/platforms/android/asdk_import_done.png)
+
+## Platform Centered Workflow
+
+cordova-android includes a number of scripts that allow the platform to be used
+without the full Cordova CLI. This development path may offer you a greater
+range of development options in certain situations than the cross-platform
+cordova CLI. For example, you need to use shell tools when deploying a custom
+Cordova WebView alongside native components. Before using this development path,
+you must still configure the Android SDK environment as described in
+[Requirements and Support](#requirements-and-support) above.
+
+For each of the scripts discussed below, refer to [Cordova CLI Reference][cli_reference]
+for more information on their arguments and usage. Each script has a name that
+matches the corresponding CLI command. For example, `cordova-android/bin/create`
+is equivalent to `cordova create`.
+
+To get started, either download the cordova-android package from
+[npm](https://www.npmjs.com/package/cordova-android) or
+[Github](https://github.com/apache/cordova-android).
+
+To create a project using this package, run the `create` script in the `bin`
+folder:
+
+```bash
+$ cordova-android/bin/create
+```
+
+The created project will have a folder named `cordova` inside that contains
+scripts for the project-specific Cordova commands (e.g. `run`, `build`, etc.).
+Additionally, the project will feature a structure different from that of a
+normal Cordova project. Notably, `/www` is moved to `/assets/www`.
+
+To install plugins in this project, use the [Cordova Plugman Utility](../../../plugin_ref/plugman.html).
+
+
+## Upgrading
+
+Refer to [this](./upgrade.html) article for instructions to upgrade your
+`cordova-android` version.
+
+## Lifecycle Guide
+
+### Cordova and Android
+
+Native Android apps typically consist of a series of [activities](http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/Activity.html) that the user
+interacts with. Activities can be thought of as the individual screens that make
+up an application; different tasks in an app will often have their own activity.
+Each activity has its own lifecycle that is maintained as the activity enters
+and leaves the foreground of a user's device.
+
+In contrast, Cordova applications on the Android platform are executed within a
+Webview that is embedded in a *single* Android activity. The lifecycle of this
+activity is exposed to your application through the document events that are
+fired. The events are not guaranteed to line up with Android's lifecycle, but
+they can provide guidelines for saving and restoring your state. These events
+roughly map to Android callbacks as follows:
+
+Cordova Event   | Rough Android Equivalent  | Meaning
+----------------|---------------------------|-----------------
+`deviceready`   | `onCreate()`              | Application is starting (not from background)
+`pause`         | `onPause()`               | Application is moving to the background
+`resume`        | `onResume()`              | Application is returning to the foreground
+
+Most other Cordova platforms have a similar concept of lifecycles and should
+fire these same events when similar actions happen on a user's device. However,
+Android presents some unique challenges that can sometimes show up thanks to the
+native Activity lifecycle.
+
+### What makes Android different?
+
+In Android, the OS can choose to kill activities in the background in order to
+free up resources if the device is low on memory. Unfortunately, when the
+activity holding your application is killed, the Webview in which your
+application lives will be destroyed as well. Any state that your application is
+maintaining will be lost in this case. When the user navigates back to your
+application, the Activity and Webview will be recreated by the OS, but state
+will not be automatically restored for your Cordova app. For this reason, it is
+imperative that your application be aware of the lifecycle events that are fired
+and maintain whatever state is appropriate to make sure a user's context in your
+app is not lost when they leave the application.
+
+### When can this happen?
+
+Your application is susceptible to being destroyed by the OS whenever it leaves
+the sight of the user. There are two main situations in which this can occur.
+The first and most obvious case is when the user presses the home button or
+switches to another application.
+
+However, there is a second (and much more subtle) case that certain plugins can
+introduce. As noted above, Cordova applications are usually confined to the
+single activity that contains the Webview. However, there are instances in which
+other activities may be launched by plugins and temporarily push the Cordova
+activity to the background. These other Activities are typically launched in
+order to perform a specific task using a native application installed on the
+device. For example, the [Cordova camera plugin](../../../reference/cordova-plugin-camera/index.html)
+launches whatever camera activity is natively installed on the device in order
+to take a photo. Reusing the installed camera application in this way makes your
+application feel much more like a native app when the user tries to take a
+photo. Unfortunately, when the native Activity pushes your app to the background
+there is a chance the OS will kill it.
+
+For a clearer understanding of this second case, let's walk through an example
+using the camera plugin. Imagine you have an application that requires the user
+to take a profile photo. The flow of events in the application when everything
+goes as planned will look something like this:
+
+1. The user is interacting with your app and needs to take a picture
+2. The camera plugin launches the native camera activity
+    * *The Cordova activity is pushed to the background (pause event is fired)*
+3. The user takes a photo
+4. The camera activity finishes
+    * *The Cordova activity is moved to the foreground (resume event is fired)*
+5. The user is returned to your application where they left off
+
+However, this flow of events can be disrupted if a device is low on memory. If
+the Activity is killed by the OS, the above sequence of events instead plays out
+as follows:
+
+1. The user is interacting with your app and needs to take a picture
+2. The camera plugin launches the native camera activity
+    * *The OS destroys the Cordova activity (pause event is fired)*
+3. The user takes a photo
+4. The camera activity finishes
+    * *The OS recreates the Cordova activity (deviceready and resume events are fired)*
+5. The user is confused as to why they are suddenly back at your app's login screen
+
+In this instance, the OS killed the application in the background and the
+application did not maintain its state as part of the lifecycle. When the user
+returned to the app, the Webview was recreated and the app appeared to have
+restarted from scratch (hence the user's confusion). This sequence of events is
+equivalent to what happens when the home button is pressed or the user switches
+applications. The key to preventing the above experience is subscribing to
+events and properly maintaining state as part of the activity lifecycle.
+
+### Respecting the Lifecycle
+
+In the examples above, the javascript events that are fired are noted in
+italics. These events are your opportunity to save and restore your
+application's state. You should register callbacks in your application's
+`bindEvents` function that respond to the lifecycle events by saving state. What
+information you save and how you save it is left to your discretion, but you
+should be sure to save enough information so that you can restore the user to
+exactly where they left off when they return to your application.
+
+There is one additional factor in the example above that only applies in the
+second-discussed situation (i.e. when a plugin launches an external activity).
+Not only was the state of the application lost when the user finished taking a
+photo, but so was the photo that the user took. Normally, that photo would be
+delivered to your application through the callback that was registered with the
+camera plugin. However, when the Webview was destroyed that callback was lost
+forever. Luckily, cordova-android 5.1.0 and above provide a means for getting
+the result of that plugin call when your application resumes.
+
+### Retrieving plugin callback results (cordova-android 5.1.0+)
+
+When the OS destroys the Cordova activity that was pushed into the background
+by a plugin, any pending callbacks are lost as well. This means that if you
+passed a callback to the plugin that launched the new activity (e.g. the camera
+plugin), that callback will NOT be fired when the application is recreated.
+However, starting in cordova-android **5.1.0**, the `resume` event's payload will
+contain any pending plugin results from the plugin request that launched the
+external activity made prior to the activity being destroyed.
+
+The payload for the `resume` event adheres to the following format:
+
+```text
+{
+    action: "resume",
+    pendingResult: {
+        pluginServiceName: string,
+        pluginStatus: string,
+        result: any
+    }
+}
+```
+
+The fields of that payload are defined as follows:
+
+* `pluginServiceName`: The name of the plugin returning the result (e.g. "Camera"). This can be found in the `<name>` tag of a plugin's plugin.xml file
+* `pluginStatus`: The status of the plugin call (see below)
+* `result`: Whatever the result of the plugin call is
+
+The possible values for `pluginStatus` in the `pendingResult` field include the following:
+* `"OK"` - The plugin call was successful
+* `"No Result"` - The plugin call ended with no result
+* `"Error"` - The plugin call resulted in some general error
+* Other miscellaneous errors
+    * `"Class not found"`
+    * `"Illegal access"`
+    * `"Instantiation error"`
+    * `"Malformed url"`
+    * `"IO error"`
+    * `"Invalid action"`
+    * `"JSON error"`
+
+Please note that it is up to the plugin to decide what is contained in the
+`result` field and the meaning of the `pluginStatus` that is returned. Reference
+the API of the plugin you are using to see what you should expect those fields
+to contain and how to use their values.
+
+#### Example
+
+Below is a brief example application that uses the `resume` and `pause` events
+to manage state. It uses the Apache camera plugin as an example of how to
+retrieve the results of a plugin call from the `resume` event payload. The
+portion of the code dealing with the `resume`'s `event.pendingResult` object
+requires cordova-android **5.1.0+**
+
+```javascript
+// This state represents the state of our application and will be saved and
+// restored by onResume() and onPause()
+var appState = {
+    takingPicture: true,
+    imageUri: ""
+};
+
+var APP_STORAGE_KEY = "exampleAppState";
+
+var app = {
+    initialize: function() {
+        this.bindEvents();
+    },
+    bindEvents: function() {
+        // Here we register our callbacks for the lifecycle events we care about
+        document.addEventListener('deviceready', this.onDeviceReady, false);
+        document.addEventListener('pause', this.onPause, false);
+        document.addEventListener('resume', this.onResume, false);
+    },
+    onDeviceReady: function() {
+        document.getElementById("take-picture-button").addEventListener("click", function() {
+            // Because the camera plugin method launches an external Activity,
+            // there is a chance that our application will be killed before the
+            // success or failure callbacks are called. See onPause() and
+            // onResume() where we save and restore our state to handle this case
+            appState.takingPicture = true;
+
+            navigator.camera.getPicture(cameraSuccessCallback, cameraFailureCallback,
+                {
+                    sourceType: Camera.PictureSourceType.CAMERA,
+                    destinationType: Camera.DestinationType.FILE_URI,
+                    targetWidth: 250,
+                    targetHeight: 250
+                }
+            );
+        });
+    },
+    onPause: function() {
+        // Here, we check to see if we are in the middle of taking a picture. If
+        // so, we want to save our state so that we can properly retrieve the
+        // plugin result in onResume(). We also save if we have already fetched
+        // an image URI
+        if(appState.takingPicture || appState.imageUri) {
+            window.localStorage.setItem(APP_STORAGE_KEY, JSON.stringify(appState));
+        }
+    },
+    onResume: function(event) {
+        // Here we check for stored state and restore it if necessary. In your
+        // application, it's up to you to keep track of where any pending plugin
+        // results are coming from (i.e. what part of your code made the call)
+        // and what arguments you provided to the plugin if relevant
+        var storedState = window.localStorage.getItem(APP_STORAGE_KEY);
+
+        if(storedState) {
+            appState = JSON.parse(storedState);
+        }
+
+        // Check to see if we need to restore an image we took
+        if(!appState.takingPicture && appState.imageUri) {
+            document.getElementById("get-picture-result").src = appState.imageUri;
+        }
+        // Now we can check if there is a plugin result in the event object.
+        // This requires cordova-android 5.1.0+
+        else if(appState.takingPicture && event.pendingResult) {
+            // Figure out whether or not the plugin call was successful and call
+            // the relevant callback. For the camera plugin, "OK" means a
+            // successful result and all other statuses mean error
+            if(event.pendingResult.pluginStatus === "OK") {
+                // The camera plugin places the same result in the resume object
+                // as it passes to the success callback passed to getPicture(),
+                // thus we can pass it to the same callback. Other plugins may
+                // return something else. Consult the documentation for
+                // whatever plugin you are using to learn how to interpret the
+                // result field
+                cameraSuccessCallback(event.pendingResult.result);
+            } else {
+                cameraFailureCallback(event.pendingResult.result);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+// Here are the callbacks we pass to getPicture()
+function cameraSuccessCallback(imageUri) {
+    appState.takingPicture = false;
+    appState.imageUri = imageUri;
+    document.getElementById("get-picture-result").src = imageUri;
+}
+
+function cameraFailureCallback(error) {
+    appState.takingPicture = false;
+    console.log(error);
+}
+
+app.initialize();
+```
+
+The corresponding html:
+
+```html
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+
+<html>
+    <head>
+        <meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="default-src 'self' data: gap: https://ssl.gstatic.com 'unsafe-eval'; style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline'; media-src *">
+        <meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no">
+        <meta name="msapplication-tap-highlight" content="no">
+        <meta name="viewport" content="user-scalable=no, initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1, minimum-scale=1, width=device-width">
+        <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/index.css">
+        <title>Cordova Android Lifecycle Example</title>
+    </head>
+    <body>
+        <div class="app">
+            <div>
+                <img id="get-picture-result" />
+            </div>
+            <Button id="take-picture-button">Take Picture</button>
+        </div>
+        <script type="text/javascript" src="cordova.js"></script>
+        <script type="text/javascript" src="js/index.js"></script>
+    </body>
+</html>
+```
+
+### Testing the Activity Lifecycle
+
+Android provides a developer setting for testing Activity destruction on low
+memory. Enable the "Don't keep activities" setting in the Developer Options menu
+on your device or emulator to simulate low memory scenarios. You should always
+do some amount of testing with this setting enabled to make sure that your
+application is properly maintaining state.
+
+[cli_reference]: ../../../reference/cordova-cli/index.html
+[android_studio]: https://developer.android.com/studio/index.html


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