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From da...@cocoon.zones.apache.org
Subject [DAISY] Created: Matchers and Selectors
Date Thu, 07 Jun 2007 15:50:13 GMT
A new document has been created.

http://cocoon.zones.apache.org/daisy/documentation/1376.html

Document ID: 1376
Branch: main
Language: default
Name: Matchers and Selectors
Document Type: Cocoon Document
Created: 6/7/07 3:50:02 PM
Creator (owner): Reinhard Pötz
State: publish

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<h1>Introduction</h1>

<p>Matchers and selectors are sitemap components. They are used to determine the
flow, the other components involved and their ordering of the request
processing. One particular matcher you're probably familiar with, is the
WildcardURIMatcher. That is the one that determines the (sub-)pipeline in the
welcome example. But there are many more matchers supplied with Apache Cocoon,
one matches the requested URI on regular expressions, others match the client's
hostname, existence of parameters and so on.</p>

<p>There is also a number of selectors supplied with Cocoon. Selectors test a
generally simple boolean expression and allow to select on roughly the same
things as matchers would. There is a selector on the client's hostname, on the
client's browser etc.</p>

<p>To make things even more complicated, actions have very similar properties.
You can nest other sitemap elements in an action and those are included in the
processing only if the action completes successfully.</p>

<h1>So what are the differences?</h1>

<p>The basic structure of a selector is that of a case, switch or
if-elseif-...-elseif-else statement in programming languages while matchers and
actions compare more to a if statement. In addition selectors don't communicate
the basis for their decision to the embedded elements, just select the next
part(s) of the pipeline. Matchers and actions, however, add a new map to the
environment that can be used for the further processing in the sub pipeline.
</p>

<p>You've already come across this feature on the example sitemap: The value
matched by the WildcardURIMatcher is used to determine the filename
<tt>docs/samples/xsp/{1}.xsp</tt>. Here <tt>{1}</tt> represents the
value that
is stored in the environmental map with the key <tt>1</tt>. The name of the key
is arbitrary and set by the matcher. If you had supplied a more complex pattern,
there would be others. For example <tt>&lt;map:match
pattern="*/*/*/*/report.html"&gt;</tt> would result in keys <tt>1</tt>,
<tt>2</tt>, <tt>3</tt>, and <tt>4</tt> being defined,
corresponding to the
<tt>*</tt>s in the pattern.</p>

<p>BTW you cannot access those maps from your XSP. Use parameters to the
generator to explicitly send them. On your XSP you can access them through an
object called <tt>parameters</tt>. Example</p>

<pre>&lt;map:match pattern="*/*/*/*/report.html"&gt;
   &lt;map:generate type="serverpages" src="docs/getPostcodeData.xsp"&gt;
      &lt;parameter name="postcode" value="{1}{2} {3}{4}"/&gt;
   &lt;/map:generate&gt;
   &lt;map:transform src="stylesheets/html/report.xsl"/&gt;
   &lt;map:serialize/&gt;
&lt;/map:match&gt;

</pre>

<p>On your XSP do</p>

<pre>&lt;xsp:expr&gt;parameters.getParameter("postcode")&lt;/xsp:expr&gt;

</pre>

<p>Generally, one could say that selectors are better suited if the decisions
has few easily distinguishable cases, the map feature is not needed and the
decision occurs later in the pipeline. Their implementation should be
lightweight and so is their integration in the compiled sitemap.</p>

<p>Matchers are often the very first element in a pipeline. They direct the
processing based on more complex decision process. They are general purpose but
more costly than selectors.</p>

<p>Actions should be used to <em>"do"</em> something, not to chose between
different sub pipelines. That should be done only, if an error occurred and you
cannot continue the regular pipeline. Of course this is a fuzzy criterion and
using an action to choose between exactly two sub pipelines is a very common
task i.e. for authentication. Also, often actions have no nested elements and
the further processing is not affected by the result of the action.</p>

<h1>Using Matchers</h1>

<p>Like every other sitemap component, matchers need to be declared in the
sitemap:</p>

<pre>&lt;map:sitemap xmlns:map="http://apache.org/cocoon/sitemap/1.0"&gt;
  &lt;map:components&gt;
   ...

   &lt;map:matchers default="wildcard"&gt;
     &lt;map:matcher name="wildcard"
               src="org.apache.cocoon.matching.WildcardURIMatcher"/&gt;
     ...
     &lt;map:matcher name="next-page"
     src="org.apache.cocoon.matching.WildcardRequestParameterMatcher"&gt;
        &lt;map:parameter name="parameter-name" value="next-state"/&gt;
     &lt;/map:matcher&gt;
   &lt;/map:matchers&gt;

  ...
  &lt;/map:components&gt;

&lt;/map:sitemap&gt;

</pre>

<p>Matchers are given a short name (e.g, "wildcard") and of course the name of
the JAVA class that implements the matcher. In addition, parameters can be
defined as well.</p>

<p>One matcher may be defined as default matcher, so whenever a matcher appears
in the sitemap without explicit type specification it will be assumed that it is
of the default type.</p>

<p>In a pipeline use the matcher like this</p>

<p>Matchers can be nested:</p>

<pre>&lt;map:match type="sessionstate" pattern="edit*"&gt;
  &lt;!-- here you could insert parameters for the above matcher --&gt;
  &lt;map:parameter name="attribute-name" value="__sessionstate"/&gt;

  &lt;map:match type="next-page" pattern="ok*"&gt;
    &lt;!-- do something here, eg. database updates --&gt;
    &lt;map:call resource="simple-page1"/&gt;
  &lt;/map:match&gt;
  &lt;map:match type="next-page" pattern="delete*"&gt;
    &lt;!-- do something different here, eg. database deletions --&gt;
    &lt;map:call resource="simple-page1"/&gt;
  &lt;/map:match&gt;
&lt;/map:match&gt;

</pre>

<h1>Using Selectors</h1>

<p>As said above, selectors are very similar to matchers. Again, you need to
declare selectors in the sitemap.xmap</p>

<pre>&lt;map:sitemap xmlns:map="http://apache.org/cocoon/sitemap/1.0"&gt;
  &lt;map:components&gt;
   ...
  &lt;map:selectors default="browser"&gt;
   &lt;map:selector name="browser"
     src="org.apache.cocoon.selection.BrowserSelector"&gt;
    &lt;browser name="explorer" useragent="MSIE"/&gt;
    &lt;browser name="lynx" useragent="Lynx"/&gt;
    &lt;browser name="netscape" useragent="Mozilla"/&gt;
   &lt;/map:selector&gt;
   &lt;map:selector name="parameter"
     src="org.apache.cocoon.selection.ParameterSelector"/&gt;
  &lt;/map:selectors&gt;

  ...
  &lt;/map:components&gt;


&lt;/map:sitemap&gt;

</pre>

<p>Their use is a bit different to matchers, though:</p>

<p>Obviously, this could have been done with matchers as well. Decide on
yourself, what appears clearer to you in a specific situation.</p>

<h1>Write Your Own Matchers and Selectors</h1>

<h2>Matchers</h2>

<p>Since the basic structure and the assumptions are very similar, we look first
at matchers and point out the differences to selectors at the end.</p>

<p>Matchers need to implement the <tt>org.apache.cocoon.matching.Matcher</tt>
interface. See javadocs for more details, see also example matchers included in
the distribution.</p>

<p>If you would like to do global configuration for your matcher, it has to
implement the <tt>org.apache.avalon.framework.configuration.Configurable</tt>
interface.</p>

<p>Local configuration parameters are avalon parameters and thus can be easily
read and used with the generated matcher method.</p>

<p>If the matcher returns not null, the match was successful and the nested sub
pipeline is executed. Components in sub pipeline can access the matching result
through the returned map.</p>

<p>The easiest way to write your own matcher would be to base it upon
org.apache.cocoon.matching.WildcardURIMatcher and override the getMatchString
method with your own.</p>

<h2>Selectors</h2>

<p>Selectors and selector factories differ from their matcher counter parts only
in the fact that selectors return boolean values rather than maps. Thus when a
selector returns <tt>true</tt> the nested elements will be included in the
processing, otherwise they are not included. Since no map is returned, no
additional information may be passed to those elements.</p>

<p>For selectors, the last argument reads <tt>param</tt> instead of
<tt>parameters</tt>.</p>

</body>
</html>

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