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From stev...@outerthought.org
Subject [WIKI-UPDATE] InterpretedSitemapInternals Sun Oct 26 14:00:02 2003
Date Sun, 26 Oct 2003 13:00:03 GMT
Page: http://wiki.cocoondev.org/Wiki.jsp?page=InterpretedSitemapInternals , version: 2 on Sun
Oct 26 13:10:14 2003 by SylvainWallez

+ This document explains the internals of the intepreted sitemap. This is of real interest
only to very advanced core developpers, and absolutely not needed to use Cocoon in an efficient
way.
- The TreeProcessor works by creating an evaluation tree of ProcessingNodes corresponding
to sitemap statements. It asks a TreeBuilder to create this tree and then handles requests
with it.
-  
- The TreeBuilder reads the sitemap file (in an Avalon Configuration object) and builds this
tree by invoking a ProcessingNodeBuilder for each element encountered in the sitemap. The
ProcessingNodeBuilder in turn creates an appropriate ProcessingNode that will be used at runtime
to "execute" the sitemap.
- The ProcessingNode isn't created directly from the sitemap element, since some sitemap elements
don't always lead to identical processing depending either on their attributes (e.g. <map:call
resource=""> and <map:call function="">) or the used components (e.g. <map:match>
which is different for regular Matcher and PreparedMatcher).
- The DefaultTreeBuilder has a createComponentManager() method that creates - guess what?
- the CM that is to be used within the processing tree to lookup components. In that default
implementation, this is just the "current" one (i.e. the one passed to "compose()").
+ !The reasons for a new engine
- But if you look at SitemapLanguage, which is a subclass of DefaultTreeBuilder, you will
notice that its createComponentManager() method creates a new CocoonComponentManager and configures
it with <map:components>. So <map:components> defines components of the sitemap
just a cocoon.xconf defines them for the Cocoon object.
+ [I|SylvainWallez] started the TreeProcessor for two reasons.
- Adding a custom classloader to the sitemap to handle blocks should thus be just a matter
of giving that custom classloader to the created CM.
+ The first reason was that the sitemap engine at that time was compiled into a Java class
like XSP. But the sitemap logicsheet was very complex and recompiling a large sitemap took
ages (more than 20 seconds on the samples sitemap), leading to painful try/fail cycles. We
needed something faster.
+ The second reason was that at that time (autumn 2001), a number of RTs were written related
to what we called "flowmaps" and later led to flowscript. These RTs were describing new ways
to build a pipeline to take flow into account, but no real code was written to test these
ideas, because deeply changing the way the sitemap code was generated was very painful: finding
its way into the 2000-lines XSLT was not easy.
+ 
+ So I decided to consider another approach, based on an evaluation tree (hence TreeProcessor),
each node in the tree corresponding to a xxxmap instruction (sitemap or flowmap).
+ 
+ An additional motivation for me was that it would require me to heavily use the Avalon concepts
and therefore increase my knowledge in this area. This was mostly written at home, and my
wife deserves many thanks, because this thing took my brain day and night for more than 2
months ;-)
+ 
+ ! Major principles
+ 
+ The main idea of the TreeProcessor is that each kind of instruction (e.g. <map:act>,
<map:generate>, etc) is described by two classes :
+ * a ProcessingNode, the runtime object that will execute the instruction,
+ * a ProcessingNodeBuilder, responsible for creating the ProcessingNode with the appropriate
data and/or childnodes, extracted from attributes, child elements, etc.
+ 
+ Implementing the sitemap language then translates into writing the appropriate ProcessingNodeBuilder
classes for all statements of the language. But since we were discussing flowmaps and other
pipeline construction approaches, I wanted this to be easily extensible, and even allow the
simultaneous use of different languages in the system (sitemap/flowmap). This is why <map:mount>
supports an additional undocumented and never used "language" attribute (see MountNodeBuilder)
+ 
+ So the TreeProcessor configuration contains the definition of TreeBuilder implementations
for various "languages", the sitemap being the only one we have today. The whole configuration
document is actually a ComponentSelector for TreeBuilder implementations. The SitemapLanguage
class is the implementation of TreeBuilder for the sitemap language. A TreeBuilder builds
a processing node tree based on a file (e.g. sitemap.xmap) that is read in an Avalon configuration
(this was chosen for its ease of use compared to raw DOM).
+ 
+ 
+ !Roles, selectors and <map:components>
+ 
+ The <map:components> section of a sitemap is used to configure a ComponentManager
(child of either the parent sitemap's manager or the main manager), and the <roles>
section of the TreeProcessor configuration defines a RoleSelector that is used by this manager.
For the sitemap, it defines the shorthands that will map <map:generators>, <map:selectors>,
etc, to a special "ComponentsSelector" (yeah, the name could be better).
+ 
+ This ComponentsSelector handles the <map:components> syntax ("src" and not "class",
etc), and holds the "default" attribute, view labels and mime types for each hint (these are
not know by the components themselves).
+ 
+ 
+ !Building the processing tree
+ 
+ The second section in a language configuration, <nodes>, defines a ComponentSelector
for ProcessingNodeBuilders. For each element encountered in the sitemap source file, the corresponding
node builder is fetched from this selector with the local name of the element as the selection
hint, i.e. <map:act> will lead to selector.select("act").
+ 
+ The contents of each <node> element is the specific Avalon configuration of the corresponding
ProcessingNodeBuilder and mostly define the allowed child statements.
+ 
+ Now a sitemap is not a tree, but a graph because of resources and views that can be called
from any point in the sitemap. To handle this, building the processing tree follows two phases:
+ * the whole node tree is built, and nodes that other nodes can link (or jump) to are registered
in the common TreeBuilder by their respective node builders (see TreeBuilder.registerNode()).
+ * then then those node builders that implement LikedProcessingNodeBuilder are asked link
their node, which they do by fetching the appropriate node registered in the first phase.
+ 
+ We then obtain an evaluation tree (in reality a graph) that is ready for use. All build-time
related components are then released.
+ 
+ It is to be noted also, that a ProcessingNode is considered as a "non-managed component":
with the help of the LifecycleHelper class, the TreeBuilder honours any of the Avalon lifecycle
interfaces that a node implements. This is required as many nodes require access to the component
selectors defined by <map:components>. Disposable nodes are collected in a list that
the TreeProcessor traverses when needed (sitemap change or system disposal).
+ 
+ Great care has been taken to cleanly separate build-time and run-time code and data, to
ensure the smallest memory occupation and the fastest possible execution. This led this intepreted
engine to be a bit faster at runtime than the compiled one (build time is more than 20 times
faster).
+ 
+ 
+ !Building a pipeline
+ 
+ When a request has to be processed, the TreeProcessor calls invoke() on the root node of
the evaluation tree. This method has two parameters: the environment defining the request,
and an InvokeContext that mainly holds the pipeline that is being built and the stack of sitemap
variables.
+ 
+ The invoke method executes all processing nodes (depth first) until one them returns "true",
meaning that a pipeline was successfully built. Examples of nodes that return true are serializers,
readers and redirect.
+ 
+ If the environment is external, the pipeline is executed as soon as it is ended (i.e. in
the reader or serializer node). But if the environment is internal (i.e. a "cocoon:" source),
it is not, meaning the pipeline is returned to the SitemapSource, ready for later execution
if requested so (e.g. by a Source.getInputStream()). 
+ 



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