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From dlu66061 <>
Subject Denormalization leads to terrible, rather than better, Cassandra performance -- I am really puzzled
Date Tue, 28 Apr 2015 18:56:04 GMT
Cassandra gurus, I am really puzzled by my observations,and hope to get some
help explaining the results. Thanks in advance.
I think it has always been advocated in Cassandracommunity that
de-normalization leads to better performance. I wanted to seehow much
performance improvement it can offer, but the results were totallyopposite.
The performance degraded dramatically for simultaneously requests forthe
same set of data.
I have a Cassandra cluster consisting of 3 AWS m3.largeinstances, with
Cassandra 2.0.6 installed and pretty much default settings. My programis
written in Java using Java Driver 2.0.8.
*Normalized case:*
I have two tables created with the following 2 CQLstatements
CREATE TABLE event (event_idUUID, time_token timeuuid, &hellip;­ 30 other
attributes, &hellip;­ PRIMARY KEY (event_id))
CREATE TABLE event_index(index_key text, time_token timeuuid, event_id
UUID,&nbsp;&nbsp; PRIMARY KEY(index_key, time_token)) 
In my program, given the proper index_key and a tokenrange (tokenLowerBound
to tokenUpperBound), I first query the event_index table
/Query 1:/
SELECT * FROM event_index WHEREindex_key in (&hellip;­) AND time_token &gt;
tokenLowerBound AND time_token &lt;=tokenUpperBound ORDER BY time_token ASC
LIMIT 2000
to get a list of event_ids and then run the following CQLto get the event
/Query 2:/
SELECT * FROM event WHEREevent_id IN (a list of event_ids from the above
I repeat the above process, with updated token range fromthe previous run.
This actually performs pretty well.
In this normalized process, I have to *run 2 queries*to get data: the first
one should be very quick since it is getting a slice ofan internally wide
row. The second query may take long because it needs to hitup to 2000 rows
of event table.
*De-normalized case:*
What if we can attach event detail to the index and runjust 1 query? Like
Query 1, would it be much faster since it is also getting aslice of an
internally wide row?
I created a third table that merged the above two tablestogether. Notice the
first three attributes and the PRIMARY KEY definition areexactly the same as
the "event_index" table.
CREATE TABLEevent_index_with_detail (index_key text, time_token timeuuid,
event_id UUID, &hellip;30 other attributes, &hellip;­ PRIMARY KEY
(index_key, time_token))
Then I can just run the following query to achieve mygoal, with the same
index and token range as in query 1:
/Query 3:/
SELECT * FROMevent_index_with_detail WHERE index_key in (&hellip;­) AND
time_token &gt;tokenLowerBound AND time_token &lt;= tokenUpperBound ORDER BY
time_token ASCLIMIT 2000
*Performance observations*
Using Java Driver 2.0.8, I wrote a program that runsQuery 1 + Query 2 in the
normalized case, or Query 3 in the denormalized case.All queries is set with
LOCAL_QUORUM consistency level.
Then I created 1 or more instances of the program tosimultaneously retrieve
the SAME set of 1 million events stored in Cassandra.Each test runs for 5
minutes, and the results are shown below.
1 instance
5 instances
10 instances
Note that the unit of measure is number of operations. Soin the normalized
case, the programs runs 89 times and retrieves 178K events fora single
instance, 315 times and 630K events to 5 instances (each instance getsabout
126K events), and 417 times and 834K events to 10 instancessimultaneously
(each instance gets about 83.4K events).
Well for the de-normalized case, the performance islittle better for a
single instance case, in which the program runs 100 timesand retrieves 200K
events. However, it turns sharply south for multiplesimultaneous instances.
All 5 instances completed successfully only 43operations together, and all
10 instances completed successfully only 3operations together. For the
latter case, the log showed that 3 instances eachretrieved 2000 events
successfully, and 7 other instances retrieved 0.
In the de-normalized case, the program reported a lot ofexceptions like
com.datastax.driver.core.exceptions.ReadTimeoutException,Cassandra timeout
during read query at consistency LOCAL_QUORUM (2 responseswere required but
only 1 replica responded)
com.datastax.driver.core.exceptions.NoHostAvailableException,All host(s)
tried for query failed (no host was tried)
I repeated the two cases back and forth several times,and the results
remained the same.
I also observed CPU usage on the 3 Cassandra servers, andthey were all much
higher for the de-normalized case.
1 instance
5 instances
10 instances
7% usr, 2% sys
30% usr, 8% sys
40% usr, 10% sys
44% usr, 0.3% sys
65% usr, 1% sys
70% usr, 2% sys
This is really not what I expected, and I am puzzled andhave not figured out
a good explanation.
Why are there so many exceptions in the de-normalized case? Iwould think
Cassandra should be able to handle simultaneous accesses to thesame data.
Why are there NO exceptions for the normalized case? I meant that the
environments for the two cases are basically the same.
Is (internally) wide row only good for small amount of data undereach column
Or is it an issue with Java Driver?
Or did I do something wrong?

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