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From Edward Capriolo <>
Subject Re: Pluggable throttling of read and write queries
Date Wed, 22 Feb 2017 19:01:27 GMT
On Wed, Feb 22, 2017 at 1:20 PM, Abhishek Verma <> wrote:

> We have lots of dedicated Cassandra clusters for large use cases, but we
> have a long tail of (~100) of internal customers who want to store < 200GB
> of data with < 5k qps and non-critical data. It does not make sense to
> create a 3 node dedicated cluster for each of these small use cases. So we
> have a shared cluster into which we onboard these users.
> But once in a while, one of the customers will run a ingest job from HDFS
> which will pound the shared cluster and break our SLA for the cluster for
> all the other customers. Currently, I don't see anyway to signal back
> pressure to the ingestion jobs or throttle their requests. Another example
> is one customer doing a large number of range queries which has the same
> effect.
> A simple way to avoid this is to throttle the read or write requests based
> on some quota limits for each keyspace or user.
> Please see replies inlined:
> On Mon, Feb 20, 2017 at 11:46 PM, vincent gromakowski <
>> wrote:
>> Aren't you using mesos Cassandra framework to manage your multiple
>> clusters ? (Seen a presentation in cass summit)
> Yes we are using and
> contribute heavily to it. I am aware of the presentation (
> at the Cassandra summit as I
> was the one who gave it :)
> This has helped us automate the creation and management of these clusters.
>> What's wrong with your current mesos approach ?
> Hardware efficiency: Spinning up dedicated clusters for each use case
> wastes a lot of hardware resources. One of the approaches we have taken is
> spinning up multiple Cassandra nodes belonging to different clusters on the
> same physical machine. However, we still have overhead of managing these
> separate multi-tenant clusters.
>> I am also thinking it's better to split a large cluster into smallers
>> except if you also manage client layer that query cass and you can put some
>> backpressure or rate limit in it.
> We have an internal storage API layer that some of the clients use, but
> there are many customers who use the vanilla DataStax Java or Python
> driver. Implementing throttling in each of those clients does not seem like
> a viable approach.
> Le 21 févr. 2017 2:46 AM, "Edward Capriolo" <> a
>> écrit :
>>> Older versions had a request scheduler api.
>> I am not aware of the history behind it. Can you please point me to the
> JIRA tickets and/or why it was removed?
> On Monday, February 20, 2017, Ben Slater <>
>>> wrote:
>>>> We’ve actually had several customers where we’ve done the opposite -
>>>> split large clusters apart to separate uses cases. We found that this
>>>> allowed us to better align hardware with use case requirements (for example
>>>> using AWS c3.2xlarge for very hot data at low latency, m4.xlarge for more
>>>> general purpose data) we can also tune JVM settings, etc to meet those uses
>>>> cases.
>>> There have been several instances where we have moved customers out of
> the shared cluster to their own dedicated clusters because they outgrew our
> limitations. But I don't think it makes sense to move all the small use
> cases into their separate clusters.
> On Mon, 20 Feb 2017 at 22:21 Oleksandr Shulgin <
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>> On Sat, Feb 18, 2017 at 3:12 AM, Abhishek Verma <>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>> Cassandra is being used on a large scale at Uber. We usually create
>>>>>> dedicated clusters for each of our internal use cases, however that
>>>>>> difficult to scale and manage.
>>>>>> We are investigating the approach of using a single shared cluster
>>>>>> with 100s of nodes and handle 10s to 100s of different use cases
>>>>>> different products in the same cluster. We can define different keyspaces
>>>>>> for each of them, but that does not help in case of noisy neighbors.
>>>>>> Does anybody in the community have similar large shared clusters
>>>>>> and/or face noisy neighbor issues?
>>>>> Hi,
>>>>> We've never tried this approach and given my limited experience I
>>>>> would find this a terrible idea from the perspective of maintenance
>>>>> (remember the old saying about basket and eggs?)
>>>> What if you have a limited number of baskets and several eggs which are
> not critical if they break rarely.
>> What potential benefits do you see?
>>>> The main benefit of sharing a single cluster among several small use
> cases is increasing the hardware efficiency and decreasing the management
> overhead of a large number of clusters.
> Thanks everyone for your replies and questions.
> -Abhishek.

I agree with these assertions. On one hand I think about a "managed
service" like say Amazon DynamoDB. They likely start with very/very/very
large footprints. IE they commission huge clusters of the fastest SSD
hardware. Next every application/user has a quota. They always can control
the basic load because they control the quota.

Control on the hardware level makes sense, but then your unit of management
is "a cluster" . Users do not have a unified API anymore, they have switch
statements, this data in cluster x, this data cluster y. You still end up
in cases where degenerate usage patterns affect others.

With Cassandra it would be nice if these controls were build into the API.
This could also help you build your own charge back model in the
enterprise. Sure as someone pointed out rejecting reads stinks for that
user. But then again someone has to decide who and how pays for the

For example, imagine a company with 19 business units all using the same
Cassandra cluster. One business unit might account for 90% of the storage,
but 1% of the requests. Another business unit might be 95% of the requests,
but 1% the data. How do you come up with a billing model? For the customer
with 95% of the requests their "cost" on the systems is young generation
GC, network.

Datastax enterprise had/has a concept of  "the analytic dc". The concept is
"real time goes here" and "analytic goes there" with the right resource
controls you could get much more fine grained then that. It will never be
perfect there will always be that random abuser with the "aggregate allow
filtering query" but there are ways to move in a more managed direction.

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