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Subject svn commit: r835273 [4/5] - in /commons/sandbox/runtime/trunk/src/main/native: ./ modules/sqlite/ shared/ srclib/sqlite/
Date Thu, 12 Nov 2009 07:11:45 GMT
Added: commons/sandbox/runtime/trunk/src/main/native/modules/sqlite/sqlite3.h
--- commons/sandbox/runtime/trunk/src/main/native/modules/sqlite/sqlite3.h (added)
+++ commons/sandbox/runtime/trunk/src/main/native/modules/sqlite/sqlite3.h Thu Nov 12 07:11:44 2009
@@ -0,0 +1,5772 @@
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+**    May you do good and not evil.
+**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
+** presents to client programs.  If a C-function, structure, datatype,
+** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
+** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
+** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
+** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
+** "experimental".  Experimental interfaces are normally new
+** features recently added to SQLite.  We do not anticipate changes
+** to experimental interfaces but reserve the right to make minor changes
+** if experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
+** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
+** from comments in this file.  This file is the authoritative source
+** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
+** The name of this file under configuration management is "".
+** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
+** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
+** part of the build process.
+#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
+#define _SQLITE3_H_
+#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */
+** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+** Add the ability to override 'extern'
+# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern
+#ifndef SQLITE_API
+# define SQLITE_API
+** These no-op macros are used in front of interfaces to mark those
+** interfaces as either deprecated or experimental.  New applications
+** should not use deprecated interfaces - they are support for backwards
+** compatibility only.  Application writers should be aware that
+** experimental interfaces are subject to change in point releases.
+** These macros used to resolve to various kinds of compiler magic that
+** would generate warning messages when they were used.  But that
+** compiler magic ended up generating such a flurry of bug reports
+** that we have taken it all out and gone back to using simple
+** noop macros.
+** Ensure these symbols were not defined by some previous header file.
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers {H10010} <S60100>
+** the sqlite3.h file specify the version of SQLite with which
+** that header file is associated.
+** The "version" of SQLite is a string of the form "W.X.Y" or "W.X.Y.Z".
+** The W value is major version number and is always 3 in SQLite3.
+** The W value only changes when backwards compatibility is
+** broken and we intend to never break backwards compatibility.
+** The X value is the minor version number and only changes when
+** there are major feature enhancements that are forwards compatible
+** but not backwards compatible.
+** The Y value is the release number and is incremented with
+** each release but resets back to 0 whenever X is incremented.
+** The Z value only appears on branch releases.
+** The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER is an integer that is computed as
+** follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER = W*1000000 + X*1000 + Y
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** Since version 3.6.18, SQLite source code has been stored in the
+** <a href="">fossil configuration management
+** system</a>.  The SQLITE_SOURCE_ID
+** macro is a string which identifies a particular check-in of SQLite
+** within its configuration management system.  The string contains the
+** date and time of the check-in (UTC) and an SHA1 hash of the entire
+** source tree.
+** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
+** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
+** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+** Requirements: [H10011] [H10014]
+#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.6.20"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3006020
+#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2009-11-04 13:30:02 eb7a544fe49d1626bacecfe53ddc03fe082e3243"
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers {H10020} <S60100>
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version
+** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
+** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] #defines in the header,
+** but are associated with the library instead of the header file.  Cautious
+** programmers might include assert() statements in their application to
+** verify that values returned by these interfaces match the macros in
+** the header, and thus insure that the application is
+** compiled with matching library and header files.
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** assert( sqlite3_libversion_number()==SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_sourceid(),SQLITE_SOURCE_ID)==0 );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_libversion,SQLITE_VERSION)==0 );
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** The sqlite3_libversion() function returns the same information as is
+** in the sqlite3_version[] string constant.  The function is provided
+** for use in DLLs since DLL users usually do not have direct access to string
+** constants within the DLL.  Similarly, the sqlite3_sourceid() function
+** returns the same information as is in the [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] #define of
+** the header file.
+** See also: [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+** Requirements: [H10021] [H10022] [H10023]
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN const char sqlite3_version[];
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_libversion(void);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sourceid(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_libversion_number(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe {H10100} <S60100>
+** SQLite can be compiled with or without mutexes.  When
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] C preprocessor macro is 1 or 2, mutexes
+** are enabled and SQLite is threadsafe.  When the
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro is 0, 
+** the mutexes are omitted.  Without the mutexes, it is not safe
+** to use SQLite concurrently from more than one thread.
+** Enabling mutexes incurs a measurable performance penalty.
+** So if speed is of utmost importance, it makes sense to disable
+** the mutexes.  But for maximum safety, mutexes should be enabled.
+** The default behavior is for mutexes to be enabled.
+** This interface can be used by an application to make sure that the
+** version of SQLite that it is linking against was compiled with
+** the desired setting of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro.
+** This interface only reports on the compile-time mutex setting
+** of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] flag.  If SQLite is compiled with
+** SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1 then mutexes are enabled by default but
+** can be fully or partially disabled using a call to [sqlite3_config()]
+** or [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX].  The return value of this function shows
+** only the default compile-time setting, not any run-time changes
+** to that setting.
+** See the [threading mode] documentation for additional information.
+** Requirements: [H10101] [H10102]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_threadsafe(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle {H12000} <S40200>
+** KEYWORDS: {database connection} {database connections}
+** Each open SQLite database is represented by a pointer to an instance of
+** the opaque structure named "sqlite3".  It is useful to think of an sqlite3
+** pointer as an object.  The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors, and [sqlite3_close()]
+** is its destructor.  There are many other interfaces (such as
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
+** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on an
+** sqlite3 object.
+typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;
+** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types {H10200} <S10110>
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite_int64 sqlite_uint64
+** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify 64-bit integer types
+** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
+** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type definitions.
+** The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are supported for backwards
+** compatibility only.
+** Requirements: [H10201] [H10202]
+  typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
+  typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
+  typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
+typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
+typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;
+** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
+** substitute integer for floating-point.
+# define double sqlite3_int64
+** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection {H12010} <S30100><S40200>
+** This routine is the destructor for the [sqlite3] object.
+** Applications must [sqlite3_finalize | finalize] all [prepared statements]
+** and [sqlite3_blob_close | close] all [BLOB handles] associated with
+** the [sqlite3] object prior to attempting to close the object.
+** If [sqlite3_close()] is invoked while a transaction is open,
+** the transaction is automatically rolled back.
+** The C parameter to [sqlite3_close(C)] must be either a NULL
+** pointer or an [sqlite3] object pointer obtained
+** from [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()], and not previously closed.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12011] [H12012] [H12013] [H12014] [H12015] [H12019]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_close(sqlite3 *);
+** The type for a callback function.
+** This is legacy and deprecated.  It is included for historical
+** compatibility and is not documented.
+typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);
+** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface {H12100} <S10000>
+** The sqlite3_exec() interface is a convenient way of running one or more
+** SQL statements without having to write a lot of C code.  The UTF-8 encoded
+** SQL statements are passed in as the second parameter to sqlite3_exec().
+** The statements are evaluated one by one until either an error or
+** an interrupt is encountered, or until they are all done.  The 3rd parameter
+** is an optional callback that is invoked once for each row of any query
+** results produced by the SQL statements.  The 5th parameter tells where
+** to write any error messages.
+** The error message passed back through the 5th parameter is held
+** in memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].  To avoid a memory leak,
+** the calling application should call [sqlite3_free()] on any error
+** message returned through the 5th parameter when it has finished using
+** the error message.
+** If the SQL statement in the 2nd parameter is NULL or an empty string
+** or a string containing only whitespace and comments, then no SQL
+** statements are evaluated and the database is not changed.
+** The sqlite3_exec() interface is implemented in terms of
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
+** The sqlite3_exec() routine does nothing to the database that cannot be done
+** by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()].
+** The first parameter to [sqlite3_exec()] must be an valid and open
+** [database connection].
+** The database connection must not be closed while
+** [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
+** The calling function should use [sqlite3_free()] to free
+** the memory that *errmsg is left pointing at once the error
+** message is no longer needed.
+** The SQL statement text in the 2nd parameter to [sqlite3_exec()]
+** must remain unchanged while [sqlite3_exec()] is running.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12101] [H12102] [H12104] [H12105] [H12107] [H12110] [H12113] [H12116]
+** [H12119] [H12122] [H12125] [H12131] [H12134] [H12137] [H12138]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
+  sqlite3*,                                  /* An open database */
+  const char *sql,                           /* SQL to be evaluated */
+  int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**),  /* Callback function */
+  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
+  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
+** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {H10210} <S10700>
+** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}
+** KEYWORDS: {result code} {result codes}
+** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
+** here in order to indicates success or failure.
+** New error codes may be added in future versions of SQLite.
+** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
+#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
+/* beginning-of-error-codes */
+#define SQLITE_ERROR        1   /* SQL error or missing database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERNAL     2   /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
+#define SQLITE_PERM         3   /* Access permission denied */
+#define SQLITE_ABORT        4   /* Callback routine requested an abort */
+#define SQLITE_BUSY         5   /* The database file is locked */
+#define SQLITE_LOCKED       6   /* A table in the database is locked */
+#define SQLITE_NOMEM        7   /* A malloc() failed */
+#define SQLITE_READONLY     8   /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT    9   /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
+#define SQLITE_IOERR       10   /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT     11   /* The database disk image is malformed */
+#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND    12   /* NOT USED. Table or record not found */
+#define SQLITE_FULL        13   /* Insertion failed because database is full */
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN    14   /* Unable to open the database file */
+#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL    15   /* NOT USED. Database lock protocol error */
+#define SQLITE_EMPTY       16   /* Database is empty */
+#define SQLITE_SCHEMA      17   /* The database schema changed */
+#define SQLITE_TOOBIG      18   /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
+#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT  19   /* Abort due to constraint violation */
+#define SQLITE_MISMATCH    20   /* Data type mismatch */
+#define SQLITE_MISUSE      21   /* Library used incorrectly */
+#define SQLITE_NOLFS       22   /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
+#define SQLITE_AUTH        23   /* Authorization denied */
+#define SQLITE_FORMAT      24   /* Auxiliary database format error */
+#define SQLITE_RANGE       25   /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
+#define SQLITE_NOTADB      26   /* File opened that is not a database file */
+#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
+#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
+/* end-of-error-codes */
+** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {H10220} <S10700>
+** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
+** KEYWORDS: {extended result code} {extended result codes}
+** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
+** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that many of
+** these result codes are too coarse-grained.  They do not provide as
+** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
+** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
+** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
+** about errors. The extended result codes are enabled or disabled
+** on a per database connection basis using the
+** [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()] API.
+** Some of the available extended result codes are listed here.
+** One may expect the number of extended result codes will be expand
+** over time.  Software that uses extended result codes should expect
+** to see new result codes in future releases of SQLite.
+** The SQLITE_OK result code will never be extended.  It will always
+** be exactly zero.
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_READ              (SQLITE_IOERR | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ        (SQLITE_IOERR | (2<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (3<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSYNC             (SQLITE_IOERR | (4<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_FSYNC         (SQLITE_IOERR | (5<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_TRUNCATE          (SQLITE_IOERR | (6<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT             (SQLITE_IOERR | (7<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (8<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (9<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE            (SQLITE_IOERR | (10<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED           (SQLITE_IOERR | (11<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM             (SQLITE_IOERR | (12<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS            (SQLITE_IOERR | (13<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK              (SQLITE_IOERR | (15<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_CLOSE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (16<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_CLOSE         (SQLITE_IOERR | (17<<8))
+** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations {H10230} <H11120> <H12700>
+** These bit values are intended for use in the
+** 3rd parameter to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
+** in the 4th parameter to the xOpen method of the
+** [sqlite3_vfs] object.
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY         0x00000001  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE        0x00000002  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE           0x00000004  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE    0x00000008  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE        0x00000010  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB          0x00000100  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB          0x00000200  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB     0x00000400  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL     0x00000800  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL     0x00001000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL       0x00002000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL   0x00004000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX          0x00008000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX        0x00010000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE      0x00020000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE     0x00040000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics {H10240} <H11120>
+** The xDeviceCapabilities method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** object returns an integer which is a vector of the these
+** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
+** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** refers to.
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite().
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC          0x00000001
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512       0x00000002
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K        0x00000004
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K        0x00000008
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K        0x00000010
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K        0x00000020
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K       0x00000040
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K       0x00000080
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K       0x00000100
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND     0x00000200
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL      0x00000400
+** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels {H10250} <H11120> <H11310>
+** SQLite uses one of these integer values as the second
+** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
+** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object.
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_NONE          0
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED        1
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED      2
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING       3
+** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags {H10260} <H11120>
+** When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of
+** these integer values as the second argument.
+** When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
+** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage.  Inode
+** information need not be flushed. If the lower four bits of the flag
+** equal SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL, that means to use normal fsync() semantics.
+** If the lower four bits equal SQLITE_SYNC_FULL, that means
+** to use Mac OS X style fullsync instead of fsync().
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL        0x00002
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL          0x00003
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY      0x00010
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle {H11110} <S20110>
+** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the 
+** [sqlite3_vfs | OS interface layer].  Individual OS interface
+** implementations will
+** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
+** for their own use.  The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
+** I/O operations on the open file.
+typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
+struct sqlite3_file {
+  const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods;  /* Methods for an open file */
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object {H11120} <S20110>
+** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs] xOpen method populates an
+** [sqlite3_file] object (or, more commonly, a subclass of the
+** [sqlite3_file] object) with a pointer to an instance of this object.
+** This object defines the methods used to perform various operations
+** against the open file represented by the [sqlite3_file] object.
+** If the xOpen method sets the sqlite3_file.pMethods element 
+** to a non-NULL pointer, then the sqlite3_io_methods.xClose method
+** may be invoked even if the xOpen reported that it failed.  The
+** only way to prevent a call to xClose following a failed xOpen
+** is for the xOpen to set the sqlite3_file.pMethods element to NULL.
+** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
+** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL].  The first choice is the normal fsync().
+** The second choice is a Mac OS X style fullsync.  The [SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY]
+** flag may be ORed in to indicate that only the data of the file
+** and not its inode needs to be synced.
+** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or
+** </ul>
+** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.
+** The xCheckReservedLock() method checks whether any database connection,
+** either in this process or in some other process, is holding a RESERVED,
+** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file.  It returns true
+** if such a lock exists and false otherwise.
+** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
+** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface.  The second "op" argument is an
+** integer opcode.  The third argument is a generic pointer intended to
+** point to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
+** write return values.  Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
+** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
+** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
+** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks.  The SQLite
+** core reserves all opcodes less than 100 for its own use.
+** A [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
+** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes
+** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts.
+** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
+** device that underlies the file.  The sector size is the
+** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
+** other bytes in the file.  The xDeviceCharacteristics()
+** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
+** underlying device:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite().
+** If xRead() returns SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ it must also fill
+** in the unread portions of the buffer with zeros.  A VFS that
+** fails to zero-fill short reads might seem to work.  However,
+** failure to zero-fill short reads will eventually lead to
+** database corruption.
+typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
+struct sqlite3_io_methods {
+  int iVersion;
+  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
+  int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+  int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+  int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
+  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
+  int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
+  int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+  int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+  int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*, int *pResOut);
+  int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
+  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
+  int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
+  /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */
+** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes {H11310} <S30800>
+** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
+** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and for the [sqlite3_file_control()]
+** interface.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging.  This
+** opcode causes the xFileControl method to write the current state of
+** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
+** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. This capability
+** is used during testing and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST
+** is defined.
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE        1
+#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO             4
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle {H17110} <S20130>
+** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
+** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
+** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
+** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
+** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
+typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object {H11140} <S20100>
+** An instance of the sqlite3_vfs object defines the interface between
+** the SQLite core and the underlying operating system.  The "vfs"
+** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system".
+** The value of the iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger in
+** future versions of SQLite.  Additional fields may be appended to this
+** object when the iVersion value is increased.  Note that the structure
+** of the sqlite3_vfs object changes in the transaction between
+** SQLite version 3.5.9 and 3.6.0 and yet the iVersion field was not
+** modified.
+** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
+** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
+** a pathname in this VFS.
+** Registered sqlite3_vfs objects are kept on a linked list formed by
+** the pNext pointer.  The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
+** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
+** in a thread-safe way.  The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
+** searches the list.  Neither the application code nor the VFS
+** implementation should use the pNext pointer.
+** The pNext field is the only field in the sqlite3_vfs
+** structure that SQLite will ever modify.  SQLite will only access
+** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
+** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
+** object once the object has been registered.
+** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module.  The name must
+** be unique across all VFS modules.
+** SQLite will guarantee that the zFilename parameter to xOpen
+** is either a NULL pointer or string obtained
+** from xFullPathname().  SQLite further guarantees that
+** the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
+** called. Because of the previous sentence,
+** the [sqlite3_file] can safely store a pointer to the
+** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
+** If the zFilename parameter is xOpen is a NULL pointer then xOpen
+** must invent its own temporary name for the file.  Whenever the 
+** xFilename parameter is NULL it will also be the case that the
+** flags parameter will include [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE].
+** The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
+** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()].  Or if [sqlite3_open()]
+** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
+** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
+** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY].  Other bits in *pOutFlags may be set.
+** SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
+** call, depending on the object being opened:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
+** change the way it deals with files.  For example, an application
+** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback might make
+** the open of a journal file a no-op.  Writes to this journal would
+** also be no-ops, and any attempt to read the journal would return
+** SQLITE_IOERR.  Or the implementation might recognize that a database
+** file will be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random
+** order and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
+** SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen method:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
+** deleted when it is closed.  The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
+** will be set for TEMP  databases, journals and for subjournals.
+** The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag is always used in conjunction
+** with the [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] flag, which are both directly
+** analogous to the O_EXCL and O_CREAT flags of the POSIX open()
+** API.  The SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE flag, when paired with the 
+** SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE, is used to indicate that file should always
+** be created, and that it is an error if it already exists.
+** It is <i>not</i> used to indicate the file should be opened 
+** for exclusive access.
+** At least szOsFile bytes of memory are allocated by SQLite
+** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
+** argument to xOpen.  The xOpen method does not have to
+** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.  Note that
+** the xOpen method must set the sqlite3_file.pMethods to either
+** a valid [sqlite3_io_methods] object or to NULL.  xOpen must do
+** this even if the open fails.  SQLite expects that the sqlite3_file.pMethods
+** element will be valid after xOpen returns regardless of the success
+** or failure of the xOpen call.
+** The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS]
+** to test for the existence of a file, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to
+** test whether a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
+** to test whether a file is at least readable.   The file can be a
+** directory.
+** SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 bytes for the
+** output buffer xFullPathname.  The exact size of the output buffer
+** is also passed as a parameter to both  methods. If the output buffer
+** is not large enough, [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] should be returned. Since this is
+** handled as a fatal error by SQLite, vfs implementations should endeavor
+** to prevent this by setting mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
+** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), and xCurrentTime() interfaces
+** are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
+** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
+** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
+** of good-quality randomness into zOut.  The return value is
+** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.
+** The xSleep() method causes the calling thread to sleep for at
+** least the number of microseconds given.  The xCurrentTime()
+** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and time.
+typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
+struct sqlite3_vfs {
+  int iVersion;            /* Structure version number */
+  int szOsFile;            /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
+  int mxPathname;          /* Maximum file pathname length */
+  sqlite3_vfs *pNext;      /* Next registered VFS */
+  const char *zName;       /* Name of this virtual file system */
+  void *pAppData;          /* Pointer to application-specific data */
+  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
+               int flags, int *pOutFlags);
+  int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
+  int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags, int *pResOut);
+  int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
+  void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
+  void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
+  void (*(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol))(void);
+  void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
+  int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
+  int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
+  int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
+  int (*xGetLastError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int, char *);
+  /* New fields may be appended in figure versions.  The iVersion
+  ** value will increment whenever this happens. */
+** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method {H11190} <H11140>
+** These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
+** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}  They determine
+** what kind of permissions the xAccess method is looking for.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
+** simply checks whether the file exists.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the file is both readable and writable.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READ, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the file is readable.
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ      2
+** CAPI3REF: Initialize The SQLite Library {H10130} <S20000><S30100>
+** The sqlite3_initialize() routine initializes the
+** SQLite library.  The sqlite3_shutdown() routine
+** deallocates any resources that were allocated by sqlite3_initialize().
+** This routines are designed to aid in process initialization and
+** shutdown on embedded systems.  Workstation applications using
+** SQLite normally do not need to invoke either of these routines.
+** A call to sqlite3_initialize() is an "effective" call if it is
+** the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked during the lifetime of
+** the process, or if it is the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** following a call to sqlite3_shutdown().  Only an effective call
+** of sqlite3_initialize() does any initialization.  All other calls
+** are harmless no-ops.
+** A call to sqlite3_shutdown() is an "effective" call if it is the first
+** call to sqlite3_shutdown() since the last sqlite3_initialize().  Only
+** an effective call to sqlite3_shutdown() does any deinitialization.
+** All other valid calls to sqlite3_shutdown() are harmless no-ops.
+** The sqlite3_initialize() interface is threadsafe, but sqlite3_shutdown()
+** is not.  The sqlite3_shutdown() interface must only be called from a
+** single thread.  All open [database connections] must be closed and all
+** other SQLite resources must be deallocated prior to invoking
+** sqlite3_shutdown().
+** Among other things, sqlite3_initialize() will invoke
+** sqlite3_os_init().  Similarly, sqlite3_shutdown()
+** will invoke sqlite3_os_end().
+** The sqlite3_initialize() routine returns [SQLITE_OK] on success.
+** If for some reason, sqlite3_initialize() is unable to initialize
+** the library (perhaps it is unable to allocate a needed resource such
+** as a mutex) it returns an [error code] other than [SQLITE_OK].
+** The sqlite3_initialize() routine is called internally by many other
+** SQLite interfaces so that an application usually does not need to
+** invoke sqlite3_initialize() directly.  For example, [sqlite3_open()]
+** calls sqlite3_initialize() so the SQLite library will be automatically
+** initialized when [sqlite3_open()] is called if it has not be initialized
+** already.  However, if SQLite is compiled with the [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT]
+** compile-time option, then the automatic calls to sqlite3_initialize()
+** are omitted and the application must call sqlite3_initialize() directly
+** prior to using any other SQLite interface.  For maximum portability,
+** it is recommended that applications always invoke sqlite3_initialize()
+** directly prior to using any other SQLite interface.  Future releases
+** of SQLite may require this.  In other words, the behavior exhibited
+** when SQLite is compiled with [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT] might become the
+** default behavior in some future release of SQLite.
+** The sqlite3_os_init() routine does operating-system specific
+** initialization of the SQLite library.  The sqlite3_os_end()
+** routine undoes the effect of sqlite3_os_init().  Typical tasks
+** performed by these routines include allocation or deallocation
+** of static resources, initialization of global variables,
+** setting up a default [sqlite3_vfs] module, or setting up
+** a default configuration using [sqlite3_config()].
+** The application should never invoke either sqlite3_os_init()
+** or sqlite3_os_end() directly.  The application should only invoke
+** sqlite3_initialize() and sqlite3_shutdown().  The sqlite3_os_init()
+** interface is called automatically by sqlite3_initialize() and
+** sqlite3_os_end() is called by sqlite3_shutdown().  Appropriate
+** implementations for sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end()
+** are built into SQLite when it is compiled for Unix, Windows, or OS/2.
+** When [custom builds | built for other platforms]
+** (using the [SQLITE_OS_OTHER=1] compile-time
+** option) the application must supply a suitable implementation for
+** sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end().  An application-supplied
+** implementation of sqlite3_os_init() or sqlite3_os_end()
+** must return [SQLITE_OK] on success and some other [error code] upon
+** failure.
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_initialize(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_shutdown(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_init(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_end(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Configuring The SQLite Library {H14100} <S20000><S30200>
+** The sqlite3_config() interface is used to make global configuration
+** changes to SQLite in order to tune SQLite to the specific needs of
+** the application.  The default configuration is recommended for most
+** applications and so this routine is usually not necessary.  It is
+** provided to support rare applications with unusual needs.
+** The sqlite3_config() interface is not threadsafe.  The application
+** must insure that no other SQLite interfaces are invoked by other
+** threads while sqlite3_config() is running.  Furthermore, sqlite3_config()
+** may only be invoked prior to library initialization using
+** [sqlite3_initialize()] or after shutdown by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** Note, however, that sqlite3_config() can be called as part of the
+** implementation of an application-defined [sqlite3_os_init()].
+** The first argument to sqlite3_config() is an integer
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD | configuration option] that determines
+** what property of SQLite is to be configured.  Subsequent arguments
+** vary depending on the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD | configuration option]
+** in the first argument.
+** When a configuration option is set, sqlite3_config() returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** If the option is unknown or SQLite is unable to set the option
+** then this routine returns a non-zero [error code].
+** Requirements:
+** [H14103] [H14106] [H14120] [H14123] [H14126] [H14129] [H14132] [H14135]
+** [H14138] [H14141] [H14144] [H14147] [H14150] [H14153] [H14156] [H14159]
+** [H14162] [H14165] [H14168]
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_config(int, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Configure database connections  {H14200} <S20000>
+** The sqlite3_db_config() interface is used to make configuration
+** changes to a [database connection].  The interface is similar to
+** [sqlite3_config()] except that the changes apply to a single
+** [database connection] (specified in the first argument).  The
+** sqlite3_db_config() interface can only be used immediately after
+** the database connection is created using [sqlite3_open()],
+** [sqlite3_open16()], or [sqlite3_open_v2()].  
+** The second argument to sqlite3_db_config(D,V,...)  is the
+** configuration verb - an integer code that indicates what
+** aspect of the [database connection] is being configured.
+** The only choice for this value is [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE].
+** New verbs are likely to be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Additional arguments depend on the verb.
+** Requirements:
+** [H14203] [H14206] [H14209] [H14212] [H14215]
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_db_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Routines {H10155} <S20120>
+** An instance of this object defines the interface between SQLite
+** and low-level memory allocation routines.
+** This object is used in only one place in the SQLite interface.
+** A pointer to an instance of this object is the argument to
+** [sqlite3_config()] when the configuration option is
+** By creating an instance of this object
+** and passing it to [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC])
+** during configuration, an application can specify an alternative
+** memory allocation subsystem for SQLite to use for all of its
+** dynamic memory needs.
+** Note that SQLite comes with several [built-in memory allocators]
+** that are perfectly adequate for the overwhelming majority of applications
+** and that this object is only useful to a tiny minority of applications
+** with specialized memory allocation requirements.  This object is
+** also used during testing of SQLite in order to specify an alternative
+** memory allocator that simulates memory out-of-memory conditions in
+** order to verify that SQLite recovers gracefully from such
+** conditions.
+** The xMalloc and xFree methods must work like the
+** malloc() and free() functions from the standard C library.
+** The xRealloc method must work like realloc() from the standard C library
+** with the exception that if the second argument to xRealloc is zero,
+** xRealloc must be a no-op - it must not perform any allocation or
+** deallocation.  SQLite guaranteeds that the second argument to
+** xRealloc is always a value returned by a prior call to xRoundup.
+** And so in cases where xRoundup always returns a positive number,
+** xRealloc can perform exactly as the standard library realloc() and
+** still be in compliance with this specification.
+** xSize should return the allocated size of a memory allocation
+** previously obtained from xMalloc or xRealloc.  The allocated size
+** is always at least as big as the requested size but may be larger.
+** The xRoundup method returns what would be the allocated size of
+** a memory allocation given a particular requested size.  Most memory
+** allocators round up memory allocations at least to the next multiple
+** of 8.  Some allocators round up to a larger multiple or to a power of 2.
+** Every memory allocation request coming in through [sqlite3_malloc()]
+** or [sqlite3_realloc()] first calls xRoundup.  If xRoundup returns 0, 
+** that causes the corresponding memory allocation to fail.
+** The xInit method initializes the memory allocator.  (For example,
+** it might allocate any require mutexes or initialize internal data
+** structures.  The xShutdown method is invoked (indirectly) by
+** [sqlite3_shutdown()] and should deallocate any resources acquired
+** by xInit.  The pAppData pointer is used as the only parameter to
+** xInit and xShutdown.
+** SQLite holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER] mutex when it invokes
+** the xInit method, so the xInit method need not be threadsafe.  The
+** xShutdown method is only called from [sqlite3_shutdown()] so it does
+** not need to be threadsafe either.  For all other methods, SQLite
+** holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM] mutex as long as the
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] configuration option is turned on (which
+** it is by default) and so the methods are automatically serialized.
+** However, if [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] is disabled, then the other
+** methods must be threadsafe or else make their own arrangements for
+** serialization.
+** SQLite will never invoke xInit() more than once without an intervening
+** call to xShutdown().
+typedef struct sqlite3_mem_methods sqlite3_mem_methods;
+struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
+  void *(*xMalloc)(int);         /* Memory allocation function */
+  void (*xFree)(void*);          /* Free a prior allocation */
+  void *(*xRealloc)(void*,int);  /* Resize an allocation */
+  int (*xSize)(void*);           /* Return the size of an allocation */
+  int (*xRoundup)(int);          /* Round up request size to allocation size */
+  int (*xInit)(void*);           /* Initialize the memory allocator */
+  void (*xShutdown)(void*);      /* Deinitialize the memory allocator */
+  void *pAppData;                /* Argument to xInit() and xShutdown() */
+** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options {H10160} <S20000>
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the first argument to the [sqlite3_config()] interface.
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked.  The [sqlite3_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option disables
+** all mutexing and puts SQLite into a mode where it can only be used
+** by a single thread.</dd>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option disables
+** mutexing on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** The application is responsible for serializing access to
+** [database connections] and [prepared statements].  But other mutexes
+** are enabled so that SQLite will be safe to use in a multi-threaded
+** environment as long as no two threads attempt to use the same
+** [database connection] at the same time.  See the [threading mode]
+** documentation for additional information.</dd>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  This option enables
+** all mutexes including the recursive
+** mutexes on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** In this mode (which is the default when SQLite is compiled with
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1]) the SQLite library will itself serialize access
+** to [database connections] and [prepared statements] so that the
+** application is free to use the same [database connection] or the
+** same [prepared statement] in different threads at the same time.
+** See the [threading mode] documentation for additional information.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
+** alternative low-level memory allocation routines to be used in place of
+** the memory allocation routines built into SQLite.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The [sqlite3_mem_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined memory allocation routines.
+** This option can be used to overload the default memory allocation
+** routines with a wrapper that simulations memory allocation failure or
+** tracks memory usage, for example.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes single argument of type int, interpreted as a 
+** boolean, which enables or disables the collection of memory allocation 
+** statistics. When disabled, the following SQLite interfaces become 
+** non-operational:
+**   <ul>
+**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_used()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_highwater()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_status()]
+**   </ul>
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
+** scratch memory.  There are three arguments:  A pointer an 8-byte
+** aligned memory buffer from which the scrach allocations will be
+** drawn, the size of each scratch allocation (sz),
+** and the maximum number of scratch allocations (N).  The sz
+** argument must be a multiple of 16. The sz parameter should be a few bytes
+** larger than the actual scratch space required due to internal overhead.
+** The first argument should pointer to an 8-byte aligned buffer
+** of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
+** SQLite will use no more than one scratch buffer at once per thread, so
+** N should be set to the expected maximum number of threads.  The sz
+** parameter should be 6 times the size of the largest database page size.
+** Scratch buffers are used as part of the btree balance operation.  If
+** The btree balancer needs additional memory beyond what is provided by
+** scratch buffers or if no scratch buffer space is specified, then SQLite
+** goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] to obtain the memory it needs.</dd>
+** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
+** the database page cache with the default page cache implemenation.  
+** This configuration should not be used if an application-define page
+** cache implementation is loaded using the SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE option.
+** There are three arguments to this option: A pointer to 8-byte aligned
+** memory, the size of each page buffer (sz), and the number of pages (N).
+** The sz argument should be the size of the largest database page
+** (a power of two between 512 and 32768) plus a little extra for each
+** page header.  The page header size is 20 to 40 bytes depending on
+** the host architecture.  It is harmless, apart from the wasted memory,
+** to make sz a little too large.  The first
+** argument should point to an allocation of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
+** SQLite will use the memory provided by the first argument to satisfy its
+** memory needs for the first N pages that it adds to cache.  If additional
+** page cache memory is needed beyond what is provided by this option, then
+** SQLite goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] for the additional storage space.
+** The implementation might use one or more of the N buffers to hold 
+** memory accounting information. The pointer in the first argument must
+** be aligned to an 8-byte boundary or subsequent behavior of SQLite
+** will be undefined.</dd>
+** <dd>This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite will use
+** for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs beyond those provided
+** There are three arguments: An 8-byte aligned pointer to the memory,
+** the number of bytes in the memory buffer, and the minimum allocation size.
+** If the first pointer (the memory pointer) is NULL, then SQLite reverts
+** to using its default memory allocator (the system malloc() implementation),
+** undoing any prior invocation of [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC].  If the
+** memory pointer is not NULL and either [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3] or
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5] are defined, then the alternative memory
+** allocator is engaged to handle all of SQLites memory allocation needs.
+** The first pointer (the memory pointer) must be aligned to an 8-byte
+** boundary or subsequent behavior of SQLite will be undefined.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
+** alternative low-level mutex routines to be used in place
+** the mutex routines built into SQLite.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The
+** [sqlite3_mutex_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined mutex routines.
+** This option can be used to overload the default mutex allocation
+** routines with a wrapper used to track mutex usage for performance
+** profiling or testing, for example.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes two arguments that determine the default
+** memory allocation lookaside optimization.  The first argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the second is the number of
+** slots allocated to each database connection.  This option sets the
+** <i>default</i> lookaside size.  The [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE]
+** verb to [sqlite3_db_config()] can be used to change the lookaside
+** configuration on individual connections.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to
+** an [sqlite3_pcache_methods] object.  This object specifies the interface
+** to a custom page cache implementation.  SQLite makes a copy of the
+** object and uses it for page cache memory allocations.</dd>
+** <dd>This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_pcache_methods] object.  SQLite copies of the current
+** page cache implementation into that object.</dd>
+** </dl>
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD  1  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD   2  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED    3  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC        4  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC     5  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH       6  /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE     7  /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP          8  /* void*, int nByte, int min */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS     9  /* boolean */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX        10  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX     11  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+/* previously SQLITE_CONFIG_CHUNKALLOC 12 which is now unused. */ 
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE    13  /* int int */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE       14  /* sqlite3_pcache_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE    15  /* sqlite3_pcache_methods* */
+** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options {H10170} <S20000>
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_config()] interface.
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_db_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked.  The [sqlite3_db_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>This option takes three additional arguments that determine the 
+** [lookaside memory allocator] configuration for the [database connection].
+** The first argument (the third parameter to [sqlite3_db_config()] is a
+** pointer to an memory buffer to use for lookaside memory.
+** The first argument may be NULL in which case SQLite will allocate the
+** lookaside buffer itself using [sqlite3_malloc()].  The second argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the third argument is the number of
+** slots.  The size of the buffer in the first argument must be greater than
+** or equal to the product of the second and third arguments.  The buffer
+** must be aligned to an 8-byte boundary.  If the second argument is not
+** a multiple of 8, it is internally rounded down to the next smaller
+** multiple of 8.  See also: [SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE]</dd>
+** </dl>
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE    1001  /* void* int int */
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {H12200} <S10700>
+** The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
+** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. The extended result
+** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility considerations.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12201] [H12202]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);
+** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid {H12220} <S10700>
+** Each entry in an SQLite table has a unique 64-bit signed
+** integer key called the [ROWID | "rowid"]. The rowid is always available
+** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
+** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. If
+** the table has a column of type [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] then that column
+** is another alias for the rowid.
+** This routine returns the [rowid] of the most recent
+** successful [INSERT] into the database from the [database connection]
+** in the first argument.  If no successful [INSERT]s
+** have ever occurred on that database connection, zero is returned.
+** If an [INSERT] occurs within a trigger, then the [rowid] of the inserted
+** row is returned by this routine as long as the trigger is running.
+** But once the trigger terminates, the value returned by this routine
+** reverts to the last value inserted before the trigger fired.
+** An [INSERT] that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
+** successful [INSERT] and does not change the value returned by this
+** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
+** routine when their insertion fails.  When INSERT OR REPLACE
+** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail.  The
+** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
+** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
+** the return value of this interface.
+** For the purposes of this routine, an [INSERT] is considered to
+** be successful even if it is subsequently rolled back.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12221] [H12223]
+** If a separate thread performs a new [INSERT] on the same
+** database connection while the [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()]
+** function is running and thus changes the last insert [rowid],
+** then the value returned by [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] is
+** unpredictable and might not equal either the old or the new
+** last insert [rowid].
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified {H12240} <S10600>
+** This function returns the number of database rows that were changed
+** or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed SQL statement
+** on the [database connection] specified by the first parameter.
+** Only changes that are directly specified by the [INSERT], [UPDATE],
+** or [DELETE] statement are counted.  Auxiliary changes caused by
+** triggers or [foreign key actions] are not counted. Use the
+** [sqlite3_total_changes()] function to find the total number of changes
+** including changes caused by triggers and foreign key actions.
+** Changes to a view that are simulated by an [INSTEAD OF trigger]
+** are not counted.  Only real table changes are counted.
+** A "row change" is a change to a single row of a single table
+** caused by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  Rows that
+** are changed as side effects of [REPLACE] constraint resolution,
+** rollback, ABORT processing, [DROP TABLE], or by any other
+** mechanisms do not count as direct row changes.
+** A "trigger context" is a scope of execution that begins and
+** ends with the script of a [CREATE TRIGGER | trigger]. 
+** Most SQL statements are
+** evaluated outside of any trigger.  This is the "top level"
+** trigger context.  If a trigger fires from the top level, a
+** new trigger context is entered for the duration of that one
+** trigger.  Subtriggers create subcontexts for their duration.
+** Calling [sqlite3_exec()] or [sqlite3_step()] recursively does
+** not create a new trigger context.
+** This function returns the number of direct row changes in the
+** most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement within the same
+** trigger context.
+** Thus, when called from the top level, this function returns the
+** number of changes in the most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** that also occurred at the top level.  Within the body of a trigger,
+** the sqlite3_changes() interface can be called to find the number of
+** changes in the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** statement within the body of the same trigger.
+** However, the number returned does not include changes
+** caused by subtriggers since those have their own context.
+** See also the [sqlite3_total_changes()] interface and the
+** [count_changes pragma].
+** Requirements:
+** [H12241] [H12243]
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_changes()] is running then the value returned
+** is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified {H12260} <S10600>
+** This function returns the number of row changes caused by [INSERT],
+** [UPDATE] or [DELETE] statements since the [database connection] was opened.
+** The count includes all changes from all [CREATE TRIGGER | trigger] 
+** contexts and changes made by [foreign key actions]. However,
+** the count does not include changes used to implement [REPLACE] constraints,
+** do rollbacks or ABORT processing, or [DROP TABLE] processing.  The
+** count does not include rows of views that fire an [INSTEAD OF trigger],
+** though if the INSTEAD OF trigger makes changes of its own, those changes 
+** are counted.
+** The changes are counted as soon as the statement that makes them is
+** completed (when the statement handle is passed to [sqlite3_reset()] or
+** [sqlite3_finalize()]).
+** See also the [sqlite3_changes()] interface and the
+** [count_changes pragma].
+** Requirements:
+** [H12261] [H12263]
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_total_changes()] is running then the value
+** returned is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query {H12270} <S30500>
+** This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
+** return at its earliest opportunity. This routine is typically
+** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
+** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
+** immediately.
+** It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
+** thread that is currently running the database operation.  But it
+** is not safe to call this routine with a [database connection] that
+** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
+** If an SQL operation is very nearly finished at the time when
+** sqlite3_interrupt() is called, then it might not have an opportunity
+** to be interrupted and might continue to completion.
+** An SQL operation that is interrupted will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
+** If the interrupted SQL operation is an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** that is inside an explicit transaction, then the entire transaction
+** will be rolled back automatically.
+** The sqlite3_interrupt(D) call is in effect until all currently running
+** SQL statements on [database connection] D complete.  Any new SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call and before the 
+** running statements reaches zero are interrupted as if they had been
+** running prior to the sqlite3_interrupt() call.  New SQL statements
+** that are started after the running statement count reaches zero are
+** not effected by the sqlite3_interrupt().
+** A call to sqlite3_interrupt(D) that occurs when there are no running
+** SQL statements is a no-op and has no effect on SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call returns.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12271] [H12272]
+** If the database connection closes while [sqlite3_interrupt()]
+** is running then bad things will likely happen.
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete {H10510} <S70200>
+** These routines are useful during command-line input to determine if the
+** currently entered text seems to form a complete SQL statement or
+** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
+** SQLite for parsing.  These routines return 1 if the input string
+** appears to be a complete SQL statement.  A statement is judged to be
+** complete if it ends with a semicolon token and is not a prefix of a
+** well-formed CREATE TRIGGER statement.  Semicolons that are embedded within
+** string literals or quoted identifier names or comments are not
+** independent tokens (they are part of the token in which they are
+** embedded) and thus do not count as a statement terminator.  Whitespace
+** and comments that follow the final semicolon are ignored.
+** These routines return 0 if the statement is incomplete.  If a
+** memory allocation fails, then SQLITE_NOMEM is returned.
+** These routines do not parse the SQL statements thus
+** will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
+** If SQLite has not been initialized using [sqlite3_initialize()] prior 
+** to invoking sqlite3_complete16() then sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** automatically by sqlite3_complete16().  If that initialization fails,
+** then the return value from sqlite3_complete16() will be non-zero
+** regardless of whether or not the input SQL is complete.
+** Requirements: [H10511] [H10512]
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-8 string.
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete16()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-16 string in native byte order.
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);
+** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors {H12310} <S40400>
+** This routine sets a callback function that might be invoked whenever
+** an attempt is made to open a database table that another thread
+** or process has locked.
+** If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
+** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock. If the busy callback
+** is not NULL, then the callback will be invoked with two arguments.
+** The first argument to the handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
+** is the third argument to sqlite3_busy_handler().  The second argument to
+** the handler callback is the number of times that the busy handler has
+** been invoked for this locking event.  If the
+** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
+** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] is returned.
+** If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
+** is made to open the database for reading and the cycle repeats.
+** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that it will be invoked
+** when there is lock contention. If SQLite determines that invoking the busy
+** handler could result in a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY]
+** or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] instead of invoking the busy handler.
+** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
+** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
+** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
+** to promote to an exclusive lock.  The first process cannot proceed
+** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
+** proceed because it is blocked by the first.  If both processes
+** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress.  Therefore,
+** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
+** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
+** the second process to proceed.
+** The default busy callback is NULL.
+** The [SQLITE_BUSY] error is converted to [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
+** when SQLite is in the middle of a large transaction where all the
+** changes will not fit into the in-memory cache.  SQLite will
+** already hold a RESERVED lock on the database file, but it needs
+** to promote this lock to EXCLUSIVE so that it can spill cache
+** pages into the database file without harm to concurrent
+** readers.  If it is unable to promote the lock, then the in-memory
+** cache will be left in an inconsistent state and so the error
+** code is promoted from the relatively benign [SQLITE_BUSY] to
+** the more severe [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].  This error code promotion
+** forces an automatic rollback of the changes.  See the
+** <a href="/cvstrac/wiki?p=CorruptionFollowingBusyError">
+** CorruptionFollowingBusyError</a> wiki page for a discussion of why
+** this is important.
+** There can only be a single busy handler defined for each
+** [database connection].  Setting a new busy handler clears any
+** previously set handler.  Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()]
+** will also set or clear the busy handler.
+** The busy callback should not take any actions which modify the
+** database connection that invoked the busy handler.  Any such actions
+** result in undefined behavior.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12311] [H12312] [H12314] [H12316] [H12318]
+** A busy handler must not close the database connection
+** or [prepared statement] that invoked the busy handler.
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout {H12340} <S40410>
+** This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler] that sleeps
+** for a specified amount of time when a table is locked.  The handler
+** will sleep multiple times until at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping
+** have accumulated. {H12343} After "ms" milliseconds of sleeping,
+** the handler returns 0 which causes [sqlite3_step()] to return
+** Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
+** turns off all busy handlers.
+** There can only be a single busy handler for a particular
+** [database connection] any any given moment.  If another busy handler
+** was defined  (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
+** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.
+** Requirements:
+** [H12341] [H12343] [H12344]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);
+** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries {H12370} <S10000>
+** Definition: A <b>result table</b> is memory data structure created by the
+** [sqlite3_get_table()] interface.  A result table records the
+** complete query results from one or more queries.
+** The table conceptually has a number of rows and columns.  But
+** these numbers are not part of the result table itself.  These
+** numbers are obtained separately.  Let N be the number of rows
+** and M be the number of columns.
+** A result table is an array of pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
+** There are (N+1)*M elements in the array.  The first M pointers point
+** to zero-terminated strings that  contain the names of the columns.
+** The remaining entries all point to query results.  NULL values result
+** in NULL pointers.  All other values are in their UTF-8 zero-terminated
+** string representation as returned by [sqlite3_column_text()].
+** A result table might consist of one or more memory allocations.
+** It is not safe to pass a result table directly to [sqlite3_free()].
+** A result table should be deallocated using [sqlite3_free_table()].
+** As an example of the result table format, suppose a query result
+** is as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**        Name        | Age
+**        -----------------------
+**        Alice       | 43
+**        Bob         | 28
+**        Cindy       | 21
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
+** result table has 8 entries.  Suppose the result table is stored
+** in an array names azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
+**        azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
+**        azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
+**        azResult&#91;3] = "43";
+**        azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
+**        azResult&#91;5] = "28";
+**        azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
+**        azResult&#91;7] = "21";
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** The sqlite3_get_table() function evaluates one or more
+** semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated UTF-8
+** string of its 2nd parameter.  It returns a result table to the
+** pointer given in its 3rd parameter.
+** After the calling function has finished using the result, it should
+** pass the pointer to the result table to sqlite3_free_table() in order to
+** release the memory that was malloced.  Because of the way the
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens within sqlite3_get_table(), the calling
+** function must not try to call [sqlite3_free()] directly.  Only
+** [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release the memory properly and safely.
+** The sqlite3_get_table() interface is implemented as a wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_exec()].  The sqlite3_get_table() routine does not have access
+** to any internal data structures of SQLite.  It uses only the public
+** interface defined here.  As a consequence, errors that occur in the
+** wrapper layer outside of the internal [sqlite3_exec()] call are not
+** reflected in subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] or [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+** Requirements:
+** [H12371] [H12373] [H12374] [H12376] [H12379] [H12382]
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_table(
+  sqlite3 *db,          /* An open database */
+  const char *zSql,     /* SQL to be evaluated */
+  char ***pazResult,    /* Results of the query */
+  int *pnRow,           /* Number of result rows written here */
+  int *pnColumn,        /* Number of result columns written here */
+  char **pzErrmsg       /* Error msg written here */
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free_table(char **result);
+** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions {H17400} <S70000><S20000>
+** These routines are work-alikes of the "printf()" family of functions
+** from the standard C library.
+** The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
+** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
+** The strings returned by these two routines should be
+** released by [sqlite3_free()].  Both routines return a
+** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
+** memory to hold the resulting string.
+** In sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
+** the standard C library.  The result is written into the
+** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
+** the first parameter. Note that the order of the
+** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().  This is an
+** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
+** backwards compatibility.  Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
+** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
+** characters actually written into the buffer.  We admit that
+** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
+** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
+** now without breaking compatibility.
+** As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
+** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated.  The first
+** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
+** the zero terminator.  So the longest string that can be completely
+** written will be n-1 characters.
+** These routines all implement some additional formatting
+** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
+** All of the usual printf() formatting options apply.  In addition, there
+** is are "%q", "%Q", and "%z" options.
+** The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a null-terminated
+** string from the argument list.  But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
+** %q is designed for use inside a string literal.  By doubling each '\''
+** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
+** the string.
+** For example, assume the string variable zText contains text as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
+**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
+** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** This is correct.  Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
+** would have looked like this:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** This second example is an SQL syntax error.  As a general rule you should
+** always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string literal.
+** The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
+** the outside of the total string.  Additionally, if the parameter in the
+** argument list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without
+** single quotes) in place of the %Q option.  So, for example, one could say:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
+**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
+** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
+** The "%z" formatting option works exactly like "%s" with the
+** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
+** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string. {END}
+** Requirements:
+** [H17403] [H17406] [H17407]
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem {H17300} <S20000>
+** The SQLite core  uses these three routines for all of its own
+** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
+** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
+** Windows VFS uses native malloc() and free() for some operations.
+** The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
+** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
+** If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
+** memory, it returns a NULL pointer.  If the parameter N to
+** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
+** a NULL pointer.
+** Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
+** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
+** that it might be reused.  The sqlite3_free() routine is
+** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer.  Passing a NULL pointer
+** to sqlite3_free() is harmless.  After being freed, memory
+** should neither be read nor written.  Even reading previously freed
+** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
+** Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
+** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
+** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc().
+** The sqlite3_realloc() interface attempts to resize a
+** prior memory allocation to be at least N bytes, where N is the
+** second parameter.  The memory allocation to be resized is the first
+** parameter.  If the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc()
+** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
+** sqlite3_malloc(N) where N is the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
+** If the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc() is zero or
+** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
+** sqlite3_free(P) where P is the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
+** sqlite3_realloc() returns a pointer to a memory allocation
+** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if sufficient memory is unavailable.
+** If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
+** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
+** by sqlite3_realloc() and the prior allocation is freed.
+** If sqlite3_realloc() returns NULL, then the prior allocation
+** is not freed.
+** The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc() and sqlite3_realloc()
+** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary. {END}
+** The default implementation of the memory allocation subsystem uses
+** the malloc(), realloc() and free() provided by the standard C library.
+** {H17382} However, if SQLite is compiled with the
+** SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE=<i>NNN</i> C preprocessor macro (where <i>NNN</i>
+** is an integer), then SQLite create a static array of at least
+** <i>NNN</i> bytes in size and uses that array for all of its dynamic
+** memory allocation needs. {END}  Additional memory allocator options
+** may be added in future releases.
+** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
+** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
+** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
+** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be used.
+** The Windows OS interface layer calls
+** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
+** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
+** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular Windows
+** installation.  Memory allocation errors are detected, but
+** they are reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
+** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
+** Requirements:
+** [H17303] [H17304] [H17305] [H17306] [H17310] [H17312] [H17315] [H17318]
+** [H17321] [H17322] [H17323]
+** The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** must be either NULL or else pointers obtained from a prior
+** invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that have
+** not yet been released.
+** The application must not read or write any part of
+** a block of memory after it has been released using
+** [sqlite3_free()] or [sqlite3_realloc()].
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int);
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics {H17370} <S30210>
+** SQLite provides these two interfaces for reporting on the status
+** of the [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** routines, which form the built-in memory allocation subsystem.
+** Requirements:
+** [H17371] [H17373] [H17374] [H17375]
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);
+** CAPI3REF: Pseudo-Random Number Generator {H17390} <S20000>
+** SQLite contains a high-quality pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) used to
+** select random [ROWID | ROWIDs] when inserting new records into a table that
+** already uses the largest possible [ROWID].  The PRNG is also used for
+** the build-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions.  This interface allows
+** applications to access the same PRNG for other purposes.
+** A call to this routine stores N bytes of randomness into buffer P.
+** The first time this routine is invoked (either internally or by
+** the application) the PRNG is seeded using randomness obtained
+** from the xRandomness method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.
+** On all subsequent invocations, the pseudo-randomness is generated
+** internally and without recourse to the [sqlite3_vfs] xRandomness
+** method.
+** Requirements:
+** [H17392]
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_randomness(int N, void *P);
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks {H12500} <S70100>
+** This routine registers a authorizer callback with a particular
+** [database connection], supplied in the first argument.
+** The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
+** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
+** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].  At various
+** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
+** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
+** see if those actions are allowed.  The authorizer callback should
+** return [SQLITE_OK] to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
+** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
+** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
+** rejected with an error.  If the authorizer callback returns
+** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
+** then the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered

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