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From t.@apache.org
Subject [47/82] [partial] [math] Update for next development iteration: commons-math4
Date Mon, 16 Feb 2015 22:40:17 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/SparseGradient.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/SparseGradient.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/SparseGradient.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 59fcea5..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/SparseGradient.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,877 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import java.io.Serializable;
-import java.util.Collections;
-import java.util.HashMap;
-import java.util.Map;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.Field;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.FieldElement;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.RealFieldElement;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.DimensionMismatchException;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.MathArrays;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.MathUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.Precision;
-
-/**
- * First derivative computation with large number of variables.
- * <p>
- * This class plays a similar role to {@link DerivativeStructure}, with
- * a focus on efficiency when dealing with large number of independent variables
- * and most computation depend only on a few of them, and when only first derivative
- * is desired. When these conditions are met, this class should be much faster than
- * {@link DerivativeStructure} and use less memory.
- * </p>
- *
- * @since 3.3
- */
-public class SparseGradient implements RealFieldElement<SparseGradient>, Serializable {
-
-    /** Serializable UID. */
-    private static final long serialVersionUID = 20131025L;
-
-    /** Value of the calculation. */
-    private double value;
-
-    /** Stored derivative, each key representing a different independent variable. */
-    private final Map<Integer, Double> derivatives;
-
-    /** Internal constructor.
-     * @param value value of the function
-     * @param derivatives derivatives map, a deep copy will be performed,
-     * so the map given here will remain safe from changes in the new instance,
-     * may be null to create an empty derivatives map, i.e. a constant value
-     */
-    private SparseGradient(final double value, final Map<Integer, Double> derivatives) {
-        this.value = value;
-        this.derivatives = new HashMap<Integer, Double>();
-        if (derivatives != null) {
-            this.derivatives.putAll(derivatives);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** Internal constructor.
-     * @param value value of the function
-     * @param scale scaling factor to apply to all derivatives
-     * @param derivatives derivatives map, a deep copy will be performed,
-     * so the map given here will remain safe from changes in the new instance,
-     * may be null to create an empty derivatives map, i.e. a constant value
-     */
-    private SparseGradient(final double value, final double scale,
-                             final Map<Integer, Double> derivatives) {
-        this.value = value;
-        this.derivatives = new HashMap<Integer, Double>();
-        if (derivatives != null) {
-            for (final Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-                this.derivatives.put(entry.getKey(), scale * entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** Factory method creating a constant.
-     * @param value value of the constant
-     * @return a new instance
-     */
-    public static SparseGradient createConstant(final double value) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value, Collections.<Integer, Double> emptyMap());
-    }
-
-    /** Factory method creating an independent variable.
-     * @param idx index of the variable
-     * @param value value of the variable
-     * @return a new instance
-     */
-    public static SparseGradient createVariable(final int idx, final double value) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value, Collections.singletonMap(idx, 1.0));
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Find the number of variables.
-     * @return number of variables
-     */
-    public int numVars() {
-        return derivatives.size();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the derivative with respect to a particular index variable.
-     *
-     * @param index index to differentiate with.
-     * @return derivative with respect to a particular index variable
-     */
-    public double getDerivative(final int index) {
-        final Double out = derivatives.get(index);
-        return (out == null) ? 0.0 : out;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the value of the function.
-     * @return value of the function.
-     */
-    public double getValue() {
-        return value;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double getReal() {
-        return value;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient add(final SparseGradient a) {
-        final SparseGradient out = new SparseGradient(value + a.value, derivatives);
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = out.derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, old + entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Add in place.
-     * <p>
-     * This method is designed to be faster when used multiple times in a loop.
-     * </p>
-     * <p>
-     * The instance is changed here, in order to not change the
-     * instance the {@link #add(SparseGradient)} method should
-     * be used.
-     * </p>
-     * @param a instance to add
-     */
-    public void addInPlace(final SparseGradient a) {
-        value += a.value;
-        for (final Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                derivatives.put(id, entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                derivatives.put(id, old + entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient add(final double c) {
-        final SparseGradient out = new SparseGradient(value + c, derivatives);
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient subtract(final SparseGradient a) {
-        final SparseGradient out = new SparseGradient(value - a.value, derivatives);
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = out.derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, -entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, old - entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient subtract(double c) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value - c, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient multiply(final SparseGradient a) {
-        final SparseGradient out =
-            new SparseGradient(value * a.value, Collections.<Integer, Double> emptyMap());
-
-        // Derivatives.
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            out.derivatives.put(entry.getKey(), a.value * entry.getValue());
-        }
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = out.derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, value * entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, old + value * entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Multiply in place.
-     * <p>
-     * This method is designed to be faster when used multiple times in a loop.
-     * </p>
-     * <p>
-     * The instance is changed here, in order to not change the
-     * instance the {@link #add(SparseGradient)} method should
-     * be used.
-     * </p>
-     * @param a instance to multiply
-     */
-    public void multiplyInPlace(final SparseGradient a) {
-        // Derivatives.
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            derivatives.put(entry.getKey(), a.value * entry.getValue());
-        }
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                derivatives.put(id, value * entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                derivatives.put(id, old + value * entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-        value *= a.value;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient multiply(final double c) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value * c, c, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient multiply(final int n) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value * n, n, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient divide(final SparseGradient a) {
-        final SparseGradient out = new SparseGradient(value / a.value, Collections.<Integer, Double> emptyMap());
-
-        // Derivatives.
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            out.derivatives.put(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue() / a.value);
-        }
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : a.derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            final int id = entry.getKey();
-            final Double old = out.derivatives.get(id);
-            if (old == null) {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, -out.value / a.value * entry.getValue());
-            } else {
-                out.derivatives.put(id, old - out.value / a.value * entry.getValue());
-            }
-        }
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient divide(final double c) {
-        return new SparseGradient(value / c, 1.0 / c, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient negate() {
-        return new SparseGradient(-value, -1.0, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public Field<SparseGradient> getField() {
-        return new Field<SparseGradient>() {
-
-            /** {@inheritDoc} */
-            public SparseGradient getZero() {
-                return createConstant(0);
-            }
-
-            /** {@inheritDoc} */
-            public SparseGradient getOne() {
-                return createConstant(1);
-            }
-
-            /** {@inheritDoc} */
-            public Class<? extends FieldElement<SparseGradient>> getRuntimeClass() {
-                return SparseGradient.class;
-            }
-
-        };
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient remainder(final double a) {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.IEEEremainder(value, a), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient remainder(final SparseGradient a) {
-
-        // compute k such that lhs % rhs = lhs - k rhs
-        final double rem = FastMath.IEEEremainder(value, a.value);
-        final double k   = FastMath.rint((value - rem) / a.value);
-
-        return subtract(a.multiply(k));
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient abs() {
-        if (Double.doubleToLongBits(value) < 0) {
-            // we use the bits representation to also handle -0.0
-            return negate();
-        } else {
-            return this;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient ceil() {
-        return createConstant(FastMath.ceil(value));
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient floor() {
-        return createConstant(FastMath.floor(value));
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient rint() {
-        return createConstant(FastMath.rint(value));
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public long round() {
-        return FastMath.round(value);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient signum() {
-        return createConstant(FastMath.signum(value));
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient copySign(final SparseGradient sign) {
-        final long m = Double.doubleToLongBits(value);
-        final long s = Double.doubleToLongBits(sign.value);
-        if ((m >= 0 && s >= 0) || (m < 0 && s < 0)) { // Sign is currently OK
-            return this;
-        }
-        return negate(); // flip sign
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient copySign(final double sign) {
-        final long m = Double.doubleToLongBits(value);
-        final long s = Double.doubleToLongBits(sign);
-        if ((m >= 0 && s >= 0) || (m < 0 && s < 0)) { // Sign is currently OK
-            return this;
-        }
-        return negate(); // flip sign
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient scalb(final int n) {
-        final SparseGradient out = new SparseGradient(FastMath.scalb(value, n), Collections.<Integer, Double> emptyMap());
-        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-            out.derivatives.put(entry.getKey(), FastMath.scalb(entry.getValue(), n));
-        }
-        return out;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient hypot(final SparseGradient y) {
-        if (Double.isInfinite(value) || Double.isInfinite(y.value)) {
-            return createConstant(Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY);
-        } else if (Double.isNaN(value) || Double.isNaN(y.value)) {
-            return createConstant(Double.NaN);
-        } else {
-
-            final int expX = FastMath.getExponent(value);
-            final int expY = FastMath.getExponent(y.value);
-            if (expX > expY + 27) {
-                // y is negligible with respect to x
-                return abs();
-            } else if (expY > expX + 27) {
-                // x is negligible with respect to y
-                return y.abs();
-            } else {
-
-                // find an intermediate scale to avoid both overflow and underflow
-                final int middleExp = (expX + expY) / 2;
-
-                // scale parameters without losing precision
-                final SparseGradient scaledX = scalb(-middleExp);
-                final SparseGradient scaledY = y.scalb(-middleExp);
-
-                // compute scaled hypotenuse
-                final SparseGradient scaledH =
-                        scaledX.multiply(scaledX).add(scaledY.multiply(scaledY)).sqrt();
-
-                // remove scaling
-                return scaledH.scalb(middleExp);
-
-            }
-
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns the hypotenuse of a triangle with sides {@code x} and {@code y}
-     * - sqrt(<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;+<i>y</i><sup>2</sup>)<br/>
-     * avoiding intermediate overflow or underflow.
-     *
-     * <ul>
-     * <li> If either argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.</li>
-     * <li> else, if either argument is NaN then the result is NaN.</li>
-     * </ul>
-     *
-     * @param x a value
-     * @param y a value
-     * @return sqrt(<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;+<i>y</i><sup>2</sup>)
-     */
-    public static SparseGradient hypot(final SparseGradient x, final SparseGradient y) {
-        return x.hypot(y);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient reciprocal() {
-        return new SparseGradient(1.0 / value, -1.0 / (value * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient sqrt() {
-        final double sqrt = FastMath.sqrt(value);
-        return new SparseGradient(sqrt, 0.5 / sqrt, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient cbrt() {
-        final double cbrt = FastMath.cbrt(value);
-        return new SparseGradient(cbrt, 1.0 / (3 * cbrt * cbrt), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient rootN(final int n) {
-        if (n == 2) {
-            return sqrt();
-        } else if (n == 3) {
-            return cbrt();
-        } else {
-            final double root = FastMath.pow(value, 1.0 / n);
-            return new SparseGradient(root, 1.0 / (n * FastMath.pow(root, n - 1)), derivatives);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient pow(final double p) {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.pow(value,  p), p * FastMath.pow(value,  p - 1), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient pow(final int n) {
-        if (n == 0) {
-            return getField().getOne();
-        } else {
-            final double valueNm1 = FastMath.pow(value,  n - 1);
-            return new SparseGradient(value * valueNm1, n * valueNm1, derivatives);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient pow(final SparseGradient e) {
-        return log().multiply(e).exp();
-    }
-
-    /** Compute a<sup>x</sup> where a is a double and x a {@link SparseGradient}
-     * @param a number to exponentiate
-     * @param x power to apply
-     * @return a<sup>x</sup>
-     */
-    public static SparseGradient pow(final double a, final SparseGradient x) {
-        if (a == 0) {
-            if (x.value == 0) {
-                return x.compose(1.0, Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY);
-            } else if (x.value < 0) {
-                return x.compose(Double.NaN, Double.NaN);
-            } else {
-                return x.getField().getZero();
-            }
-        } else {
-            final double ax = FastMath.pow(a, x.value);
-            return new SparseGradient(ax, ax * FastMath.log(a), x.derivatives);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient exp() {
-        final double e = FastMath.exp(value);
-        return new SparseGradient(e, e, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient expm1() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.expm1(value), FastMath.exp(value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient log() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.log(value), 1.0 / value, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** Base 10 logarithm.
-     * @return base 10 logarithm of the instance
-     */
-    public SparseGradient log10() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.log10(value), 1.0 / (FastMath.log(10.0) * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient log1p() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.log1p(value), 1.0 / (1.0 + value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient cos() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.cos(value), -FastMath.sin(value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient sin() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.sin(value), FastMath.cos(value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient tan() {
-        final double t = FastMath.tan(value);
-        return new SparseGradient(t, 1 + t * t, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient acos() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.acos(value), -1.0 / FastMath.sqrt(1 - value * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient asin() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.asin(value), 1.0 / FastMath.sqrt(1 - value * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient atan() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.atan(value), 1.0 / (1 + value * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient atan2(final SparseGradient x) {
-
-        // compute r = sqrt(x^2+y^2)
-        final SparseGradient r = multiply(this).add(x.multiply(x)).sqrt();
-
-        final SparseGradient a;
-        if (x.value >= 0) {
-
-            // compute atan2(y, x) = 2 atan(y / (r + x))
-            a = divide(r.add(x)).atan().multiply(2);
-
-        } else {
-
-            // compute atan2(y, x) = +/- pi - 2 atan(y / (r - x))
-            final SparseGradient tmp = divide(r.subtract(x)).atan().multiply(-2);
-            a = tmp.add(tmp.value <= 0 ? -FastMath.PI : FastMath.PI);
-
-        }
-
-        // fix value to take special cases (+0/+0, +0/-0, -0/+0, -0/-0, +/-infinity) correctly
-        a.value = FastMath.atan2(value, x.value);
-
-        return a;
-
-    }
-
-    /** Two arguments arc tangent operation.
-     * @param y first argument of the arc tangent
-     * @param x second argument of the arc tangent
-     * @return atan2(y, x)
-     */
-    public static SparseGradient atan2(final SparseGradient y, final SparseGradient x) {
-        return y.atan2(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient cosh() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.cosh(value), FastMath.sinh(value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient sinh() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.sinh(value), FastMath.cosh(value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient tanh() {
-        final double t = FastMath.tanh(value);
-        return new SparseGradient(t, 1 - t * t, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient acosh() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.acosh(value), 1.0 / FastMath.sqrt(value * value - 1.0), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient asinh() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.asinh(value), 1.0 / FastMath.sqrt(value * value + 1.0), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient atanh() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.atanh(value), 1.0 / (1.0 - value * value), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** Convert radians to degrees, with error of less than 0.5 ULP
-     *  @return instance converted into degrees
-     */
-    public SparseGradient toDegrees() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.toDegrees(value), FastMath.toDegrees(1.0), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** Convert degrees to radians, with error of less than 0.5 ULP
-     *  @return instance converted into radians
-     */
-    public SparseGradient toRadians() {
-        return new SparseGradient(FastMath.toRadians(value), FastMath.toRadians(1.0), derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** Evaluate Taylor expansion of a sparse gradient.
-     * @param delta parameters offsets (&Delta;x, &Delta;y, ...)
-     * @return value of the Taylor expansion at x + &Delta;x, y + &Delta;y, ...
-     */
-    public double taylor(final double ... delta) {
-        double y = value;
-        for (int i = 0; i < delta.length; ++i) {
-            y += delta[i] * getDerivative(i);
-        }
-        return y;
-    }
-
-    /** Compute composition of the instance by a univariate function.
-     * @param f0 value of the function at (i.e. f({@link #getValue()}))
-     * @param f1 first derivative of the function at
-     * the current point (i.e. f'({@link #getValue()}))
-     * @return f(this)
-    */
-    public SparseGradient compose(final double f0, final double f1) {
-        return new SparseGradient(f0, f1, derivatives);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final SparseGradient[] a,
-                                              final SparseGradient[] b)
-        throws DimensionMismatchException {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = a[0].getField().getZero();
-        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; ++i) {
-            out = out.add(a[i].multiply(b[i]));
-        }
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        final double[] aDouble = new double[a.length];
-        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; ++i) {
-            aDouble[i] = a[i].getValue();
-        }
-        final double[] bDouble = new double[b.length];
-        for (int i = 0; i < b.length; ++i) {
-            bDouble[i] = b[i].getValue();
-        }
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(aDouble, bDouble);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final double[] a, final SparseGradient[] b) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = b[0].getField().getZero();
-        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; ++i) {
-            out = out.add(b[i].multiply(a[i]));
-        }
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        final double[] bDouble = new double[b.length];
-        for (int i = 0; i < b.length; ++i) {
-            bDouble[i] = b[i].getValue();
-        }
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a, bDouble);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final SparseGradient a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final SparseGradient a2, final SparseGradient b2) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = a1.multiply(b1).add(a2.multiply(b2));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1.value, b1.value, a2.value, b2.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final double a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final double a2, final SparseGradient b2) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = b1.multiply(a1).add(b2.multiply(a2));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1, b1.value, a2, b2.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final SparseGradient a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final SparseGradient a2, final SparseGradient b2,
-                                              final SparseGradient a3, final SparseGradient b3) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = a1.multiply(b1).add(a2.multiply(b2)).add(a3.multiply(b3));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1.value, b1.value,
-                                                 a2.value, b2.value,
-                                                 a3.value, b3.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final double a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final double a2, final SparseGradient b2,
-                                              final double a3, final SparseGradient b3) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = b1.multiply(a1).add(b2.multiply(a2)).add(b3.multiply(a3));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1, b1.value,
-                                                 a2, b2.value,
-                                                 a3, b3.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final SparseGradient a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final SparseGradient a2, final SparseGradient b2,
-                                              final SparseGradient a3, final SparseGradient b3,
-                                              final SparseGradient a4, final SparseGradient b4) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = a1.multiply(b1).add(a2.multiply(b2)).add(a3.multiply(b3)).add(a4.multiply(b4));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1.value, b1.value,
-                                                 a2.value, b2.value,
-                                                 a3.value, b3.value,
-                                                 a4.value, b4.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public SparseGradient linearCombination(final double a1, final SparseGradient b1,
-                                              final double a2, final SparseGradient b2,
-                                              final double a3, final SparseGradient b3,
-                                              final double a4, final SparseGradient b4) {
-
-        // compute a simple value, with all partial derivatives
-        SparseGradient out = b1.multiply(a1).add(b2.multiply(a2)).add(b3.multiply(a3)).add(b4.multiply(a4));
-
-        // recompute an accurate value, taking care of cancellations
-        out.value = MathArrays.linearCombination(a1, b1.value,
-                                                 a2, b2.value,
-                                                 a3, b3.value,
-                                                 a4, b4.value);
-
-        return out;
-
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Test for the equality of two sparse gradients.
-     * <p>
-     * Sparse gradients are considered equal if they have the same value
-     * and the same derivatives.
-     * </p>
-     * @param other Object to test for equality to this
-     * @return true if two sparse gradients are equal
-     */
-    @Override
-    public boolean equals(Object other) {
-
-        if (this == other) {
-            return true;
-        }
-
-        if (other instanceof SparseGradient) {
-            final SparseGradient rhs = (SparseGradient)other;
-            if (!Precision.equals(value, rhs.value, 1)) {
-                return false;
-            }
-            if (derivatives.size() != rhs.derivatives.size()) {
-                return false;
-            }
-            for (final Map.Entry<Integer, Double> entry : derivatives.entrySet()) {
-                if (!rhs.derivatives.containsKey(entry.getKey())) {
-                    return false;
-                }
-                if (!Precision.equals(entry.getValue(), rhs.derivatives.get(entry.getKey()), 1)) {
-                    return false;
-                }
-            }
-            return true;
-        }
-
-        return false;
-
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get a hashCode for the derivative structure.
-     * @return a hash code value for this object
-     * @since 3.2
-     */
-    @Override
-    public int hashCode() {
-        return 743 + 809 * MathUtils.hash(value) + 167 * derivatives.hashCode();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableFunction.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableFunction.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableFunction.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 097b4e0..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableFunction.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,43 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.DimensionMismatchException;
-
-/** Interface for univariate functions derivatives.
- * <p>This interface represents a simple function which computes
- * both the value and the first derivative of a mathematical function.
- * The derivative is computed with respect to the input variable.</p>
- * @see UnivariateDifferentiableFunction
- * @see UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateDifferentiableFunction extends UnivariateFunction {
-
-    /** Simple mathematical function.
-     * <p>{@link UnivariateDifferentiableFunction} classes compute both the
-     * value and the first derivative of the function.</p>
-     * @param t function input value
-     * @return function result
-     * @exception DimensionMismatchException if t is inconsistent with the
-     * function's free parameters or order
-     */
-    DerivativeStructure value(DerivativeStructure t)
-        throws DimensionMismatchException;
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction.java
deleted file mode 100644
index b31771b..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,40 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateMatrixFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathIllegalArgumentException;
-
-/**
- * Extension of {@link UnivariateMatrixFunction} representing a univariate differentiable matrix function.
- *
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction
-    extends UnivariateMatrixFunction {
-
-    /**
-     * Compute the value for the function.
-     * @param x the point for which the function value should be computed
-     * @return the value
-     * @exception MathIllegalArgumentException if {@code x} does not
-     * satisfy the function's constraints (argument out of bound, or unsupported
-     * derivative order for example)
-     */
-    DerivativeStructure[][] value(DerivativeStructure x) throws MathIllegalArgumentException;
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 7e79eef..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,40 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateVectorFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathIllegalArgumentException;
-
-/**
- * Extension of {@link UnivariateVectorFunction} representing a univariate differentiable vectorial function.
- *
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction
-    extends UnivariateVectorFunction {
-
-    /**
-     * Compute the value for the function.
-     * @param x the point for which the function value should be computed
-     * @return the value
-     * @exception MathIllegalArgumentException if {@code x} does not
-     * satisfy the function's constraints (argument out of bound, or unsupported
-     * derivative order for example)
-     */
-    DerivativeStructure[] value(DerivativeStructure x) throws MathIllegalArgumentException;
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator.java
deleted file mode 100644
index f19ce20..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-
-/** Interface defining the function differentiation operation.
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator {
-
-    /** Create an implementation of a {@link UnivariateDifferentiableFunction
-     * differential} from a regular {@link UnivariateFunction function}.
-     * @param function function to differentiate
-     * @return differential function
-     */
-    UnivariateDifferentiableFunction differentiate(UnivariateFunction function);
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator.java
deleted file mode 100644
index bc0ccf3..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateMatrixFunction;
-
-/** Interface defining the function differentiation operation.
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator {
-
-    /** Create an implementation of a {@link UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction
-     * differential} from a regular {@link UnivariateMatrixFunction matrix function}.
-     * @param function function to differentiate
-     * @return differential function
-     */
-    UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction differentiate(UnivariateMatrixFunction function);
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 5500c50..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateVectorFunction;
-
-/** Interface defining the function differentiation operation.
- * @since 3.1
- */
-public interface UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator {
-
-    /** Create an implementation of a {@link UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction
-     * differential} from a regular {@link UnivariateVectorFunction vector function}.
-     * @param function function to differentiate
-     * @return differential function
-     */
-    UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction differentiate(UnivariateVectorFunction function);
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/package-info.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/package-info.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/package-info.java
deleted file mode 100644
index b828981..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/differentiation/package-info.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,42 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-/**
- *
- * <p>
- *   This package holds the main interfaces and basic building block classes
- *   dealing with differentiation.
- *   The core class is {@link org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure
- *   DerivativeStructure} which holds the value and the differentials of a function. This class
- *   handles some arbitrary number of free parameters and arbitrary differentiation order. It is used
- *   both as the input and the output type for the {@link
- *   org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction
- *   UnivariateDifferentiableFunction} interface. Any differentiable function should implement this
- *   interface.
- * </p>
- * <p>
- *   The {@link org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator
- *   UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator} interface defines a way to differentiate a simple {@link
- *   org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction UnivariateFunction} and get a {@link
- *   org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction
- *   UnivariateDifferentiableFunction}.
- * </p>
- * <p>
- *   Similar interfaces also exist for multivariate functions and for vector or matrix valued functions.
- * </p>
- *
- */
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Abs.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Abs.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Abs.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 9db01fd..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Abs.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Absolute value function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Abs implements UnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.abs(x);
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acos.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acos.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acos.java
deleted file mode 100644
index a9df4b7..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acos.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Arc-cosine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Acos implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.acos(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.acos();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acosh.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acosh.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acosh.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 58fb19f..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Acosh.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Hyperbolic arc-cosine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Acosh implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.acosh(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.acosh();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Add.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Add.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Add.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 366a303..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Add.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,32 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.BivariateFunction;
-
-/**
- * Add the two operands.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Add implements BivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x, double y) {
-        return x + y;
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asin.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asin.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asin.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 8fa9bdf..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asin.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Arc-sine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Asin implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.asin(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.asin();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asinh.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asinh.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asinh.java
deleted file mode 100644
index b5b9fd2..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Asinh.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Hyperbolic arc-sine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Asinh implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.asinh(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.asinh();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 36b1265..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Arc-tangent function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Atan implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.atan(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.atan();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan2.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan2.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan2.java
deleted file mode 100644
index d5f385f..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atan2.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.BivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Arc-tangent function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Atan2 implements BivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x, double y) {
-        return FastMath.atan2(x, y);
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atanh.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atanh.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atanh.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 5c04599..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Atanh.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Hyperbolic arc-tangent function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Atanh implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.atanh(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.atanh();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cbrt.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cbrt.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cbrt.java
deleted file mode 100644
index f26ef71..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cbrt.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Cube root function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Cbrt implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.cbrt(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.cbrt();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Ceil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Ceil.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Ceil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 2b9867e..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Ceil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * {@code ceil} function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Ceil implements UnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.ceil(x);
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Constant.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Constant.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Constant.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 4027e59..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Constant.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,60 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-
-/**
- * Constant function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Constant implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** Constant. */
-    private final double c;
-
-    /**
-     * @param c Constant.
-     */
-    public Constant(double c) {
-        this.c = c;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return c;
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public DifferentiableUnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return new Constant(0);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return new DerivativeStructure(t.getFreeParameters(), t.getOrder(), c);
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cos.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cos.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cos.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 73a5e6e..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cos.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Cosine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Cos implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.cos(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.cos();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cosh.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cosh.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cosh.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 185698b..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Cosh.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,51 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Hyperbolic cosine function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Cosh implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.cosh(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public DifferentiableUnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return new Sinh();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.cosh();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Divide.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Divide.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Divide.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 73413a2..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Divide.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,32 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.BivariateFunction;
-
-/**
- * Divide the first operand by the second.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Divide implements BivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x, double y) {
-        return x / y;
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Exp.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Exp.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Exp.java
deleted file mode 100644
index f656712..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Exp.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * Exponential function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Exp implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.exp(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.exp();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Expm1.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Expm1.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Expm1.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 46b0b2f..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Expm1.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,53 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.FunctionUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.DifferentiableUnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.DerivativeStructure;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateDifferentiableFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * <code>e<sup>x</sup>-1</code> function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Expm1 implements UnivariateDifferentiableFunction, DifferentiableUnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.expm1(x);
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @deprecated as of 3.1, replaced by {@link #value(DerivativeStructure)}
-     */
-    @Deprecated
-    public UnivariateFunction derivative() {
-        return FunctionUtils.toDifferentiableUnivariateFunction(this).derivative();
-    }
-
-    /** {@inheritDoc}
-     * @since 3.1
-     */
-    public DerivativeStructure value(final DerivativeStructure t) {
-        return t.expm1();
-    }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/commons-math/blob/a7b4803f/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Floor.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Floor.java b/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Floor.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 8d70627..0000000
--- a/src/main/java/org/apache/commons/math3/analysis/function/Floor.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,33 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
- * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
- * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
- * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
- * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
- * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.function;
-
-import org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.UnivariateFunction;
-import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
-
-/**
- * {@code floor} function.
- *
- * @since 3.0
- */
-public class Floor implements UnivariateFunction {
-    /** {@inheritDoc} */
-    public double value(double x) {
-        return FastMath.floor(x);
-    }
-}


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