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From sa...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r752572 [3/3] - in /incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation: ./ docs/ xdocs/ xdocs/src/ xdocs/src/css/ xdocs/src/css/html/ xdocs/src/docbook/ xdocs/src/docbook/click/ xdocs/src/images/ xdocs/src/images/best-practices/ xdocs/src/images/con...
Date Wed, 11 Mar 2009 18:55:50 GMT
Added: incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-introduction.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-introduction.xml?rev=752572&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-introduction.xml (added)
+++ incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-introduction.xml Wed Mar 11 18:55:49 2009
@@ -0,0 +1,792 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!--
+ Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ distributed with this work for additional information
+ regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+ http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+ Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ under the License.
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter-introduction">
+  <title>Introduction to Click</title>
+
+  <sect1 id="preface">
+    <title>Preface</title>
+
+    <para>Click is a simple JEE web application framework for commercial
+    Java developers.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Click is an open source project, licensed under the
+    <ulink url="../../LICENSE.txt"><citetitle>Apache license</citetitle>
+    </ulink>.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Click uses an event based programming model for processing Servlet
+    requests and <ulink url="../../velocity/velocity.html">Velocity</ulink> for
+    rendering the response. (Note other template engines such as
+    <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/">JSP</ulink> and
+    <ulink url="http://freemarker.sourceforge.net/">Freemarker</ulink> are also
+    supported)
+    </para>
+
+    <para>This framework uses a single servlet, called
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/ClickServlet.html">ClickServlet</ulink>,
+    to act as a request dispatcher. When a request arrives ClickServlet creates
+    a <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html">Page</ulink>
+    object to process the request and then uses the page's Velocity template to
+    render the results.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Pages provide a simple thread safe programming environment, with a new
+    page instance created for each servlet request.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Possibly the best way to see how Click works is to dive right in and
+    look at some examples.
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="hello-world">Hello World</link> - the Hello World
+          classic
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="control-listener">Control Listener</link> - an
+          ActionLink control listener example
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="simple-table">Simple Table</link> - a simple Table
+          control example
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="advanced-table">Advanced Table</link> - a more advanced
+          Table example
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="simple-form">Simple Form</link> - a simple Form example
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <link linkend="advanced-form">Advanced Form</link> - a more advanced
+          Form example
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <para>These examples are available online at
+  <ulink url="http://www.avoka.com/click-examples/">http://www.avoka.com/click-examples/</ulink>
+  under the menu "Intro Examples".
+  </para>
+
+  <sect1 id="hello-world">
+    <title>Hello World Example</title>
+
+    <para>A Hello World example in Click would look something like this.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>First we create a <classname>HelloWorld</classname> page class:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">package <symbol>examples.page</symbol>;
+
+import java.util.Date;
+import org.apache.click.Page;
+
+public HelloWorld extends Page {
+
+    private Date time = new Date(); <co id="co-hello-world-date" linkends="ca-hello-world-date"/>
+
+    public HelloWorld() {
+        addModel("time", time); <co id="co-hello-world-addmodel" linkends="ca-hello-world-addmodel"/>
+    }
+
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <calloutlist>
+      <callout arearefs="co-hello-world-date" id="ca-hello-world-date">
+        <para>Assign a new Date instance to the <literal>time</literal> variable.
+        </para>
+      </callout>
+      <callout arearefs="co-hello-world-addmodel" id="ca-hello-world-addmodel">
+        <para>Add the <literal>time</literal> variable to the Page model under
+        the name <varname>"time"</varname>. Click ensures all objects added
+        to the Page model is automatically available in the Page template.
+        </para>
+      </callout>
+    </calloutlist>
+
+    <para>Next we have a page template <varname>hello-world.htm</varname>,
+    <indexterm><primary>Big Cats</primary><secondary>Tigers</secondary></indexterm>
+    where we can access the Page's <literal>time</literal> variable using the
+    reference <varname>$time</varname>:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    &lt;h2&gt;Hello World&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+    Hello world from Click at <varname>$time</varname>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Click is smart enough to figure out that the <classname>HelloWorld</classname>
+    page class maps to the template <varname>hello-world.htm</varname>. We only
+    have to inform Click of the <package>package</package> of the HelloWorld
+    class, in this case <symbol>examples.page</symbol>. We do that through the
+    <link linkend="application-configuration">click.xml</link> configuration
+    file which allows Click to map <varname>hello-world.htm</varname> requests
+    to the <classname>examples.page.HelloWorld</classname> page class.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;click-app&gt;
+  &lt;pages package="<symbol>examples.page</symbol>"/&gt;
+&lt;/click-app&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>At runtime the following sequence of events occur. The ClickSerlvet
+    maps a GET <varname>hello-world.htm</varname> request to our page class
+    <classname>example.page.HelloWorld</classname> and creates a new instance.
+    The HelloWorld page creates a new private <emphasis>Date</emphasis> object,
+    which is added to the page's model under the name <varname>time</varname>.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The page model is then merged with the template which substitutes
+    the <varname>$time</varname> reference with the <emphasis>Date</emphasis>
+    object. Velocity then renders the merged template which looks something like:
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="hello-world-screenshot">
+      <title>Hello World Screenshot</title>
+      <inlinemediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/hello-world-screenshot.png" format="PNG" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </inlinemediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="control-listener">
+    <title>Control Listener Example</title>
+
+    <para>Click includes a library of <link linkend="chapter-controls">Controls</link>
+    which provide user interface functionality.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>One of the commonly used controls is the
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/ActionLink.html">ActionLink</ulink>,
+    which you can use to have an HTML link call a method on a Page object.
+    For example:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class ControlListenerPage extends Page {
+
+    public ActionLink myLink = new ActionLink();
+
+    public String msg;
+    
+    // ------------------------------------------------------- Constructors
+
+    /**
+     * Create a new Page instance.
+     */
+    public ControlListenerPage() {
+        myLink.setListener(this, "onMyLinkClick");
+    }
+    
+    // ----------------------------------------------------- Event Handlers
+
+    /**
+     * Handle the myLink control click event.
+     */
+    public boolean onMyLinkClick() {
+        msg = "ControlListenerPage#" + hashCode()
+            + " object method &lt;tt&gt;onMyLinkClick()&lt;/tt&gt; invoked.";
+
+        return true;
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>In the Page class we create an ActionLink called
+    <varname>myLink</varname> and define the control's listener to be the page
+    method <methodname>onMyLinkClick()</methodname>. When a user clicks on
+    <varname>myLink</varname> control it will invoke the listener method
+    <methodname>onMyLinkClick()</methodname>.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>In Click a control listener method can have any name but it must
+    return a boolean value. The boolean return value specifies whether
+    processing of page events should continue. This control listener pattern
+    provides a short hand way for wiring up action listener methods without
+    having to define anonymous inner classes.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Back to our example, in the page template we define a HTML link and
+    have the <varname>myLink</varname> control render the link's href attribute:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    &lt;link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css"&gt;&lt;/link&gt;
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+  
+  Click myLink control &lt;a href="<varname>$myLink.href</varname>"&gt;here&lt;/a&gt;.
+
+  <command>#if</command> (<varname>$msg</varname>)
+    &lt;div id="msgDiv"&gt; <varname>$msg</varname> &lt;/div&gt;
+  <command>#end</command>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>At runtime this page would be rendered as:</para>
+
+    <literallayout>Click myLink control <varname>here</varname>.</literallayout>
+
+    <para>When a user clicks on the link the <methodname>onMyLinkClick()</methodname>
+    method is invoked. This method then creates <varname>msg</varname> model
+    value, which is rendered in the page as:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>Click myLink control <varname>here</varname>.
+
+<computeroutput>ControlListenerPage#12767107 object method onMyLinkClick() invoked.</computeroutput></literallayout>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="simple-table">
+    <title>Simple Table Example</title>
+
+    <para>One of the most useful Click controls is the
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Table.html">Table</ulink>
+    control.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>An example usage of the Table control in a customers Page is provided
+    below:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class SimpleTablePage extends Page {
+
+    public Table table = new Table();
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------------- Constructor
+     
+    public SimpleTablePage() {
+        table.setClass(Table.CLASS_ITS);
+        
+        table.addColumn(new Column("id"));
+        table.addColumn(new Column("name"));
+        table.addColumn(new Column("email"));
+        table.addColumn(new Column("investments"));
+    }
+    
+    // ----------------------------------------------------- Event Handlers
+     
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onRender()
+     */
+    public void onRender() {
+        List list = getCustomerService().getCustomersSortedByName(10);
+        table.setRowList(list); 
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>In this Page code example a Table control is declared, we set the
+    table's HTML class, and then define a number of table
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Column.html">Column</ulink>
+    objects. In the column definitions we specify the name of the column in the
+    constructor, which is used for the table column header and also to specify
+    the row object property to render.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The last thing we need to do is populate the table with data. To do
+    this we override the Page onRender() method and set the table row list
+    before it is rendered.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>In our Page template we simply reference the <varname>$table</varname>
+    object which is rendered when its <methodname>toString()</methodname> method
+    is called.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    <varname>$cssImports</varname>
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    <varname>$table</varname>
+
+    <varname>$jsImports</varname>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Note above we also specify the <varname>$cssImports</varname>
+    reference so the table can include any CSS imports or styles in the header,
+    and the <varname>$jsImports</varname> reference any JavaScript imports or
+    scripts at the bottom. At runtime Click automatically makes the variables
+    <varname>$cssImports</varname> and <varname>$jsImports</varname> available
+    to the template.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>At runtime the Table would be rendered in the page as:</para>
+
+    <figure id="simple-table-image">
+      <title>Simple Table</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/simple-table.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="advanced-table">
+    <title>Advanced Table Example</title>
+
+    <para>The Table control also provides support for:</para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>automatic rendering</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>column formatting and custom rendering</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>automatic pagination</para>
+      </listitem>
+
+      <listitem>
+        <para>link control support</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>A more advanced Table example is provided below:</para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class CustomerPage extends Page {
+
+    public Table table = new Table();
+    public PageLink editLink = new PageLink("Edit", EditCustomer.class);
+    public ActionLink deleteLink = new ActionLink("Delete", this, "onDeleteClick");
+
+    // ------------------------------------- Constructor
+     
+    public CustomersPage() {
+        table.setClass(Table.CLASS_ITS);
+        table.setPageSize(10);
+        table.setShowBanner(true);
+        table.setSortable(true);
+
+        table.addColumn(new Column("id"));
+
+        table.addColumn(new Column("name"));
+        
+        Column column = new Column("email");
+        column.setAutolink(true);
+        column.setTitleProperty("name");
+        table.addColumn(column);
+        
+        table.addColumn(new Column("investments"));
+        
+        editLink.setImageSrc("/images/table-edit.png");
+        editLink.setTitle("Edit customer details");
+        editLink.setParameter("referrer", "/introduction/advanced-table.htm");
+        
+        deleteLink.setImageSrc("/images/table-delete.png");
+        deleteLink.setTitle("Delete customer record");
+        deleteLink.setAttribute("onclick",
+            "return window.confirm('Are you sure you want to delete this record?');");
+
+        column = new Column("Action");
+        column.setTextAlign("center");
+        AbstractLink[] links = new AbstractLink[] { editLink, deleteLink };
+        column.setDecorator(new LinkDecorator(table, links, "id"));
+        column.setSortable(false);
+        table.addColumn(column);
+    }
+    
+    // ---------------------------------- Event Handlers
+         
+    /**
+     * Handle the delete row click event.
+     */    
+    public boolean onDeleteClick() {
+        Integer id = deleteLink.getValueInteger();
+        getCustomerService().deleteCustomer(id);
+        return true;
+    }
+    
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onRender()
+     */
+    public void onRender() {
+        List list = getCustomerService().getCustomersByName();
+        table.setRowList(list);
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>In this Page code example a Table control is declared and a number of
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Column.html">Column</ulink>
+    objects are added. A deleteLink
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/ActionLink.html">ActionLink</ulink>
+    control is used as a decorator for the "Action" column. This control will
+    invoke the Page <methodname>onDeleteClick()</methodname> method when it is
+    clicked. Finally we have the Page <methodname>onRender()</methodname> method
+    which is used to populate the Table control with rows before it is rendered.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>In our Page template we simply reference the <varname>$table</varname>
+    object which is rendered when its <methodname>toString()</methodname> method
+    is called.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    <varname>$cssImports</varname>
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    <varname>$table</varname>
+
+    <varname>$jsImports</varname>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>At runtime the Table would be rendered in the page as:</para>
+
+    <figure id="advanced-table-image">
+      <title>Advanced Table</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/advanced-table.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>In this example if a user click on the Delete link, the
+    <methodname>onDeleteClick()</methodname> method will be called on the Page
+    deleting the customer record.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="simple-form">
+    <title>Simple Form Example</title>
+
+    <para>The <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Form.html">Form</ulink>
+    and <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Field.html">Field</ulink>
+    controls are also some of the most commonly used controls in the Click Framework.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The SimpleForm page below provides a demonstration of using these
+    controls.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>In our example code we have the page's constructor adding a
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/TextField.html">TextField</ulink>
+    field and a <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Submit.html">Submit</ulink>
+    button to the form. A page method is also set as a control listener on the
+    form. Also note in this example the page's public <varname>form</varname>
+    field is automatically added to its list of controls.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class SimpleForm extends Page {
+
+    public Form form = new Form();
+    public String msg;
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------------- Constructor
+
+    public SimpleForm() {
+        form.add(new TextField("name", true));
+        form.add(new Submit("OK"));
+
+        form.setListener(this, "onSubmit");
+    }
+
+    // ----------------------------------------------------- Event Handlers
+
+    /**
+     * Handle the form submit event.
+     */
+    public boolean onSubmit() {
+        if (form.isValid()) {
+            msg = "Your name is " + form.getFieldValue("name");
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Next we have the SimpleForm template <varname>simple-form.htm</varname>.
+    The Click application automatically associates the
+    <varname>simple-form.htm</varname> template with the
+    <classname>SimpleForm</classname> class.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    <varname>$cssImports</varname>
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    <varname>$form</varname>
+
+    <command>#if</command> (<varname>$msg</varname>)
+      &lt;div id="msgDiv"&gt; <varname>$msg</varname> &lt;/div&gt;
+    <command>#end</command>
+
+    <varname>$jsImports</varname>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>When the SimpleForm page is first requested the <varname>$form</varname>
+    object will automatically render itself as:
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="simple-form-image">
+      <title>Simple Form</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/simple-form.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>Say the user does not enter their name and presses the OK button to
+    submit the form. The <classname>ClickServlet</classname> creates a new
+    SimpleForm page and processes the form control.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The form control processes its fields and determines that it is
+    invalid. The form then invokes the listener method
+    <methodname>onSubmit()</methodname>. As the form is not valid this method
+    simply returns true and the form renders the field validation errors.
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="simple-form-error-image">
+      <title>Form after an invalid request</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/simple-form-error.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>Note the form will automatically maintain the entered state during the
+    post and validate cycle.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Now if the user enters their name and clicks the OK button, the form
+    will be valid and the <methodname>onSubmit()</methodname> add a
+    <varname>msg</varname> to the Pages model. This will be rendered as:
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="simple-form-success-image">
+      <title>Form after a valid request</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/simple-form-success.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="advanced-form">
+    <title>Advanced Form Example</title>
+
+    <para>The <classname>AdvancedForm</classname> page below provides a more
+    advanced demonstration of using Form, Field and FielsSet controls.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>First we have an <classname>AdvancedForm</classname> class which
+    setups up a <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Form.html">Form</ulink>
+    in its constructor. The form's investment
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Select.html">Select</ulink>
+    list is populated in the page's <methodname>onInit()</methodname> method. At
+    this point any page dependencies such as the CustomerService should be
+    available.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Note in this example the page's public <varname>form</varname> field
+    is automatically added to its list of controls. The <varname>msg</varname>
+    field is added to the page's model.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class AdvancedForm extends Page {
+
+    public Form form = new Form();
+    public String msg;
+
+    private Select investmentSelect = new Select("investment");
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------------- Constructor
+
+    public AdvancedForm() {
+        FieldSet fieldSet = new FieldSet("Customer");
+        form.add(fieldSet);
+
+        TextField nameField = new TextField("name", true);
+        nameField.setMinLength(5);
+        nameField.setFocus(true);
+        fieldSet.add(nameField);
+
+        fieldSet.add(new EmailField("email", true));
+
+        fieldSet.add(investmentSelect);
+
+        fieldSet.add(new DateField("dateJoined", true));
+        fieldSet.add(new Checkbox("active"));
+
+        form.add(new Submit("ok", " OK ", this, "onOkClicked"));
+        form.add(new Submit("cancel", this, "onCancelClicked"));
+    }
+
+    // ----------------------------------------------------- Event Handlers
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onInit()
+     */
+    public void onInit() {
+        CustomerService customerService = getCustomerService();
+        investmentSelect.add(Option.EMPTY_OPTION);
+        investmentSelect.addAll(customerService.getInvestmentCatetories());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle the OK button click event.
+     *
+     * @return true
+     */
+    public boolean onOkClicked() {
+        if (form.isValid()) {
+            Customer customer = new Customer();
+            form.copyTo(customer);
+
+            getCustomerService().saveCustomer(customer);
+
+            form.clearValues();
+
+            msg = "A new customer record has been created.";
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Handle the Cancel button click event.
+     *
+     * @return false
+     */
+    public boolean onCancelClicked() {
+        setRedirect(HomePage.class);
+        return false;
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Next we have the AdvancedForm template
+    <filename>advanced-form.htm</filename>. The Click application automatically
+    associates the <filename>advanced-form.htm</filename> template with the
+    <classname>AdvancedForm</classname> class.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    <varname>$cssImports</varname>
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    <command>#if</command> (<varname>$msg</varname>)
+      &lt;div id="msgDiv"&gt; <varname>$msg</varname> &lt;/div&gt;
+    <command>#end</command>
+
+    <varname>$form</varname>
+
+    <varname>$jsImports</varname>
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>When the AdvancedForm page is first requested the
+    <varname>$form</varname> object will automatically render itself as:
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="advanced-form-image">
+      <title>Advanced Form</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/introduction/advanced-form.png" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>In this example when the OK button is clicked the
+    <methodname>onOkClicked()</methodname> method is invoked. If the form is
+    valid a new customer object is created and the forms field values are copied
+    to the new object using the Form
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Form.html#copyTo(java.lang.Object)">copyTo()</ulink>
+    method. The customer object is then saved, the form's field values are
+    cleared and an info message is presented to the user.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>If the user clicks on the Cancel button the request is redirected to
+    the applications HomePage.
+    </para>
+
+    <sect2 id="form-layout">
+      <title>Form Layout</title>
+
+      <para>In the example above the Form control automatically renders the form
+      and the fields HTML markup. This is a great feature for quickly building
+      screens, and the form control provides a number of layout options. See the
+      Click Examples for an interactive
+      <ulink url="http://www.avoka.com/click-examples/form/form-properties.htm">Form Properties demo</ulink>.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>For fine grained page design you can specifically layout form and
+      fields in your page template. See the
+      <link linkend="template-layout">Template Layout</link> section and
+      <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Form.html#form-layout">Form</ulink>
+      Javadoc for more details.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>An alternative to page template design is using a programmatic
+      approach. See <link linkend="programmatic-layout">Programmatic Layout</link>
+      for more details.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>

Added: incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-pages.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-pages.xml?rev=752572&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-pages.xml (added)
+++ incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/chapter-pages.xml Wed Mar 11 18:55:49 2009
@@ -0,0 +1,1341 @@
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
+<!--
+ Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ distributed with this work for additional information
+ regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+ http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+ Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ under the License.
+-->
+<chapter id="chapter-pages" remap="h1">
+  <title>Pages</title>
+
+  <para>Pages are the heart of web applications. In Click, Pages encapsulate
+  the processing of HTML requests and the rendering of HTML responses.
+  The section discusses Click pages and covers to following topics:
+  </para>
+
+  <orderedlist>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="classes">Classes</link>  - page Java classes
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="execution">Execution</link>  - page execution sequence
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="request-param-auto-binding">Request Param Auto Binding</link>
+        - request parameter to page field auto binding
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-security">Security</link>  - page security model
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-navigation">Navigation</link>  - navigation
+        between pages
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-templating">Page Templating</link>  - templating
+        common page content
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-direct-rendering">Direct Rendering</link>
+        - page direct rendering
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="stateful-pages">Stateful</link>  - stateful pages
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-error-handling">Error Handling</link>  - page
+        error handling
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-not-found">Page Not Found</link>  - page not
+        found handling
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+    <listitem>
+      <para>
+        <link linkend="page-message-properties">Page Message Properties</link>
+        - pages message properties
+      </para>
+    </listitem>
+  </orderedlist>
+
+  <para>In Click, a logical page is composed of a Java class and a Velocity
+  template, with these components being defined in page elements of the
+  <link linkend="application-configuration">click.xml</link>
+  file:
+  </para>
+
+  <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>search.htm</varname>" classname="<token>com.mycorp.page.Search</token>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+  <para>The path attribute specifies the location of the page Velocity template,
+  and the classname attribute specifies the page Java class name. If you use
+  the Freemarker template engine instead of Velocity, the setup is the same.
+  </para>
+
+  <para>The template path must have an <varname>.htm</varname> extension which
+  is specified in <link linkend="servlet-configuration">web.xml</link> to route
+  *.htm requests to the <classname>ClickServlet</classname>. Please note that
+  currently Click only accepts <varname>.htm</varname> requests, and cannot be
+  mapped to a different extension in <filename>web.xml</filename>.
+  </para>
+
+  <para>If you use JSP pages for rendering the <varname>.jsp</varname> extension
+  must be used. For example:
+  </para>
+
+  <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>search.jsp</varname>" classname="<token>com.mycorp.page.Search</token>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+  <para>At runtime Click automatically converts the page path from
+  <varname>.jsp</varname> to <varname>.htm</varname> and back, so there is no
+  need to map the <varname>.jsp</varname> extension in <filename>web.xml</filename>.
+  </para>
+
+  <sect1 id="classes" remap="h2">
+    <title>Classes</title>
+
+    <para> All custom Click pages must subclass the
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html">Page</ulink> base class.
+    The Page class and its associated companion classes, Context and Control,
+    are depicted in the figure below.
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="page-class-diagram">
+      <title>Page Class Diagram &nbsp;-&nbsp; created with Enterprise Architect
+      courtesy <ulink url="http://www.sparxsystems.com.au">Sparx Systems</ulink>
+      </title>
+      <inlinemediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/pages/click-class-diagram.png" format="PNG" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </inlinemediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>The Page class provides a
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#model">model</ulink>
+    attribute which is used to hold all the objects that are rendered in the
+    page's Velocity template. The model may also contain
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Control.html">Control</ulink>
+    objects, which provide user interface controls on the Page.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Pages also have an associated
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Context.html">Context</ulink>
+    object which references all the javax.servlet objects associated with the
+    request. When programming in Click you use the Context object to access
+    HttpServletRequest attributes, parameters and the HttpSession object.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="execution" remap="h2">
+    <title>Execution</title>
+
+    <para>The Page class provide a number of empty handler methods which
+    subclasses can override to provide functionality:
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onSecurityCheck()">onSecurityCheck()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onInit()">onInit()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onGet()">onGet()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onPost()">onPost()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onRender()">onRender()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onDestroy()">onDestroy()</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>The ClickServlet relies on instantiating Pages using a public no
+    arguments constructor, so when you create Page subclasses you must ensure
+    you don't add an incompatible constructor. The GET request execution sequence
+    for Pages is summarized below in the Figure 2.
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="get-sequence-diagram">
+      <title>GET Request Sequence Diagram &nbsp;-&nbsp; created with Enterprise
+      Architect courtesy <ulink url="http://www.sparxsystems.com.au">Sparx Systems</ulink>
+      </title>
+      <inlinemediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/pages/get-sequence-diagram.png" format="PNG" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </inlinemediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>Stepping through this GET request sequence, a new Page instance is
+    created and the attributes for the Page are set (context, format, headers,
+    path). Next, request parameter values are bound to any matching public
+    Page fields.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Then the <methodname>onSecurityCheck()</methodname> handler is executed.
+    This method can be used to ensure the user is authorized to access the page,
+    and if necessary abort any further processing.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The next method invoked is <methodname>onInit()</methodname>, this is
+    where you place any post constructor initialization code.
+    <methodname>onInit()</methodname> is the ideal place to create controls such
+    as Forms, Fields and Tables. As illustrated by the diagram, after a Page's
+    <methodname>onInit()</methodname> is called, each Control, available at that
+    stage, will have their <methodname>onInit()</methodname> method called.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>
+    The next step is the processing of the Page's
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#controls">controls</ulink>.
+    The ClickSerlvet gets the list of Controls from the page and then iterates
+    through the list calling <methodname>onProcess()</methodname>. If any of the
+    Control's <methodname>onProcess()</methodname> methods return false,
+    processing of subsequent controls and the Page's <methodname>onGet()</methodname>
+    method is aborted.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>If everything is executing normally the Page's
+    <methodname>onGet()</methodname> method is now called.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The next step is rendering the page template to generate the displayed
+    HTML. The ClickServlet gets the model (<classname>Map</classname>) from the
+    Page then adds the following objects to the model:
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>any public Page fields using the fields name</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>context &nbsp;-&nbsp; the Servlet context path, e.g. /mycorp</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>cssImports &nbsp;-&nbsp; the CSS imports and style blocks to include
+        in the pages header. Please see
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/PageImports.html">PageImports</ulink>
+        for more details.
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>format &nbsp;-&nbsp; the
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/Format.html">Format</ulink>
+        object for formatting the display of objects.
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>imports &nbsp;-&nbsp; the CSS and JavaScript imports to include in the pages
+        header. Please see
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/PageImports.html">PageImports</ulink>
+        for more details.
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>jsImports &nbsp;-&nbsp; the JavaScript imports and script blocks to include in the pages footer. Please see
+          <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/PageImports.html">PageImports</ulink> for more details.
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>messages &nbsp;-&nbsp; the
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/MessagesMap.html">MessagesMap</ulink>
+        adaptor for the Page
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#getMessage(java.lang.String)">getMessage()</ulink>
+        method
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>path &nbsp;-&nbsp; the
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#path">path</ulink> of
+        the page template to render
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>request &nbsp;-&nbsp; the pages
+        <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletRequest.html">HttpServletRequest</ulink>
+        object
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>response &nbsp;-&nbsp; the pages
+        <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletResponse.html">HttpServletResponse</ulink>
+        object
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>session &nbsp;-&nbsp; the
+        <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/SessionMap.html">SessionMap</ulink>
+        adaptor for the users
+        <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpSession.html">HttpSession</ulink>
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>It then merges the template with the page model and writes out results
+    to the HttpServletResponse. When the model is being merged with the template,
+    any Controls in the model may be rendered using their
+    <methodname>toString()</methodname> method.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The final step in this sequence is invoking each control's
+    <methodname>onDestroy()</methodname> method and lastly invoke the Page's
+    <methodname>onDestroy()</methodname> method. This method can be used to
+    clean up resource associated with the Control or Page before it is garbage
+    collected. The <methodname>onDestroy()</methodname> method is guaranteed to
+    be called even if an exception occurs in the previous steps.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The execution sequence for POST requests is almost identical, except
+    the <methodname>onPost()</methodname> method is invoked instead on
+    <methodname>onGet()</methodname>. See the
+    <ulink url="../../../images/post-sequence-diagram.png">POST Request Sequence Diagram</ulink>.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Another view on the execution flow of Pages is illustrated in the
+    Activity diagram below.
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="activity-diagram">
+      <title>Page Execution Activity Diagram &nbsp;-&nbsp; created with Enterprise
+      Architect courtesy <ulink url="http://www.sparxsystems.com.au">Sparx Systems</ulink>
+      </title>
+      <inlinemediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/pages/activity-diagram-small.png" format="PNG" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </inlinemediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="request-param-auto-binding" remap="h2">
+    <title>Request Param Auto Binding</title>
+
+    <para>Click will automatically bind any request parameter values to public
+    Page fields with the same name. When binding these values it will also
+    attempt to convert them to the correct type.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The best way to understand this is to walk through an example. Our
+    application recieves a GET request:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>http://localhost:8080/mycorp/customer-details.htm?<varname>customerId</varname>=<symbol>7203</symbol></literallayout>
+
+    <para>This request is automatically handled by our
+    <classname>CustomerDetails</classname> page:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">package com.mycorp.page;
+
+public class CustomerDetails extends Page {
+
+    public Integer <varname>customerId</varname>;
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>After the CustomerDetails page has been created the
+    "<varname>customerId</varname>" request parameter value "<symbol>7023</symbol>"
+    will be converted into an Integer and assigned to the public page field
+    <varname>customerId</varname>.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Another feature of Click is that any public Page fields are
+    automatically added to the page's model before it is rendered. This will
+    make these values available in the page template for display. In our example
+    the public <varname>customerId</varname> field will be added to the Page
+    model and will be available for rendering in the page template.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Our customer-details.htm page template contains:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+&lt;body&gt;
+
+  Customer ID: <symbol>$</symbol><varname>customerId</varname>
+
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>After processing the request our page would be rendered as:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>Customer ID: 7203</literallayout>
+
+    <sect2 id="customizing-auto-binding" remap="h3">
+      <title>Customizing Auto Binding</title>
+
+      <para>Auto binding supports the conversion of request string parameters
+      into the Java classes: Integer, Double, Boolean, Byte, Character, Short,
+      Long, Float, BigInteger, BigDecimal, String and the various Date classes.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>By default type conversion is performed by the
+      <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/RequestTypeConverter.html">RequestTypeConverter</ulink>
+      class which is used by the ClickServlet method
+      <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/ClickServlet.html#getTypeConverter()">getTypeConverter()</ulink>.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>If you need to add support for additional types, you would write your
+      own type converter class and subclass the ClickSerlvet to use your custom
+      converter.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>For example if we wanted to automatically load a
+      <classname>Customer</classname> object from the database when a customer
+      id request parameter is specified, you could write your own type converter:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class CustomTypeConverter extends RequestTypeConverter {
+
+    private CustomerService customerService = new CustomerService();
+
+    /**
+     * @see RequestTypeConverter#convertValue(Object, Class)
+     */
+    protected Object convertValue(Object value, Class toType) {
+        if (toType == Customer.class) {
+            return customerService.getCustomerForId(value);
+
+        } else {
+            return super.convertValue(value, toType);
+        }
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>This type converter would handle the following request:
+      </para>
+
+      <literallayout>http://localhost:8080/mycorp/customer-details.htm?<varname>customer</varname>=<symbol>7203</symbol></literallayout>
+
+      <para>This request will load the <varname>customer</varname> object from
+      the database using "<symbol>7203</symbol>" as the customer id value. The
+      ClickServlet would then assign this <varname>customer</varname> object to
+      the matching page field:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">package com.mycorp.page;
+
+public class CustomerDetails extends Page {
+
+    public Customer <varname>customer</varname>;
+
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>To make your custom type converter available you will need to
+      subclass ClickServlet and override the
+      <methodname>getTypeConverter()</methodname> method. For example:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class CustomClickServlet extends ClickServlet {
+
+    /**
+     * @see ClickServlet#getTypeConverter()
+     */
+    protected TypeConverter getTypeConverter() {
+        if (typeConverter == null) {
+            typeConverter = new CustomTypeConverter();
+        }
+        return typeConverter;
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="page-security" remap="h2">
+    <title>Security</title>
+
+    <para>Pages provide an
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onSecurityCheck()">onSecurityCheck</ulink>
+    event handler which application pages can override to implement a
+    programmatic security model.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Please note you generally don't need to use this capability, and where
+    possible you should use the declarative JEE security model. See the Best
+    Practices <link linkend="security">Security</link> topic for more details.
+    </para>
+
+    <sect2 id="applications-authentication" remap="h3">
+      <title>Application Authentication</title>
+
+      <para>Applications can use the <methodname>onSecurityCheck()</methodname>
+      method to implement their own security model. The example class below
+      provides a base Secure page class which other pages can extend to ensure
+      the user is logged in. In this example the login page creates a session
+      when a user successfully authenticates. This Secure page then checks to
+      make sure the user has a session, otherwise the request is redirected to
+      the login page.
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class Secure extends Page {
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onSecurityCheck()
+     */
+    public boolean onSecurityCheck() {
+
+        if (getContext().hasSession()) {
+            return true;
+
+        } else {
+            setRedirect(LoginPage.class);
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="container-authentication" remap="h3">
+      <title>Container Authentication</title>
+
+      <para>Alternatively you can also use the security services provided by
+      the JEE Servlet Container. For instance to ensure users have been
+      authenticated by the Serlvet Container you could use a Secure page of:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class Secure extends Page {
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onSecurityCheck()
+     */
+    public boolean onSecurityCheck() {
+
+        if (getContext().getRequest().<ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletRequest.html#getRemoteUser()"><varname>getRemoteUser</varname></ulink>() != null) {
+            return true;
+
+        } else {
+            setRedirect(LoginPage.class);
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="container-access-control" remap="h3">
+      <title>Container Access Control</title>
+
+      <para>The Servlet Container also provides facilities to enforce role
+      based access control (authorization). The example below is a base page
+      to ensure only users in the "admin" role can access the page, otherwise
+      users are redirected to the login page. Application Admin pages would
+      extend this secure page to provide their functionality.
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class AdminPage extends Page {
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onSecurityCheck()
+     */
+    public boolean onSecurityCheck() {
+
+        if (getContext().getRequest().<ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletRequest.html#isUserInRole(java.lang.String)"><varname>isUserInRole</varname></ulink>("admin")) {
+            return true;
+
+        } else {
+            setRedirect(LoginPage.class);
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="logging-out" remap="h3">
+      <title>Logging Out</title>
+
+      <para>To logout using the application or container based security models
+      you would simply invalidate the session.
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public class Logout extends Page {
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onInit()
+     */
+    public void onInit() {
+        getContext().getSession().<ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpSession.html#invalidate()"><varname>invalidate</varname></ulink>();
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="page-navigation" remap="h2">
+    <title>Page Navigation</title>
+
+    <para> Navigation between pages is achieved by using forwards, redirects
+    and by setting the page template path.
+    </para>
+
+    <sect2 id="forward" remap="h3">
+      <title>Forward</title>
+
+      <para> To forward to another page using the servlet
+      <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/RequestDispatcher.html">RequestDispatcher</ulink>,
+      set the Page's forward property. For example to forward to a page with a
+      path <varname>index.htm</varname>:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">/**
+ * @see Page#onPost()
+ */
+public void onPost() {
+    // Process form post
+    ..
+
+    setForward("index.htm");
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>This will invoke a new Page class instance mapped to the path
+      <varname>index.htm</varname>.
+      </para>
+
+      <para><emphasis role="bold">Please note</emphasis> when a request is
+      forwarded to another Page, the controls on the second page will not be
+      processed. This prevents confusion and bugs, like a form on the second page
+      trying to process a POST request from the first page.
+      </para>
+
+      <sect3 id="forward-parameter-passing" remap="h4">
+        <title>Forward Parameter Passing</title>
+
+        <para>When you forward to another page the request parameters are
+        maintained. This is a handy way of passing through state information
+        with the request. For example you could add a customer object as a
+        request parameter which is displayed in the template of the forwarded
+        page.
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="java">public boolean onViewClick() {
+    Long id = viewLink.getValueLong();
+    Customer customer = CustomerDAO.findByPK(id);
+
+    // Set the customer object as a request parameter
+    getContext().setRequestAttribute("customer", customer);
+    setForward("view-customer.htm");
+
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+        <para>The snippet above forwards to the page template
+        <varname>view-customer.htm</varname>:
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+ &lt;head&gt;
+   &lt;title&gt;Customer Details&lt;/title&gt;
+ &lt;/head&gt;
+ &lt;body&gt;
+   &lt;h1&gt;Customer Details&lt;/h1&gt;
+   &lt;pre&gt;
+     Full Name: <varname>$customer.fullName</varname>
+     Email:     <varname>$customer.email</varname>
+     Telephone: <varname>$customer.telephone</varname>
+    &lt;/pre&gt;
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+        <para>Request attributes are automatically added to the Velocity Context
+    object so are available in the page template.
+        </para>
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="page-forwarding" remap="h4">
+        <title>Page Forwarding</title>
+
+        <para>Page forwarding is another way of passing information between
+        pages. In this case you create the page to be forwarded to using the
+        Context <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Context.html#createPage(java.lang.String)">createPage(String)</ulink>
+        method and then set properties directly on the Page. Finally set this
+        page as the page to forward the request to. For example:
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="java">public boolean onEditClick() {
+    Long id = viewLink.getValueLong();
+    Customer customer = CustomerDAO.findByPK(id);
+
+    // Create a new EditPage instance based on the specified path
+    EditPage editPage = (EditPage) getContext().createPage("/edit-customer.htm");
+    editPage.setCustomer(customer);
+    setForward(editPage);
+
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+        <para>When creating a page with the <methodname>createPage()</methodname>
+        method, ensure you prefix the page path with the <varname>"/"</varname>
+        character.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>You can also specify the target page using its class as long as
+        the Page has a unique path. Using this technique the above code becomes:
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="java">public boolean onEditClick() {
+    Long id = viewLink.getValueLong();
+    Customer customer = CustomerDAO.findByPK(id);
+
+    // Create a new EditPage instance based on its class
+    EditPage editPage = (EditPage) getContext().createPage(EditPage.class);
+    editPage.setCustomer(customer);
+    setForward(editPage);
+
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+        <para>This Page forwarding technique is best practice as it provides you
+        with compile time safety and alleviates you from having to specify page
+        paths in your code. Please always use the Context
+        <methodname>createPage()</methodname> methods to allow Click to inject
+        Page dependencies.
+        </para>
+
+        <para>Although uncommon it is possible to map more than one path to the
+        same class. In these cases invoking Context
+        <methodname>createPage(Class)</methodname> will throw an exception, because
+        Click will not be able to determine which path to use for the Page.
+        </para>
+
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+
+    <sect2 id="template-path" remap="h3">
+      <title>Template Path</title>
+
+      <para>An alternative method of forwarding to a new page is to simply set
+      the current Page's path to the new page template to render. With this
+      approach the page template being rendered must have everything it needs
+      without having its associated Page object created. Our modified example
+      would be:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public boolean onViewClick() {
+    Long id = viewLink.getValueLong();
+    Customer customer = CustomerDAO.findByPK(id);
+
+    addModel("customer", customer);
+
+    // Set the Page's path to a new value
+    setPath("view-customer.htm");
+
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>Note how the <varname>customer</varname> object is passed through to
+      the template in the Page model. This approach of using the Page model is
+      not available when you forward to another Page, as the first Page object is
+      "<ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#onDestroy()">destroyed</ulink>"
+      before the second Page object is created and any model values would be lost.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+    <sect2 id="redirect" remap="h3">
+      <title>Redirect</title>
+
+      <para>Redirects are another very useful way to navigate between pages.
+      See HttpServletResponse.
+      <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletResponse.html#sendRedirect(java.lang.String)">sendRedirect</ulink>
+      (location) for details.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>The great thing about redirects are that they provide a clean URL in
+      the users browser which matches the page that they are viewing. This is
+      important for when users want to bookmark a page. The downside of
+      redirects are that they involve a communications round trip with the users
+      browser which requests the new page. Not only does this take time, it also
+      means that all the page and request information is lost.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>An example of a redirect to a <varname>logout.htm</varname> page is
+      provided below:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public boolean onLogoutClick() {
+    setRedirect("/logout.htm");
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>If the redirect location begins with a <symbol>"/"</symbol> character
+      the redirect location will be prefixed with the web applications context
+      path. For example if an application is deployed to the context
+      <varname>"mycorp"</varname> calling
+      <methodname>setRedirect(<varname>"/customer/details.htm"</varname>)</methodname>
+      will redirect the request to: <varname>"/mycorp/customer/details.htm"</varname>.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>You can also obtain the redirect path via the target Page's class.
+      For example:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public boolean onLogoutClick() {
+    String path = getContext().getPagePath(Logout.class);
+    setRedirect(path);
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <para>Note when using this redirect method, the target Page class must have
+      a unique path.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>A short hand way of redirecting is to simply specify the target Page
+      class in the redirect method. For example:
+      </para>
+
+      <programlisting language="java">public boolean onLogoutClick() {
+    setRedirect(Logout.class);
+    return false;
+}</programlisting>
+
+      <sect3 id="redirect-parameter-passing" remap="h4">
+        <title>Redirect Parameter Passing</title>
+
+        <para>You can pass information between redirected pages using URL
+        request parameters. The ClickServlet will encode the URL for you using
+        HttpServletResponse.<ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpServletResponse.html#encodeRedirectURL(java.lang.String)">encodeRedirectURL</ulink>
+        (url).
+        </para>
+
+        <para>In the example below a user will click on an OK button to confirm
+        a payment. The <methodname>onOkClick()</methodname> button handler
+        processes the payment, gets the payment transaction id, and then
+        redirects to the <varname>trans-complete.htm</varname> page with the
+        transaction id encoded in the URL.
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="java">public class Payment extends Page {
+    ..
+
+    public boolean onOkClick() {
+        if (form.isValid()) {
+            // Process payment
+            ..
+
+            // Get transaction id
+            Long transId = OrderDAO.purchase(order);
+
+            setRedirect("trans-complete.htm?transId=" + transId);
+
+            return false;
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+        <para>The Page class for the trans-complete.htm page can then get the
+        transaction id through the request parameter <varname>"transId"</varname>:
+        </para>
+
+        <programlisting language="java">public class TransComplete extends Page {
+    /**
+     * @see Page#onInit()
+     */
+    public void onInit() {
+        String transId = getContext().getRequest().getParameter("transId");
+
+        if (transId != null) {
+
+            // Get order details
+            Order order = OrderDAO.findOrderByPK(new Long(transId));
+            if (order != null) {
+                addModel("order", order);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+      </sect3>
+
+      <sect3 id="post-redirect" remap="h4">
+        <title>Post Redirect</title>
+
+        <para>The parameter passing example above is also an example of a Post
+        Redirect. The Post Redirect technique is a very useful method of
+        preventing users from submitting a form twice by hitting the refresh
+        button.
+        </para>
+
+      </sect3>
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="page-templating" remap="h2">
+    <title>Page Templating</title>
+
+    <para>Click supports page templating (a.k.a. <emphasis>Tiles</emphasis> in
+    Struts) enabling you to create a standardized look and feel for your web
+    application and greatly reducing the amount of HTML you need to maintain.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>To implement templating define a border template base Page which
+    content Pages should extend. The template base Page class overrides the Page
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#getTemplate()">getTemplate()</ulink>
+    method, returning the path of the border template to render. For example:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class BorderedPage extends Page {
+
+    /**
+     * @see Page#getTemplate()
+     */
+    public String getTemplate() {
+        return "/border.htm";
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>The BorderedPage template <varname>border.htm</varname>:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    &lt;title&gt;<varname>$title</varname>&lt;/title&gt;
+    &lt;link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css" title="Style"/&gt;
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    &lt;h2 class="title"&gt;<varname>$title</varname>&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+    <command>#parse</command>(<varname>$path</varname>)
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+    </programlisting>
+
+    <para>Other pages insert their content into this template using the Velocity
+    <ulink url="../../velocity/vtl-reference-guide.html#parse">#parse</ulink>
+    directive, passing it their contents pages
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#path">path</ulink>. The
+    <varname>$path</varname> value is automatically added to the VelocityContext
+    by the ClickServlet.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>An example bordered Home page is provided below:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>home.htm</varname>" classname="<token>Home</token>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">public class Home extends BorderedPage {
+
+    public String title = "Home";
+
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>The Home page's content <varname>home.htm</varname>:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;b&gt;Welcome&lt;/b&gt; to Home page your starting point for the application.</literallayout>
+
+    <?dbfo-need height="1.2in" ?>
+
+    <para>When a request is made for the Home page (home.htm) Velocity will
+    merge the <varname>border.htm</varname> page and <varname>home.htm</varname>
+    page together returning:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="xml">&lt;html&gt;
+  &lt;head&gt;
+    &lt;title&gt;Home&lt;/title&gt;
+    &lt;link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css" title="Style"/&gt;
+  &lt;/head&gt;
+  &lt;body&gt;
+
+    &lt;h2 class="title"&gt;Home&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+    &lt;b&gt;Welcome&lt;/b&gt; to Home page your application starting point.
+
+  &lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Which may be rendered as:
+    </para>
+
+    <figure id="home-page-screenshot">
+      <title>Home Page</title>
+      <mediaobject>
+        <imageobject>
+          <imagedata fileref="images/pages/home-page-screenshot.png" format="PNG" scale="85"/>
+        </imageobject>
+      </mediaobject>
+    </figure>
+
+    <para>Note how the Home page class defines a <varname>title</varname> model
+    value which is referenced in the <varname>border.htm</varname> template as
+    <varname>$title</varname>. Each bordered page can define their own title
+    which is rendered in this template.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Templating with JSP pages is also supported using the same pattern.
+    Please see the Click Examples application for a demonstration.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="page-direct-rendering" remap="h2">
+    <title>Direct Rendering</title>
+
+    <para>Pages support a direct rendering mode where you can render directly
+    to the servlet response and bypass the page template rendering. This is
+    useful for scenarios where you want to render non HTML content to the
+    response, such as a PDF or Excel document. To do this:
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> get the servlet response object</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> set the content type on the response</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> get the response output stream</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> write to the output stream</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> close the output stream</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para> set the page path to null to inform the ClickServlet that
+        rendering has been completed</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <?dbfo-need height="1.2in" ?>
+
+    <para>A direct rendering example is provided below.
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">/**
+ * Render the Java source file as "text/plain".
+ *
+ * @see Page#onGet()
+ */
+public void onGet() {
+    String filename = ..
+
+    HttpServletResponse response = getContext().getResponse();
+
+    response.setContentType("text/plain");
+    response.setHeader("Pragma", "no-cache");
+
+    ServletContext context = getContext().getServletContext();
+
+    InputStream inputStream = null;
+    try {
+        inputStream = context.getResourceAsStream(filename);
+
+        PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();
+
+        BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
+
+        String line = reader.readLine();
+
+        while (line != null) {
+            writer.println(line);
+            line = reader.readLine();
+        }
+
+        setPath(null);
+
+    } catch (IOException ioe) {
+        ioe.printStackTrace();
+
+    } finally {
+        ClickUtils.close(inputStream);
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="stateful-pages" remap="h2">
+    <title>Stateful Pages</title>
+
+    <para>Click supports stateful pages where the state of the page is saved
+    between the users requests. Stateful pages are useful in a number of
+    scenarios including:
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+
+        <para>Search page and edit page interactions. In this scenario you
+        navigage from a stateful search page which may have filter criteria
+        applied to an object edit page. Once object update has been completed
+        on the edit page, the user is redirected to the search page and the
+        stateful filter criteria still applies.
+        </para>
+
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+
+        <para>Complex pages with multiple forms and or tables which need to
+        maintain their state between interactions.
+        </para>
+
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>To make a page stateful you simply need to set the page
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#stateful">stateful</ulink>
+    property to true, have the page implement the <classname>Serializable</classname>
+    interface and set the <literal>serialVersionUID</literal> indicator.
+    For example:
+    </para>
+
+    <programlisting language="java">package com.mycorp.page;
+
+import java.io.Serializable;
+
+import org.apache.click.Page;
+
+public class SearchPage extends Page implements Serializable {
+
+    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
+
+    public SearchPage() {
+        setStateful(true);
+        ..
+    }
+}</programlisting>
+
+    <para>Stateful page instances are stored in the user's
+    <ulink url="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.3/javadoc/javax/servlet/http/HttpSession.html">HttpSession</ulink>
+    using the pages class name as the key. In the example above the page would
+    be stored in the users session using the class name:
+    <classname>com.mycorp.page.SearchPage</classname>
+    </para>
+
+    <sect2 id="page-creation" remap="h3">
+      <title>Page Creation</title>
+
+      <para>With stateful pages they are only created once, after which they
+      are retrieved from the session. However page event handlers are invoked
+      for each request, including the <methodname>onInit()</methodname> method.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>When you are creating stateful pages you typically place all your
+      control creation code in the Pages constructor so it is invoked only once.
+      It is important not to place control creation code in the
+      <methodname>onInit()</methodname> method which will be invoked with each
+      request.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>If you have dynamic control creation code you would typically place
+      this in the <methodname>onInit()</methodname> method, but you will need to
+      take care that controls and or models are not already present in the page.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+    <sect2 id="page-execution" remap="h3">
+      <title>Page Execution</title>
+
+      <para>The default Click page execution model is thread safe as a new
+      Page instance is created for each request and thread. With stateful
+      pages a user will have a single page instance which is reused in multiple
+      requests and threads. To ensure page execution is thread safe, users page
+      instances are synchronized so only one request thread can execute a page
+      instance at any one time.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+    <sect2 id="page-destruction" remap="h3">
+      <title>Page Destruction</title>
+
+      <para>After normal page instances have been executed, they are
+      de-referenced and garbage collected by the JVM. However with stateful
+      pages they are stored in the users <classname>HttpSession</classname> so
+      care needs to be take not to store too many objects in stateful page
+      instances which may cause memory and performance issues.
+      </para>
+
+      <para>When pages have completed their execution, all the Page's controls
+      <methodname>onDestroy()</methodname> methods are invoked, and then the
+      Page's <methodname>onDestroy()</methodname> method is invoked. This is
+      your opportunity to de-reference any large sets or graphs. For example the
+      Table control by default de-references its rowList in its
+      <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/control/Table.html#onDestroy()">onDestory()</ulink>
+      method.
+      </para>
+
+    </sect2>
+  </sect1>
+
+  <sect1 id="page-error-handling" remap="h2">
+    <title>Error Handling</title>
+
+    <para>If an Exception occurs processing a Page object or rendering a
+    template the error is delegated to the registered handler. The default
+    Click error handler is the
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/ErrorPage.html">ErrorPage</ulink>,
+    which is automatically configured as:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>click/error.htm</varname>" classname="<symbol>org.apache.click.util.ErrorPage</symbol>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+    <para>To register an alternative error handler you must subclass ErrorPage
+    and define your page using the path <varname>"click/error.htm"</varname>.
+    For example:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>click/error.htm</varname>" classname="<symbol>com.mycorp.page.ErrorPage</symbol>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+    <para>When the ClickSevlet starts up it checks to see whether the
+    <varname>error.htm</varname> template exists in the <varname>click</varname>
+    web sub directory. If it cannot find the page the ClickServlet will
+    automatically deploy one. You can tailor the <varname>click/error.htm</varname>
+    template to suite you own tastes, and the ClickServlet will
+    not overwrite it.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The default error template will display extensive debug information
+    when the application is in <literal>development</literal> or
+    <literal>debug</literal> mode. Example error page displays include:
+    </para>
+
+    <itemizedlist>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../error-npe.html">NullPointerException</ulink> - in a page
+          method
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>
+          <ulink url="../../error-parsing.html">ParseErrorException</ulink> - in a
+          page template
+        </para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para>When the application is in <literal>production</literal> mode only
+    a simple error message is displayed. See
+    <link linkend="application-mode">Configuration</link> for details on how to
+    set the application mode.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Please also see the <ulink url="../../examples.html">Examples</ulink> web
+    app Exception Demo for demonstrations of Clicks error handling.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="page-not-found" remap="h2">
+    <title>Page Not Found</title>
+
+    <para>If the ClickServlet cannot find a requested page in the
+    <literal>click.xml</literal> config file it will use the registered
+    <ulink url="../../not-found.html">not-found.htm</ulink> page.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The Click <literal>not found page</literal> is automatically configured
+    as:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;page path="<varname>click/not-found.htm</varname>" classname="<symbol>org.apache.click.Page</symbol>"/&gt;</literallayout>
+
+    <para>You can override the default configuration and specify your own class,
+    but you cannot change the path.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>When the ClickSevlet starts up it checks to see whether the
+    <varname>not-found.htm</varname> template exists in the <varname>click</varname>
+    web sub directory. If it cannot find the page the ClickServlet will
+    automatically deploy one.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>You can tailor the <varname>click/not-found.htm</varname> template to
+    suite you own needs. This page template has access to the usual Click objects.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+  <sect1 id="page-message-properties" remap="h2">
+    <title>Page Message Properties</title>
+
+    <para>The Page class provides a
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/Page.html#messages">messages</ulink>
+    property which is a
+    <ulink url="../../click-api/org/apache/click/util/MessagesMap.html">MessagesMap</ulink>
+    of localized messages for the page. These messages are made available in the
+    VelocityContext when the page is rendered under the key
+    <literal>messages</literal>. So for example if you had a page title message
+    you would access it in your page template as:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>&lt;h1&gt; <symbol>$</symbol><varname>messages.title</varname> &lt;/h1&gt;</literallayout>
+
+    <para>This messages map is loaded from the page class property bundle. For
+    example if you had a page class <classname>com.mycorp.page.CustomerList</classname>
+    you could have an associated property file containing the pages localized
+    messages:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>/com/mycorp/page/CustomerList.properties</literallayout>
+
+    <para>You can also defined a application global page messages properties file:
+    </para>
+
+    <literallayout>/click-page.properties</literallayout>
+
+    <para>Messages defined in this file will be available to all pages throughout
+    your application. Note messages defined in your page class properties file
+    will override any messages defined in the application global page properties
+    file.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>Page messages can also be used to override Control messages, see the
+    Controls <link linkend="control-message-properties">Message Properties</link>
+    topic for more details.
+    </para>
+
+  </sect1>
+</chapter>

Added: incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/click-book.xml
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+++ incubator/click/trunk/click/documentation/xdocs/src/docbook/click/click-book.xml Wed Mar 11 18:55:49 2009
@@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
+	  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+    <!ENTITY chapter-introduction SYSTEM "chapter-introduction.xml" >
+    <!ENTITY chapter-pages SYSTEM "chapter-pages.xml" >
+    <!ENTITY chapter-controls SYSTEM "chapter-controls.xml" >
+    <!ENTITY chapter-configuration SYSTEM "chapter-configuration.xml" >
+    <!ENTITY chapter-best-practices SYSTEM "chapter-best-practices.xml" >
+    ]>
+<!--
+ Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ distributed with this work for additional information
+ regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+   
+ http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+    
+ Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ under the License.
+-->
+<book lang="en">
+	<title>Apache Click</title>
+	
+	<bookinfo>
+		<copyright>
+			<year>2009</year>
+			
+			<holder>The Apache Software Foundation</holder>
+		</copyright>
+		
+		<releaseinfo>V 2.1.0</releaseinfo>
+		
+		<productname>Click</productname>
+		
+		<authorgroup>
+			<corpauthor>Apache Click User Guide</corpauthor>
+		</authorgroup>
+		
+		<mediaobject>
+			<imageobject>
+				<imagedata fileref="images/click-logo.png" />
+			</imageobject>
+		</mediaobject>
+	</bookinfo>
+	
+	<toc></toc>
+
+  &chapter-introduction;
+  &chapter-pages;
+  &chapter-controls;
+  &chapter-configuration;
+  &chapter-best-practices;
+
+</book>
+
+
+
+ 

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