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From Alain RODRIGUEZ <>
Subject Re: Effect of adding/removing nodes from cassandra
Date Mon, 07 Sep 2015 15:18:41 GMT
Hi, sorry I have been quite busy and was hopping that someone else could
answer about CPU, as told I never went that deep.

"But if there were in fact 5 nodes then the max throughput per node would
be capped at 25/5 = 5MB/s"
This is wrong imho. Stream are globally capped, independently of the total
nimber of node, at any time. I mean, output of each node is capped to 200
Mb, no matter you node number, so you can always reach this 200 Mb
theoretically, even if streaming to one node.
Yet I know that bandwidth is not often the bottleneck lately, something
else is, not sure what, you might want to "watch" this issue

About cpu, if this is not due to Compactions then I have no ideas of what
is happening exactly. Yet, you might want to use to find this out. Running something
like "java -jar sjk-plus-0.3.6.jar ttop -s localhost:7199 -o CPU -n 30"
would probably help.

About “handling all the streams” it was to say something. I have no idea
what happen in there but there a little work to handle streams and write
data... Yet this should not be 20 %, unless your CPU are
ridiculously inefficient / old imho.

I have no knowledge of a documentation describing the bootstrap process. I
use Datastax docs a lot (
but I don't think they go that deep, it is more a user guide than a
technical description. You might want to have a look at the code...

Please keep us posted, your work is interesting (plus linked to some recent
issues about over throttled bootstraps).



2015-09-02 22:33 GMT+02:00 Ahamed, Aadil <>:

> Hi Alain,
> Thank you for your prompt and detailed response. I found it very helpful.
> As for your questions:- I am interning at Akamai. I can’t say too much
> about the use case but we are looking at Cassandra as an option to serve
> large volumes of sustained data.
> My Cassandra version is:  *2.1.7 *(thanks for the tip)
> As a follow up to your response:
> *Stream Throughput*
> I ran nodetool getstreamthroughput and the output was 200Mb/s = 25 MB/s so
> it is weird that my throughput is capped at 5MB/s. However, I do have a
> guess for why this is occurring – Initially I had a 5 node cluster but I
> decommissioned 2 nodes for the purpose of this test. But if there were in
> fact 5 nodes then the max throughput per node would be capped at 25/5 =
> 5MB/s. Based on the issue you raised it does not look like Cassandra can
> adapt the per node streaming throughput (5MB/s) to take full advanatage of
> the total stream throughput (25 MB/s). This still raises the question: Why
> isn’t the per node stream throughput changed to 25/3 = 8.33MB/s after 2
> nodes are decommissioned from the 5 node cluster? Does it have something to
> do with  Cassandra expecting decommissioned nodes to rejoin the cluster
> eventually? Of course, my guess could be wrong and the problem could be a
> result of a completely different issue.
> *CPU usage for Bootstrapping*
> I have tried adding nodes with auto-compaction disabled (nodetool
> disableautocompaction) and it still results in similar amounts of cpu usage
> so I don’t think compaction is the main cause. In addition, you said that
>  handling all the stream also consume CPU. Could you explain a little more
> on what you mean by “handling all the streams”?. Also, if you know any
> sites/documents that have more in depth information about the bootstrap
> process please let me know.
> Thanks again for your help. I really appreciate it.
> Aadil
> From: Alain RODRIGUEZ <>
> Reply-To: "" <>
> Date: Tuesday, September 1, 2015 at 5:26 AM
> To: "" <>
> Subject: Re: Effect of adding/removing nodes from cassandra
> Hi Aadil, and welcome then !
> *Graph for initial node 1, 2:*
> 1. You can set "stream_throughput_outbound_megabits_per_sec" in
> cassandra.yaml configuration for permanent change. The point here is not to
> take all the bandwidth while adding a node to let transactional network to
> run as normally as possible. Also look at "nodetool setstreamthroughput"
> (and "getstreamthroughput") if you want to adjust during an operation
> without restarting the node. This will be overridden on node restart, back
> to the value  in the cassandra.yaml
> This limit the outgoing traffic, meaning that this will increase for each
> node you add, if using vnodes, on certain operations like repair,
> removenode, ... You might want to take this into consideration. I created a
> not very popular issue about this, at least I detail the issue there -->
> <>.
> In your exemple see that you receive 2 * 5 = 10 MB/s, then one node
> finishes, and you keep receiving 5 MB/s.
> Though, default is 200 Mbps (25 MB) , not sure why you are limited to 5 MB
> there, unless you changed this or I miscalculated something, this use to
> happen to me :D... Also maybe something relative to
> <>
> (btw, ou might want to add your version of Cassandra when posting, it would
> be easier to point you to known bugs or to the right options etc)
> *Graph for added node:*
> 1. Adding a node is CPU intensive I guess it is mainly because you have to
> compact all the data you accumulated quite fast on the bootstrapping node
> (maybe there is more reason, other people might explain this better, I
> never needed to go that deep, I imagine handling all the stream also
> consume CPU)
> 2. You partially answered yourself, one node ended streaming. The other
> half of the question, about the reason why the other node don't send more
> data is explained above. Limitations are on outgoing traffic, so this looks
> normal to me.
> The only weird thing to me is the threshold of you streaming throughput,
> unless you changed it.
> Btw, I am very curious, please feel free not to answer this if you are
> under a NDA or whatever. Are you working for Akamai ? What's your use case
> for Cassandra ?
> Hope this will help !
> C*heers,
> Alain
> Hi,
> This is my first post to this mailing list so I want to apologize in
> advance if I break any rules or guidelines. I have also inserted images of
> graphs and I am not sure if they will show up. Please let me know if I can
> improve my post in any way.
> I am investigating the effect of adding and removing nodes from a
> Cassandra cluster by collecting metrics on cpu utilization, memory usage
> etc.
> Basically I want to have a quantitative measurement of how intensive the
> add/remove operation is so we know what to expect when
> increasing/decreasing capacity on our production cluster.
> I wrote a tool to measure this effect but I need help interpreting the
> data I have collected.
> Here is a sample testcase:
> *Relevant Machine Information:*
> Logical cores: 8
> Core model: Intel Xeon(R) CPU E31270 @ 3.4GHz
> RAM: 16GB
> Non-Volatile storage: Hard Disk
> *Test Info:*
> Keyspace: Simple strategy with replication factor 2
> Initial no. of nodes on cluster: 2 [,]
> Initial load on each node: 30GB
> No. of added nodes: 1 []
> Final load on each node: 18GB
> *The x-axis for all graphs is in seconds
> *Graph for initial node 1:*
> *Graph for initial node 2:*
> *Graph for added node:*
> *Here are my questions:*
> *Graph for initial node 1, 2:*
> 1. Why is the KBytes/s sent over the network stay constant at around ~5000
> KB/s? Can I change it to something higher?
> *Graph for added node:*
> 1.  Why is the cpu usage so high?
> It is close to 30% for ~800 seconds and 10% for another 400 seconds. I did
> not expect the cpu usage to be this high and I did not expect it to stay
> high for such a long period of time. Based on my understanding the only cpu
> intensive process during bootstrap is token range recalculation. However,
> based on the graph the cpu usage seems to be proportional to the amount of
> data that is streamed to the node at any given moment in time.
> 2. Why does the Kbytes/s received over the network drop from - ~10000 ->
> ~5000  - at around 800 seconds?
> I can see that initial node 1 stops streaming data at around 800 seconds
> but why does initial node 2 not bump up its outgoing rate of transfer?
> Thanks for your help,
> Aadil

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