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From bugzi...@apache.org
Subject DO NOT REPLY [Bug 20484] New: - DoubleMetaphone Implementation
Date Wed, 04 Jun 2003 17:04:51 GMT
DO NOT REPLY TO THIS EMAIL, BUT PLEASE POST YOUR BUG 
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http://nagoya.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=20484

DoubleMetaphone Implementation

           Summary: DoubleMetaphone Implementation
           Product: Commons
           Version: unspecified
          Platform: All
        OS/Version: All
            Status: NEW
          Severity: Enhancement
          Priority: Other
         Component: Codec
        AssignedTo: commons-dev@jakarta.apache.org
        ReportedBy: benwalstrum@yahoo.com


I am donating the following DoubleMetaphone implementation to the codec 
project.  I have been in contact with a Tim O'Brien who expressed interest in 
the implementation.

I have checked with Lawrence Philips, the original creator of the algorithm and 
his source (which I based mine on) is public domain.  So there should be no 
copyright issues with this implementation.

I have tested this extensively against implementations in other languages, so 
it should be very close to bug-free.

As I'm new to the bug database, I couldn't find an attachment feature, so I 
will paste the code below.

Regards, 

Ben

---------------------------------------

package org.apache.commons.codec.language;

import org.apache.commons.codec.EncoderException;
import org.apache.commons.codec.StringEncoder;

/**
 * DoubleMetaphone Java Implementation
 * From the algorithm by Lawrence Philips
 * 
 * Original Article <a 
href="http://www.cuj.com/documents/s=8038/cuj0006philips/">
 * http://www.cuj.com/documents/s=8038/cuj0006philips/</a>
 * Original Source Code: <a href="ftp://ftp.cuj.com/pub/2000/1806/philips.zip">
 * ftp://ftp.cuj.com/pub/2000/1806/philips.zip</a>
 * 
 * This source code is in the public domain and therefore may be redistributed,
 * reused, revised, or completely ignored.
 * 
 * Updated: 2003.06.04
 * 
 * @author Benjamin Walstrum (<a 
href="mailto:ben@walstrum.com">ben@walstrum.com</a>)
 */
public class DoubleMetaphone implements StringEncoder {

    private static final String VOWELS = "AEIOUY";
    private static final String[] SILENT_START = 
{ "GN", "KN", "PN", "WR", "PS" };
    private static final String[] L_R_N_M_B_H_F_V_W_SPACE = 
{ "L", "R", "N", "M", "B", "H", "F", "V", "W", " " };
    private static final String[] ES_EP_EB_EL_EY_IB_IL_IN_IE_EI_ER = 
{ "ES", "EP", "EB", "EL", "EY", "IB", "IL", "IN", "IE", "EI", "ER" };
    private static final String[] L_T_K_S_N_M_B_Z = 
{ "L", "T", "K", "S", "N", "M", "B", "Z" };

    private int maxCodeLen = 4;

    public DoubleMetaphone() {
        super();
    }

    /**
     * Encode a value with Double Metaphone
     */
    public String doubleMetaphone(String value) {
        return doubleMetaphone(value, false);
    }

    /**
     * Encode a value with Double Metaphone, optionally using the alternate
     * encoding.
     */
    public String doubleMetaphone(String value, boolean alternate) {
        value = cleanInput(value);
        if (value == null) {
            return null;
        }

        boolean slavoGermanic = isSlavoGermanic(value);
        int index = isSilentStart(value) ? 1 : 0;
        
        DoubleMetaphoneResult result = new DoubleMetaphoneResult(maxCodeLen);
        
        while (!result.isComplete() && index <= value.length() - 1) {
            switch (value.charAt(index)) {
            case 'A':
            case 'E':
            case 'I':
            case 'O':
            case 'U':
            case 'Y':
                index = handleAEIOUY(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'B':
                result.append('P');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'B' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case '':
                result.append('S');
                index++;
                break;
            case 'C':
                index = handleC(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'D':
                index = handleD(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'F':
                result.append('F');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'F' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case 'G':
                index = handleG(value, result, index, slavoGermanic);
                break;
            case 'H':
                index = handleH(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'J':
                index = handleJ(value, result, index, slavoGermanic);
                break;
            case 'K':
                result.append('K');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'K' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case 'L':
                index = handleL(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'M':
                result.append('M');
                index = conditionM0(value, index) ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case 'N':
                result.append('N');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'N' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case '':
                result.append('N');
                index++;
                break;
            case 'P':
                index = handleP(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'Q':
                result.append('K');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'Q' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case 'R':
                index = handleR(value, result, index, slavoGermanic);
                break;
            case 'S':
                index = handleS(value, result, index, slavoGermanic);
                break;
            case 'T':
                index = handleT(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'V':
                result.append('F');
                index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'V' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
                break;
            case 'W':
                index = handleW(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'X':
                index = handleX(value, result, index);
                break;
            case 'Z':
                index = handleZ(value, result, index, slavoGermanic);
                break;
            default:
                index++;
                break;
            }
        }

        return alternate ? result.getAlternate() : result.getPrimary();
    }
    
    /**
     * Encode the value using DoubleMetaphone.  It will only work if 
     * <code>obj</code> is a <code>String</code> (like <code>Metaphone</code>).
     */
    public Object encode(Object obj) throws EncoderException {
        Object result;

        if (!(obj instanceof String)) {
            throw new EncoderException("Parameter supplied to Metaphone " 
                                       + "encode is not of type " 
                                       + "java.lang.String"); 
        } else {
            return doubleMetaphone((String) obj);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Encode the value using DoubleMetaphone
     */
    public String encode(String value) throws EncoderException {
        return (doubleMetaphone(value));   
    }

    /**
     * Check if the Double Metaphone values of two <code>String</code> values
     * are equal
     */
    public boolean isDoubleMetaphoneEqual(String value1, String value2) {
        return isDoubleMetaphoneEqual(value1, value2, false);
    }
    
    /**
     * Check if the Double Metaphone values of two <code>String</code> values
     * are equal, optionally using the alternate value
     */
    public boolean isDoubleMetaphoneEqual(String value1, String value2, boolean 
alternate) {
        return doubleMetaphone(value1, alternate).equals(doubleMetaphone
(value2, alternate));
    }
    
    /**
     * Returns the maxCodeLen.
     * @return int
     */
    public int getMaxCodeLen() {
        return maxCodeLen;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the maxCodeLen.
     * @param maxCodeLen The maxCodeLen to set
     */
    public void setMaxCodeLen(int maxCodeLen) {
        this.maxCodeLen = maxCodeLen;
    }

    //-- BEGIN HANDLERS --//

    /**
     * Handles 'A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', and 'Y' cases
     */
    private int handleAEIOUY(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int 
index) {
        if (index == 0) {
            result.append('A');
        }
        return index + 1;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'C' cases
     */
    private int handleC(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (conditionC0(value, index)) {  // very confusing, moved out
            result.append('K');
            index += 2;
        } else if (index == 0 && contains(value, index, 6, "CAESAR")) {
            result.append('S');
            index += 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "CH")) {
            index = handleCH(value, result, index);
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "CZ") && 
                   !contains(value, index - 2, 4, "WICZ")) {
            //-- "Czerny" --//
            result.append('S', 'X');
            index += 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index + 1, 3, "CIA")) {
            //-- "focaccia" --//
            result.append('X');
            index += 3;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "CC") && 
                   !(index == 1 && charAt(value, 0) == 'M')) {
            //-- double "cc" but not "McClelland" --//
            return handleCC(value, result, index);
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "CK", "CG", "CQ")) {
            result.append('K');
            index += 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "CI", "CE", "CY")) {
            //-- Italian vs. English --//
            if (contains(value, index, 3, "CIO", "CIE", "CIA")) {
                result.append('S', 'X');
            } else {
                result.append('S');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else {
            result.append('K');
            if (contains(value, index + 1, 2, " C", " Q", " G")) { 
                //-- Mac Caffrey, Mac Gregor --//
                index += 3;
            } else if (contains(value, index + 1, 1, "C", "K", "Q") && 
                       !contains(value, index + 1, 2, "CE", "CI")) {
                index += 2;
            } else {
                index++;
            }
        }
        
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'CC' cases
     */
    private int handleCC(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) 
{
        if (contains(value, index + 2, 1, "I", "E", "H") && 
            !contains(value, index + 2, 2, "HU")) {
            //-- "bellocchio" but not "bacchus" --//
            if ((index == 1 && charAt(value, index - 1) == 'A') || 
                 contains(value, index - 1, 5, "UCCEE", "UCCES")) {
                //-- "accident", "accede", "succeed" --//
                result.append("KS");
            } else {
                //-- "bacci", "bertucci", other Italian --//
                result.append('X');
            }
            index += 3;
        } else {    // Pierce's rule
            result.append('K');
            index += 2;
        }
        
        return index;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'CH' cases
     */
    private int handleCH(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) 
{
        if (index > 0 && contains(value, index, 4, "CHAE")) {   // Michael
            result.append('K', 'X');
            return index + 2;
        } else if (conditionCH0(value, index)) {
            //-- Greek roots ("chemistry", "chorus", etc.) --//
            result.append('K');
            return index + 2;
        } else if (conditionCH1(value, index)) {
            //-- Germanic, Greek, or otherwise 'ch' for 'kh' sound --//
            result.append('K');
            return index + 2;
        } else {
            if (index > 0) {
                if (contains(value, 0, 2, "MC")) {
                    result.append('K');
                } else {
                    result.append('X', 'K');
                }
            } else {
                result.append('X');
            }
            return index + 2;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'D' cases
     */
    private int handleD(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (contains(value, index, 2, "DG")) {
            //-- "Edge" --//
            if (contains(value, index + 2, 1, "I", "E", "Y")) {
                result.append('J');
                index += 3;
            //-- "Edgar" --//
            } else {
                result.append("TK");
                index += 2;
            }
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "DT", "DD")) {
            result.append('T');
            index += 2;
        } else {
            result.append('T');
            index++;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'G' cases
     */
    private int handleG(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index, 
boolean slavoGermanic) {
        if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'H') {
            index = handleGH(value, result, index);
        } else if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'N') {
            if (index == 1 && isVowel(charAt(value, 0)) && !slavoGermanic)
{
                result.append("KN", "N");
            } else if (!contains(value, index + 2, 2, "EY") && 
                       charAt(value, index + 1) != 'Y' && !slavoGermanic) {
                result.append("N", "KN");
            } else {
                result.append("KN");
            }
            index = index + 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index + 1, 2, "LI") && !slavoGermanic) {
            result.append("KL", "L");
            index += 2;
        } else if (index == 0 && (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'Y' || contains
(value, index + 1, 2, ES_EP_EB_EL_EY_IB_IL_IN_IE_EI_ER))) {
            //-- -ges-, -gep-, -gel-, -gie- at beginning --//
            result.append('K', 'J');
            index += 2;
        } else if ((contains(value, index + 1, 2, "ER") || charAt(value, index 
+ 1) == 'Y') &&
                   !contains(value, 0, 6, "DANGER", "RANGER", "MANGER") &&
                   !contains(value, index - 1, 1, "E", "I") && 
                   !contains(value, index - 1, 3, "RGY", "OGY")) {
            //-- -ger-, -gy- --//
            result.append('K', 'J');
            index += 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index + 1, 1, "E", "I", "Y") || 
                   contains(value, index - 1, 4, "AGGI", "OGGI")) {
            //-- Italian "biaggi" --//
            if ((contains(value, 0 ,4, "VAN ", "VON ") || contains(value, 0, 
3, "SCH")) ||
                 contains(value, index + 1, 2, "ET")) {
                //-- obvious germanic --//
                result.append('K');
            } else if (contains(value, index + 1, 4, "IER")) {
                result.append('J');
            } else {
                result.append('J', 'K');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'G') {
            index += 2;
            result.append('K');
        } else {
            index++;
            result.append('K');
        }
        return index;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'GH' cases
     */
    private int handleGH(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) 
{
        if (index > 0 && !isVowel(charAt(value, index - 1))) {
            result.append('K');
            index += 2;
        } else if (index == 0) {
            if (charAt(value, index + 2) == 'I') {
                result.append('J');
            } else {
                result.append('K');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else if ((index > 1 && contains(value, index - 2, 1, "B", "H", "D"))

||
                   (index > 2 && contains(value, index - 3, 1, "B", "H", "D"))

||
                   (index > 3 && contains(value, index - 4, 1, "B", "H"))) {
            //-- Parker's rule (with some further refinements) - "hugh" --//
            index += 2;
        } else {
            if (index > 2 && charAt(value, index - 1) == 'U' && 
                contains(value, index - 3, 1, "C", "G", "L", "R", "T")) {
                //-- "laugh", "McLaughlin", "cough", "gough", "rough", "tough" -
-//
                result.append('F');
            } else if (index > 0 && charAt(value, index - 1) != 'I') {
                result.append('K');
            }
            index += 2;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'H' cases
     */
    private int handleH(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        //-- only keep if first & before vowel or between 2 vowels --//
        if ((index == 0 || isVowel(charAt(value, index - 1))) && 
             isVowel(charAt(value, index + 1))) {
            result.append('H');
            index += 2;
        //-- also takes car of "HH" --//
        } else {
            index++;
        }
        return index;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'J' cases
     */
    private int handleJ(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index, 
boolean slavoGermanic) {
        if (contains(value, index, 4, "JOSE") || contains(value, 0, 4, "SAN ")) 
{
            //-- obvious Spanish, "Jose", "San Jacinto" --//
            if ((index == 0 && (charAt(value, index + 4) == ' ') || 
                 value.length() == 4) || contains(value, 0, 4, "SAN ")) {
                result.append('H');
            } else {
                result.append('J', 'H');
            }
            index++;
        } else {
            if (index == 0 && !contains(value, index, 4, "JOSE")) {
                result.append('J', 'A');
            } else if (isVowel(charAt(value, index - 1)) && !slavoGermanic &&

                       (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'A' || 
                        charAt(value, index + 1) == 'O')) {
                result.append('J', 'H');
            } else if (index == value.length() - 1) {
                result.append('J', ' ');
            } else if (!contains(value, index + 1, 1, L_T_K_S_N_M_B_Z) && !
contains(value, index - 1, 1, "S", "K", "L")) {
                result.append('J');
            }

            if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'J') {
                index += 2;
            } else {
                index++;
            }
        }
        return index;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'L' cases
     */
    private int handleL(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        result.append('L');
        if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'L') {
            if (conditionL0(value, index)) {
                result.appendAlternate(' ');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else {
            index++;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'P' cases
     */
    private int handleP(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'H') {
            result.append('F');
            index += 2;
        } else {
            result.append('P');
            index = contains(value, index + 1, 1, "P", "B") ? index + 2 : index 
+ 1;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'R' cases
     */
    private int handleR(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index, 
boolean slavoGermanic) {
        if (index == value.length() - 1 && !slavoGermanic && 
            contains(value, index - 2, 2, "IE") && 
            !contains(value, index - 4, 2, "ME", "MA")) {
            result.appendAlternate('R');
        } else {
            result.append('R');
        }
        return charAt(value, index + 1) == 'R' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'S' cases
     */
    private int handleS(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index, 
boolean slavoGermanic) {
        if (contains(value, index - 1, 3, "ISL", "YSL")) {
            //-- special cases "island", "isle", "carlisle", "carlysle" --//
            index++;
        } else if (index == 0 && contains(value, index, 5, "SUGAR")) {
            //-- special case "sugar-" --//
            result.append('X', 'S');
            index++;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "SH")) {
            if (contains(value, index + 1, 4, "HEIM", "HOEK", "HOLM", "HOLZ")) {
                //-- germanic --//
                result.append('S');
            } else {
                result.append('X');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 3, "SIO", "SIA") || contains(value, 
index, 4, "SIAN")) {
            //-- Italian and Armenian --//
            if (slavoGermanic) {
                result.append('S');
            } else {
                result.append('S', 'X');
            }
            index += 3;
        } else if ((index == 0 && contains(value, index + 1, 
1, "M", "N", "L", "W")) || contains(value, index + 1, 1, "Z")) {
            //-- german & anglicisations, e.g. "smith" 
match "schmidt", "snider" match "schneider" --//
            //-- also, -sz- in slavic language altho in hungarian it is 
pronounced "s" --//
            result.append('S', 'X');
            index = contains(value, index + 1, 1, "Z") ? index + 2 : index + 1;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "SC")) {
            index = handleSC(value, result, index);
        } else {
            if (index == value.length() - 1 && contains(value, index - 2, 
2, "AI", "OI")){
                //-- french e.g. "resnais", "artois" --//
                result.appendAlternate('S');
            } else {
                result.append('S');
            }
            index = contains(value, index + 1, 1, "S", "Z") ? index + 2 : index 
+ 1;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'SC' cases
     */
    private int handleSC(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) 
{
        if (charAt(value, index + 2) == 'H') {
            //-- Schlesinger's rule --//
            if (contains(value, index + 3, 
2, "OO", "ER", "EN", "UY", "ED", "EM")) {
                //-- Dutch origin, e.g. "school", "schooner" --//
                if (contains(value, index + 3, 2, "ER", "EN")) {
                    //-- "schermerhorn", "schenker" --//
                    result.append("X", "SK");
                } else {
                    result.append("SK");
                }
            } else {
                if (index == 0 && !isVowel(charAt(value, 3)) && charAt(value,

3) != 'W') {
                    result.append('X', 'S');
                } else {
                    result.append('X');
                }
            }
        } else if (contains(value, index + 2, 1, "I", "E", "Y")) {
            result.append('S');
        } else {
            result.append("SK");
        }
        return index + 3;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'T' cases
     */
    private int handleT(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (contains(value, index, 4, "TION")) {
            result.append('X');
            index += 3;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 3, "TIA", "TCH")) {
            result.append('X');
            index += 3;
        } else if (contains(value, index, 2, "TH") || contains(value, index, 
3, "TTH")) {
            if (contains(value, index + 2, 2, "OM", "AM") || 
                //-- special case "thomas", "thames" or germanic --//
                contains(value, 0, 4, "VAN ", "VON ") || 
                contains(value, 0, 3, "SCH")) {
                result.append('T');
            } else {
                result.append('0', 'T');
            }
            index += 2;
        } else {
            result.append('T');
            index = contains(value, index + 1, 1, "T", "D") ? index + 2 : index 
+ 1;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'W' cases
     */
    private int handleW(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (contains(value, index, 2, "WR")) {
            //-- can also be in middle of word --//
            result.append('R');
            index += 2;
        } else {
            if (index == 0 && (isVowel(charAt(value, index + 1)) || 
                               contains(value, index, 2, "WH"))) {
                if (isVowel(charAt(value, index + 1))) {
                    //-- Wasserman should match Vasserman --//
                    result.append('A', 'F');
                } else {
                    //-- need Uomo to match Womo --//
                    result.append('A');
                }
                index++;
            } else if ((index == value.length() - 1 && isVowel(charAt(value, 
index - 1))) ||
                        contains(value, index - 1, 
5, "EWSKI", "EWSKY", "OWSKI", "OWSKY") ||
                        contains(value, 0, 3, "SCH")) {
                //-- Arnow should match Arnoff --//
                result.appendAlternate('F');
                index++;
            } else if (contains(value, index, 4, "WICZ", "WITZ")) {
                //-- Polish e.g. "filipowicz" --//
                result.append("TS", "FX");
                index += 4;
            } else {
                index++;
            }
        }
        return index;
    }
    
    /**
     * Handles 'X' cases
     */
    private int handleX(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index) {
        if (index == 0) {
            result.append('S');
            index++;
        } else {
            if (!((index == value.length() - 1) && 
                   (contains(value, index - 3, 3, "IAU", "EAU") || 
                    contains(value, index - 2, 2, "AU", "OU")))) {
                //-- French e.g. breaux --//
                result.append("KS");
            }
            index = contains(value, index + 1, 1, "C", "X") ? index + 2 : index 
+ 1;
        }
        return index;
    }

    /**
     * Handles 'Z' cases
     */
    private int handleZ(String value, DoubleMetaphoneResult result, int index, 
boolean slavoGermanic) {
        if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'H') {
            //-- Chinese pinyin e.g. "zhao" or Angelina "Zhang" --//
            result.append('J');
            index += 2;
        } else {
            if (contains(value, index + 1, 2, "ZO", "ZI", "ZA") || 
                (slavoGermanic && (index > 0 && charAt(value, index - 1)
!
= 'T'))) {
                result.append("S", "TS");
            } else {
                result.append('S');
            }
            index = charAt(value, index + 1) == 'Z' ? index + 2 : index + 1;
        }
        return index;
    }

    //-- BEGIN CONDITIONS --//

    /**
     * Complex condition 0 for 'C'
     */
    private boolean conditionC0(String value, int index) {
        if (contains(value, index, 4, "CHIA")) {
            return true;
        } else if (index <= 1) {
            return false;
        } else if (isVowel(charAt(value, index - 2))) {
            return false;
        } else if (!contains(value, index - 1, 3, "ACH")) {
            return false;
        } else {
            char c = charAt(value, index + 2);
            if ((c != 'I' && c != 'E') || contains(value, index - 2, 
6, "BACHER", "MACHER" )) {
                return true;
            } else {
                return false;
            }
        }
    }
    
    /**
     * Complex condition 0 for 'CH'
     */
    private boolean conditionCH0(String value, int index) {
        if (index != 0) {
            return false;
        } else if (!contains(value, index + 1, 5, "HARAC", "HARIS") && 
                   !contains(value, index + 1, 3, "HOR", "HYM", "HIA", "HEM")) {
            return false;
        } else if (contains(value, 0, 5, "CHORE")) {
            return false;
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }
    
    /**
     * Complex condition 1 for 'CH'
     */
    private boolean conditionCH1(String value, int index) {
        return ((contains(value, 0, 4, "VAN ", "VON ") || contains(value, 0, 
3, "SCH")) ||
               contains(value, index - 2, 6, "ORCHES", "ARCHIT", "ORCHID") ||
               contains(value, index + 2, 1, "T", "S") ||
               ((contains(value, index - 1, 1, "A", "O", "U", "E") || index == 
0) &&
               (contains(value, index + 2, 1, L_R_N_M_B_H_F_V_W_SPACE) || index 
+ 1 == value.length() - 1)));
    }
    
    /**
     * Complex condition 0 for 'L'
     */
    private boolean conditionL0(String value, int index) {
        if (index == value.length() - 3 && 
            contains(value, index - 1, 4, "ILLO", "ILLA", "ALLE")) {
            return true;
        } else if ((contains(value, index - 1, 2, "AS", "OS") || 
                    contains(value, value.length() - 1, 1, "A", "O")) &&
                    contains(value, index - 1, 4, "ALLE")) {
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
    
    /**
     * Complex condition 0 for 'M'
     */
    private boolean conditionM0(String value, int index) {
        if (charAt(value, index + 1) == 'M') {
            return true;
        } else {
            return contains(value, index - 1, 3, "UMB") &&
                   ((index + 1) == value.length() - 1 || 
                    contains(value, index + 2, 2, "ER"));
        }
    }
    
    //-- BEGIN HELPER FUNCTIONS --//

    /**
     * Determines whether or not a value is of slavo-germanic orgin.  A value is
     * of slavo-germanic origin if it contians any of 'W', 'K', 'CZ', or 'WITZ'.
     */
    private boolean isSlavoGermanic(String value) {
        return value.indexOf('W') > -1 || value.indexOf('K') > -1 || 
               value.indexOf("CZ") > -1 || value.indexOf("WITZ") > -1;
    }

    /**
     * Determines whether or not a character is a vowel or not
     */
    private boolean isVowel(char ch) {
        return VOWELS.indexOf(ch) != -1;
    }

    /**
     * Determines whether or not the value starts with a silent letter.  It will
     * return <code>true</code> if the value starts with any of 'GN', 'KN',
     * 'PN', 'WR' or 'PS'.
     */    
    private boolean isSilentStart(String value) {
        boolean result = false;
        for (int i = 0; i < SILENT_START.length; i++) {
            if (value.startsWith(SILENT_START[i])) {
                result = true;
                break;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * Cleans the input
     */    
    private String cleanInput(String input) {
        if (input == null) {
            return null;
        } else {
            input = input.trim();
            if (input.length() == 0) {
                return null;
            } else {
                return input.toUpperCase();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Gets the character at index <code>index</code> if available, otherwise
it
     * returns <code>Character.MIN_VALUE</code> so that there is some sort of
a
     * default
     */    
    protected char charAt(String value, int index) {
        if (index < 0 || index >= value.length()) {
            return Character.MIN_VALUE;
        } else {
            return value.charAt(index);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 1 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria });
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 2 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria1, String criteria2) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria1, criteria2 });
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 3 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria1, String criteria2, 
                                      String criteria3) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria1, criteria2, criteria3 });
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 4 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria1, String criteria2, 
                                      String criteria3, String criteria4) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria1, criteria2, criteria3, 
                                       criteria4 });
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 5 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria1, String criteria2, 
                                      String criteria3, String criteria4, 
                                      String criteria5) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria1, criteria2, criteria3, 
                                       criteria4, criteria5 });
    }

    /**
     * Shortcut method with 6 criteria
     */    
    private static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String criteria1, String criteria2, 
                                      String criteria3, String criteria4, 
                                      String criteria5, String criteria6) {
        return contains(value, start, length, 
                        new String[] { criteria1, criteria2, criteria3, 
                                       criteria4, criteria5, criteria6 });
    }
    
    /**
     * Determines whether <code>value</code> contains any of the criteria 
starting
     * at index <code>start</code> and matching up to length <code>length</code>
     */    
    protected static boolean contains(String value, int start, int length, 
                                      String[] criteria) {
        boolean result = false;
        if (start >= 0 && start + length <= value.length()) {
            String target = value.substring(start, start + length);

            for (int i = 0; i < criteria.length; i++) {
                if (target.equals(criteria[i])) {
                    result = true;
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return result;
    }
    
    //-- BEGIN INNER CLASSES --//
    
    /**
     * Inner class for storing results, since there is the optional alternate
     * encoding.
     */
    public class DoubleMetaphoneResult {

        private StringBuffer primary = new StringBuffer(maxCodeLen);
        private StringBuffer alternate = new StringBuffer(maxCodeLen);
        private int maxLength;

        public DoubleMetaphoneResult(int maxLength) {
            this.maxLength = maxLength;
        }

        public void append(char value) {
            appendPrimary(value);
            appendAlternate(value);
        }

        public void append(char primary, char alternate) {
            appendPrimary(primary);
            appendAlternate(alternate);
        }

        public void appendPrimary(char value) {
            if (primary.length() < maxLength) {
                primary.append(value);
            }
        }

        public void appendAlternate(char value) {
            if (alternate.length() < maxLength) {
                alternate.append(value);
            }
        }

        public void append(String value) {
            appendPrimary(value);
            appendAlternate(value);
        }

        public void append(String primary, String alternate) {
            appendPrimary(primary);
            appendAlternate(alternate);
        }

        public void appendPrimary(String value) {
            int addChars = maxLength - primary.length();
            if (value.length() <= addChars) {
                primary.append(value);
            } else {
                primary.append(value.substring(0, addChars));
            }
        }

        public void appendAlternate(String value) {
            int addChars = maxLength - alternate.length();
            if (value.length() <= addChars) {
                alternate.append(value);
            } else {
                alternate.append(value.substring(0, addChars));
            }
        }

        public String getPrimary() {
            return primary.toString();
        }

        public String getAlternate() {
            return alternate.toString();
        }

        public boolean isComplete() {
            return primary.length() >= maxLength && 
                   alternate.length() >= maxLength;
        }
    }
}

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