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From slebre...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1735378 [3/3] - in /cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3: CQL-2.1.html CQL-2.2.html CQL-3.0.html
Date Thu, 17 Mar 2016 09:27:26 GMT
Modified: cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-3.0.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-3.0.html?rev=1735378&r1=1735377&r2=1735378&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-3.0.html (original)
+++ cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-3.0.html Thu Mar 17 09:27:25 2016
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL-3.0</title></head><body><p><link rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.4.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.4.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.4.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.4.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.
 0.html#Comments">Comments</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createMVStmt">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterMVStmt">ALT
 ER MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropMVStmt">DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createTriggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createFunctionStmt">CREATE FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropFunctionStmt">DROP FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createAggregateStmt">CREATE AGGREGATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropAggregateStmt">DROP AGGREGATE</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dataManipulation">Data Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a><
 /li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#databaseRoles">Database Roles</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createRoleStmt">CREATE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterRoleStmt">ALTER ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropRoleStmt">DROP ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#grantRoleStmt">GRANT ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#revokeRoleStmt">REVOKE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#createUserStmt">CREATE USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#alterUserStmt">ALTER USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dropUserStmt">DROP USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#dataControl">Data Control</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#permissions">Permissions </a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT P
 ERMISSION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE PERMISSION</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#usingtimestamps">Working with timestamps</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#usingtime">Working with time</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#timeFun">Time conversion functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#blobFun">Blob conversion functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#aggregates">Aggregates</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><
 a href="CQL-3.0.html#countFct">Count</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#maxMinFcts">Max and Min</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#sumFct">Sum</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#avgFct">Avg</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#udfs">User-Defined Functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#udas">User-Defined Aggregates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#json">JSON Support</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#selectJson">SELECT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#insertJson">INSERT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#jsonEncoding">JSON Encoding of Cassandra Data Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#fromJson">The fromJson() Function</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#toJson">The toJson() Function</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#appendixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#changes">Changes</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-3.0.
 html#a3.4.0">3.4.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.3.1">3.3.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.3.0">3.3.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-3.0.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></ol></span><h2 id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This document describes the Cassandra Query L
 anguage (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section provides the diff between the different versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers a model very close to SQL in the sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing <em>rows</em> of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this document, these terms (tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in SQL. But please note that as such, they do <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept of rows and columns found in the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and CQL v2 API.</p><h3 id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying the CQL syntax, we will use the following conventions in this document:</p><ul><li>Language rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</
 a> -like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start> ::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL</title></head><body><p><link rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.4.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.4.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.4.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.4.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#Comments">Comments</a></l
 i><li><a href="CQL.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createMVStmt">CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterMVStmt">ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropMVStmt">DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW</a></l
 i><li><a href="CQL.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createTriggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createFunctionStmt">CREATE FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropFunctionStmt">DROP FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createAggregateStmt">CREATE AGGREGATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropAggregateStmt">DROP AGGREGATE</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dataManipulation">Data Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a 
 href="CQL.html#databaseRoles">Database Roles</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#createRoleStmt">CREATE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterRoleStmt">ALTER ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropRoleStmt">DROP ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#grantRoleStmt">GRANT ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#revokeRoleStmt">REVOKE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createUserStmt">CREATE USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterUserStmt">ALTER USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropUserStmt">DROP USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dataControl">Data Control</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#permissions">Permissions </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT PERMISSION</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE PERMISSION</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#usingtimestamps">W
 orking with timestamps</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#usingtime">Working with time</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#timeFun">Time conversion functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#blobFun">Blob conversion functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#aggregates">Aggregates</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#countFct">Count</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#maxMinFcts">Max and Min</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#sumFct">Sum</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#avgFct">Avg</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#udfs">User-Defined Functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.htm
 l#udas">User-Defined Aggregates</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#json">JSON Support</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#selectJson">SELECT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#insertJson">INSERT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#jsonEncoding">JSON Encoding of Cassandra Data Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#fromJson">The fromJson() Function</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#toJson">The toJson() Function</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#changes">Changes</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.4.0">3.4.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.3.1">3.3.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.3.0">3.3.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></
 li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></ol></span><h2 id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This document describes the Cassandra Query Language (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section provides the diff between the different versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers a model very close to SQL in the sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing <em>
 rows</em> of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this document, these terms (tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in SQL. But please note that as such, they do <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept of rows and columns found in the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and CQL v2 API.</p><h3 id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying the CQL syntax, we will use the following conventions in this document:</p><ul><li>Language rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</a> -like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start> ::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
 </pre></pre><ul><li>Nonterminal symbols will have <code>&lt;angle brackets></code>.</li><li>As additional shortcut notations to BNF, we&#8217;ll use traditional regular expression&#8217;s symbols (<code>?</code>, <code>+</code> and <code>*</code>) to signify that a given symbol is optional and/or can be repeated. We&#8217;ll also allow parentheses to group symbols and the <code>[&lt;characters>]</code> notation to represent any one of <code>&lt;characters></code>.</li><li>The grammar is provided for documentation purposes and leave some minor details out. For instance, the last column definition in a <code>CREATE TABLE</code> statement is optional but supported if present even though the provided grammar in this document suggest it is not supported. </li><li>Sample code will be provided in a code block:</li></ul><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT sample_usage FROM cql;
 </pre></pre><ul><li>References to keywords or pieces of CQL code in running text will be shown in a <code>fixed-width font</code>.</li></ul><h3 id="identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</h3><p>The CQL language uses <em>identifiers</em> (or <em>names</em>) to identify tables, columns and other objects. An identifier is a token matching the regular expression <code>[a-zA-Z]</code><code>[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code>.</p><p>A number of such identifiers, like <code>SELECT</code> or <code>WITH</code>, are <em>keywords</em>. They have a fixed meaning for the language and most are reserved. The list of those keywords can be found in <a href="#appendixA">Appendix A</a>.</p><p>Identifiers and (unquoted) keywords are case insensitive. Thus <code>SELECT</code> is the same than <code>select</code> or <code>sElEcT</code>, and <code>myId</code> is the same than <code>myid</code> or <code>MYID</code> for instance. A convention often used (in particular by the samples of this documentation) is t
 o use upper case for keywords and lower case for other identifiers.</p><p>There is a second kind of identifiers called <em>quoted identifiers</em> defined by enclosing an arbitrary sequence of characters in double-quotes(<code>"</code>). Quoted identifiers are never keywords. Thus <code>"select"</code> is not a reserved keyword and can be used to refer to a column, while <code>select</code> would raise a parse error. Also, contrarily to unquoted identifiers and keywords, quoted identifiers are case sensitive (<code>"My Quoted Id"</code> is <em>different</em> from <code>"my quoted id"</code>). A fully lowercase quoted identifier that matches <code>[a-zA-Z]</code><code>[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code> is equivalent to the unquoted identifier obtained by removing the double-quote (so <code>"myid"</code> is equivalent to <code>myid</code> and to <code>myId</code> but different from <code>"myId"</code>). Inside a quoted identifier, the double-quote character can be repeated to escape it
 , so <code>"foo "" bar"</code> is a valid identifier.</p><p><strong>Warning</strong>: <em>quoted identifiers</em> allows to declare columns with arbitrary names, and those can sometime clash with specific names used by the server. For instance, when using conditional update, the server will respond with a result-set containing a special result named <code>"[applied]"</code>. If you&#8217;ve declared a column with such a name, this could potentially confuse some tools and should be avoided. In general, unquoted identifiers should be preferred but if you use quoted identifiers, it is strongly advised to avoid any name enclosed by squared brackets (like <code>"[applied]"</code>) and any name that looks like a function call (like <code>"f(x)"</code>).</p><h3 id="constants">Constants</h3><p>CQL defines the following kind of <em>constants</em>: strings, integers, floats, booleans, uuids and blobs:</p><ul><li>A string constant is an arbitrary sequence of characters characters enclosed by s
 ingle-quote(<code>'</code>). One can include a single-quote in a string by repeating it, e.g. <code>'It''s raining today'</code>. Those are not to be confused with quoted identifiers that use double-quotes.</li><li>An integer constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+</code>.</li><li>A float constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+('.'[0-9]*)?([eE][+-]?[0-9+])?</code>. On top of that, <code>NaN</code> and <code>Infinity</code> are also float constants.</li><li>A boolean constant is either <code>true</code> or <code>false</code> up to case-insensitivity (i.e. <code>True</code> is a valid boolean constant).</li><li>A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universally_unique_identifier">UUID</a> constant is defined by <code>hex{8}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{12}</code> where <code>hex</code> is an hexadecimal character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code> and <code>{4}</code> is the number of such characters.</li><li>A blob constant is an hexadecimal number defined by <code>0[xX](hex)+</code> where 
 <code>hex</code> is an hexadecimal character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code>.</li></ul><p>For how these constants are typed, see the <a href="#types">data types section</a>.</p><h3 id="Comments">Comments</h3><p>A comment in CQL is a line beginning by either double dashes (<code>--</code>) or double slash (<code>//</code>).</p><p>Multi-line comments are also supported through enclosure within <code>/*</code> and <code>*/</code> (but nesting is not supported).</p><pre class="sample"><pre>-- This is a comment
 // This is a comment too
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ CREATE TABLE timeline (
     other text,
     PRIMARY KEY (k)
 )
-</pre></pre><h4 id="createTablepartitionClustering">Partition key and clustering columns</h4><p>In CQL, the order in which columns are defined for the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> matters. The first column of the key is called the <i>partition key</i>. It has the property that all the rows sharing the same partition key (even across table in fact) are stored on the same physical node. Also, insertion/update/deletion on rows sharing the same partition key for a given table are performed <i>atomically</i> and in <i>isolation</i>. Note that it is possible to have a composite partition key, i.e. a partition key formed of multiple columns, using an extra set of parentheses to define which columns forms the partition key.</p><p>The remaining columns of the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> definition, if any, are called __clustering columns. On a given physical node, rows for a given partition key are stored in the order induced by the clustering columns, making the retrieval of rows in that clusterin
 g order particularly efficient (see <a href="#selectStmt"><tt>SELECT</tt></a>).</p><h4 id="createTableStatic"><code>STATIC</code> columns</h4><p>Some columns can be declared as <code>STATIC</code> in a table definition. A column that is static will be &#171;shared&#187; by all the rows belonging to the same partition (having the same partition key). For instance, in:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE test (
+</pre></pre><h4 id="createTablepartitionClustering">Partition key and clustering columns</h4><p>In CQL, the order in which columns are defined for the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> matters. The first column of the key is called the <i>partition key</i>. It has the property that all the rows sharing the same partition key (even across table in fact) are stored on the same physical node. Also, insertion/update/deletion on rows sharing the same partition key for a given table are performed <i>atomically</i> and in <i>isolation</i>. Note that it is possible to have a composite partition key, i.e. a partition key formed of multiple columns, using an extra set of parentheses to define which columns forms the partition key.</p><p>The remaining columns of the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> definition, if any, are called __clustering columns. On a given physical node, rows for a given partition key are stored in the order induced by the clustering columns, making the retrieval of rows in that clusterin
 g order particularly efficient (see <a href="#selectStmt"><tt>SELECT</tt></a>).</p><h4 id="createTableStatic"><code>STATIC</code> columns</h4><p>Some columns can be declared as <code>STATIC</code> in a table definition. A column that is static will be &#8220;shared&#8221; by all the rows belonging to the same partition (having the same partition key). For instance, in:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE test (
     pk int,
     t int,
     v text,
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ CREATE TABLE timeline (
 INSERT INTO test(pk, t, v, s) VALUES (0, 0, 'val0', 'static0');
 INSERT INTO test(pk, t, v, s) VALUES (0, 1, 'val1', 'static1');
 SELECT * FROM test WHERE pk=0 AND t=0;
-</pre></pre><p>the last query will return <code>'static1'</code> as value for <code>s</code>, since <code>s</code> is static and thus the 2nd insertion modified this &#171;shared&#187; value. Note however that static columns are only static within a given partition, and if in the example above both rows where from different partitions (i.e. if they had different value for <code>pk</code>), then the 2nd insertion would not have modified the value of <code>s</code> for the first row.</p><p>A few restrictions applies to when static columns are allowed:</p><ul><li>tables with the <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> option (see below) cannot have them</li><li>a table without clustering columns cannot have static columns (in a table without clustering columns, every partition has only one row, and so every column is inherently static).</li><li>only non <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> columns can be static</li></ul><h4 id="createTableOptions"><code>&lt;option></code></h4><p>The <code>CREATE TABLE</code>
  statement supports a number of options that controls the configuration of a new table. These options can be specified after the <code>WITH</code> keyword.</p><p>The first of these option is <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code>. This option is mainly targeted towards backward compatibility for definitions created before CQL3 (see <a href="http://www.datastax.com/dev/blog/thrift-to-cql3">www.datastax.com/dev/blog/thrift-to-cql3</a> for more details).  The option also provides a slightly more compact layout of data on disk but at the price of diminished flexibility and extensibility for the table.  Most notably, <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> tables cannot have collections nor static columns and a <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> table with at least one clustering column supports exactly one (as in not 0 nor more than 1) column not part of the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> definition (which imply in particular that you cannot add nor remove columns after creation). For those reasons, <code>COMPACT STORA
 GE</code> is not recommended outside of the backward compatibility reason evoked above.</p><p>Another option is <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code>. It allows to define the ordering of rows on disk. It takes the list of the clustering column names with, for each of them, the on-disk order (Ascending or descending). Note that this option affects <a href="#selectOrderBy">what <code>ORDER BY</code> are allowed during <code>SELECT</code></a>.</p><p>Table creation supports the following other <code>&lt;property></code>:</p><table><tr><th>option                    </th><th>kind   </th><th>default   </th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td><code>comment</code>                    </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>none        </td><td>A free-form, human-readable comment.</td></tr><tr><td><code>read_repair_chance</code>         </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0.1         </td><td>The probability with which to query extra nodes (e.g. more nodes than required by the consistency level) for the purpose 
 of read repairs.</td></tr><tr><td><code>dclocal_read_repair_chance</code> </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0           </td><td>The probability with which to query extra nodes (e.g. more nodes than required by the consistency level) belonging to the same data center than the read coordinator for the purpose of read repairs.</td></tr><tr><td><code>gc_grace_seconds</code>           </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>864000      </td><td>Time to wait before garbage collecting tombstones (deletion markers).</td></tr><tr><td><code>bloom_filter_fp_chance</code>     </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0.00075     </td><td>The target probability of false positive of the sstable bloom filters. Said bloom filters will be sized to provide the provided probability (thus lowering this value impact the size of bloom filters in-memory and on-disk)</td></tr><tr><td><code>default_time_to_live</code>       </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0           </td><td>The default expiration time (&#171;TTL&#18
 7;) in seconds for a table.</td></tr><tr><td><code>compaction</code>                 </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Compaction options, see <a href="#compactionOptions">below</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>compression</code>                </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Compression options, see <a href="#compressionOptions">below</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>caching</code>                    </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Caching options, see <a href="#cachingOptions">below</a>.</td></tr></table><h4 id="compactionOptions">Compaction options</h4><p>The <code>compaction</code> property must at least define the <code>'class'</code> sub-option, that defines the compaction strategy class to use. The default supported class are <code>'SizeTieredCompactionStrategy'</code>, <code>'LeveledCompactionStrategy'</code> and <code>'DateTieredCompactionStrategy'</code>. Custom strategy can be provided by specif
 ying the full class name as a <a href="#constants">string constant</a>. The rest of the sub-options depends on the chosen class. The sub-options supported by the default classes are:</p><table><tr><th>option                         </th><th>supported compaction strategy </th><th>default    </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>enabled</code>                        </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>true         </td><td>A boolean denoting whether compaction should be enabled or not.</td></tr><tr><td><code>tombstone_threshold</code>            </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>0.2          </td><td>A ratio such that if a sstable has more than this ratio of gcable tombstones over all contained columns, the sstable will be compacted (with no other sstables) for the purpose of purging those tombstones. </td></tr><tr><td><code>tombstone_compaction_interval</code>  </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>1 day        </t
 d><td>The minimum time to wait after an sstable creation time before considering it for &#171;tombstone compaction&#187;, where &#171;tombstone compaction&#187; is the compaction triggered if the sstable has more gcable tombstones than <code>tombstone_threshold</code>. </td></tr><tr><td><code>unchecked_tombstone_compaction</code> </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>false        </td><td>Setting this to true enables more aggressive tombstone compactions &#8211; single sstable tombstone compactions will run without checking how likely it is that they will be successful. </td></tr><tr><td><code>min_sstable_size</code>               </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>50MB         </td><td>The size tiered strategy groups SSTables to compact in buckets. A bucket groups SSTables that differs from less than 50% in size.  However, for small sizes, this would result in a bucketing that is too fine grained. <code>min_sstable_size</code> defines a size thresh
 old (in bytes) below which all SSTables belong to one unique bucket</td></tr><tr><td><code>min_threshold</code>                  </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>4            </td><td>Minimum number of SSTables needed to start a minor compaction.</td></tr><tr><td><code>max_threshold</code>                  </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>32           </td><td>Maximum number of SSTables processed by one minor compaction.</td></tr><tr><td><code>bucket_low</code>                     </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>0.5          </td><td>Size tiered consider sstables to be within the same bucket if their size is within [average_size * <code>bucket_low</code>, average_size * <code>bucket_high</code> ] (i.e the default groups sstable whose sizes diverges by at most 50%)</td></tr><tr><td><code>bucket_high</code>                    </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>1.5          </td><td>Size tiered consider sstables to be w
 ithin the same bucket if their size is within [average_size * <code>bucket_low</code>, average_size * <code>bucket_high</code> ] (i.e the default groups sstable whose sizes diverges by at most 50%).</td></tr><tr><td><code>sstable_size_in_mb</code>             </td><td>LeveledCompactionStrategy       </td><td>5MB          </td><td>The target size (in MB) for sstables in the leveled strategy. Note that while sstable sizes should stay less or equal to <code>sstable_size_in_mb</code>, it is possible to exceptionally have a larger sstable as during compaction, data for a given partition key are never split into 2 sstables</td></tr><tr><td><code>timestamp_resolution</code>           </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>MICROSECONDS </td><td>The timestamp resolution used when inserting data, could be MILLISECONDS, MICROSECONDS etc (should be understandable by Java TimeUnit)</td></tr><tr><td><code>base_time_seconds</code>              </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </
 td><td>60           </td><td>The base size of the time windows. </td></tr><tr><td><code>max_sstable_age_days</code>           </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>365          </td><td>SSTables only containing data that is older than this will never be compacted. </td></tr></table><h4 id="compressionOptions">Compression options</h4><p>For the <code>compression</code> property, the following sub-options are available:</p><table><tr><th>option                 </th><th>default        </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>class</code>                  </td><td>LZ4Compressor    </td><td>The compression algorithm to use. Default compressor are: LZ4Compressor, SnappyCompressor and DeflateCompressor. Use <code>'enabled' : false</code> to disable compression. Custom compressor can be provided by specifying the full class name as a <a href="#constants">string constant</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>enabled</code>                </td><td>true             </td><td>By default co
 mpression is enabled. To disable it, set <code>enabled</code> to <code>false</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>chunk_length_in_kb</code>     </td><td>64KB             </td><td>On disk SSTables are compressed by block (to allow random reads). This defines the size (in KB) of said block. Bigger values may improve the compression rate, but increases the minimum size of data to be read from disk for a read </td></tr><tr><td><code>crc_check_chance</code>       </td><td>1.0              </td><td>When compression is enabled, each compressed block includes a checksum of that block for the purpose of detecting disk bitrot and avoiding the propagation of corruption to other replica. This option defines the probability with which those checksums are checked during read. By default they are always checked. Set to 0 to disable checksum checking and to 0.5 for instance to check them every other read</td></tr></table><h4 id="cachingOptions">Caching options</h4><p>For the <code>caching</code> property,
  the following sub-options are available:</p><table><tr><th>option              </th><th>default        </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>keys</code>                 </td><td>ALL   </td><td>Whether to cache keys (&#171;key cache&#187;) for this table. Valid values are: <code>ALL</code> and <code>NONE</code>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>rows_per_partition</code>   </td><td>NONE   </td><td>The amount of rows to cache per partition (&#171;row cache&#187;). If an integer <code>n</code> is specified, the first <code>n</code> queried rows of a partition will be cached. Other possible options are <code>ALL</code>, to cache all rows of a queried partition, or <code>NONE</code> to disable row caching.</td></tr></table><h4 id="Otherconsiderations">Other considerations:</h4><ul><li>When <a href="#insertStmt">inserting</a> / <a href="#updateStmt">updating</a> a given row, not all columns needs to be defined (except for those part of the key), and missing columns occupy no space on disk. F
 urthermore, adding new columns (see &lt;a href=#alterStmt><tt>ALTER TABLE</tt></a>) is a constant time operation. There is thus no need to try to anticipate future usage (or to cry when you haven&#8217;t) when creating a table.</li></ul><h3 id="alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;alter-table-stmt> ::= ALTER (TABLE | COLUMNFAMILY) &lt;tablename> &lt;instruction>
+</pre></pre><p>the last query will return <code>'static1'</code> as value for <code>s</code>, since <code>s</code> is static and thus the 2nd insertion modified this &#8220;shared&#8221; value. Note however that static columns are only static within a given partition, and if in the example above both rows where from different partitions (i.e. if they had different value for <code>pk</code>), then the 2nd insertion would not have modified the value of <code>s</code> for the first row.</p><p>A few restrictions applies to when static columns are allowed:</p><ul><li>tables with the <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> option (see below) cannot have them</li><li>a table without clustering columns cannot have static columns (in a table without clustering columns, every partition has only one row, and so every column is inherently static).</li><li>only non <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> columns can be static</li></ul><h4 id="createTableOptions"><code>&lt;option></code></h4><p>The <code>CREATE TABLE</cod
 e> statement supports a number of options that controls the configuration of a new table. These options can be specified after the <code>WITH</code> keyword.</p><p>The first of these option is <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code>. This option is mainly targeted towards backward compatibility for definitions created before CQL3 (see <a href="http://www.datastax.com/dev/blog/thrift-to-cql3">www.datastax.com/dev/blog/thrift-to-cql3</a> for more details).  The option also provides a slightly more compact layout of data on disk but at the price of diminished flexibility and extensibility for the table.  Most notably, <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> tables cannot have collections nor static columns and a <code>COMPACT STORAGE</code> table with at least one clustering column supports exactly one (as in not 0 nor more than 1) column not part of the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> definition (which imply in particular that you cannot add nor remove columns after creation). For those reasons, <code>COMPACT STO
 RAGE</code> is not recommended outside of the backward compatibility reason evoked above.</p><p>Another option is <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code>. It allows to define the ordering of rows on disk. It takes the list of the clustering column names with, for each of them, the on-disk order (Ascending or descending). Note that this option affects <a href="#selectOrderBy">what <code>ORDER BY</code> are allowed during <code>SELECT</code></a>.</p><p>Table creation supports the following other <code>&lt;property></code>:</p><table><tr><th>option                    </th><th>kind   </th><th>default   </th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td><code>comment</code>                    </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>none        </td><td>A free-form, human-readable comment.</td></tr><tr><td><code>read_repair_chance</code>         </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0.1         </td><td>The probability with which to query extra nodes (e.g. more nodes than required by the consistency level) for the purpos
 e of read repairs.</td></tr><tr><td><code>dclocal_read_repair_chance</code> </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0           </td><td>The probability with which to query extra nodes (e.g. more nodes than required by the consistency level) belonging to the same data center than the read coordinator for the purpose of read repairs.</td></tr><tr><td><code>gc_grace_seconds</code>           </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>864000      </td><td>Time to wait before garbage collecting tombstones (deletion markers).</td></tr><tr><td><code>bloom_filter_fp_chance</code>     </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0.00075     </td><td>The target probability of false positive of the sstable bloom filters. Said bloom filters will be sized to provide the provided probability (thus lowering this value impact the size of bloom filters in-memory and on-disk)</td></tr><tr><td><code>default_time_to_live</code>       </td><td><em>simple</em> </td><td>0           </td><td>The default expiration time (&#8220;TTL&
 #8221;) in seconds for a table.</td></tr><tr><td><code>compaction</code>                 </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Compaction options, see <a href="#compactionOptions">below</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>compression</code>                </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Compression options, see <a href="#compressionOptions">below</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>caching</code>                    </td><td><em>map</em>    </td><td><em>see below</em> </td><td>Caching options, see <a href="#cachingOptions">below</a>.</td></tr></table><h4 id="compactionOptions">Compaction options</h4><p>The <code>compaction</code> property must at least define the <code>'class'</code> sub-option, that defines the compaction strategy class to use. The default supported class are <code>'SizeTieredCompactionStrategy'</code>, <code>'LeveledCompactionStrategy'</code> and <code>'DateTieredCompactionStrategy'</code>. Custom strategy can be provided by sp
 ecifying the full class name as a <a href="#constants">string constant</a>. The rest of the sub-options depends on the chosen class. The sub-options supported by the default classes are:</p><table><tr><th>option                         </th><th>supported compaction strategy </th><th>default    </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>enabled</code>                        </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>true         </td><td>A boolean denoting whether compaction should be enabled or not.</td></tr><tr><td><code>tombstone_threshold</code>            </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>0.2          </td><td>A ratio such that if a sstable has more than this ratio of gcable tombstones over all contained columns, the sstable will be compacted (with no other sstables) for the purpose of purging those tombstones. </td></tr><tr><td><code>tombstone_compaction_interval</code>  </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>1 day       
  </td><td>The minimum time to wait after an sstable creation time before considering it for &#8220;tombstone compaction&#8221;, where &#8220;tombstone compaction&#8221; is the compaction triggered if the sstable has more gcable tombstones than <code>tombstone_threshold</code>. </td></tr><tr><td><code>unchecked_tombstone_compaction</code> </td><td><em>all</em>                           </td><td>false        </td><td>Setting this to true enables more aggressive tombstone compactions &#8211; single sstable tombstone compactions will run without checking how likely it is that they will be successful. </td></tr><tr><td><code>min_sstable_size</code>               </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>50MB         </td><td>The size tiered strategy groups SSTables to compact in buckets. A bucket groups SSTables that differs from less than 50% in size.  However, for small sizes, this would result in a bucketing that is too fine grained. <code>min_sstable_size</code> defines a siz
 e threshold (in bytes) below which all SSTables belong to one unique bucket</td></tr><tr><td><code>min_threshold</code>                  </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>4            </td><td>Minimum number of SSTables needed to start a minor compaction.</td></tr><tr><td><code>max_threshold</code>                  </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>32           </td><td>Maximum number of SSTables processed by one minor compaction.</td></tr><tr><td><code>bucket_low</code>                     </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>0.5          </td><td>Size tiered consider sstables to be within the same bucket if their size is within [average_size * <code>bucket_low</code>, average_size * <code>bucket_high</code> ] (i.e the default groups sstable whose sizes diverges by at most 50%)</td></tr><tr><td><code>bucket_high</code>                    </td><td>SizeTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>1.5          </td><td>Size tiered consider sstables
  to be within the same bucket if their size is within [average_size * <code>bucket_low</code>, average_size * <code>bucket_high</code> ] (i.e the default groups sstable whose sizes diverges by at most 50%).</td></tr><tr><td><code>sstable_size_in_mb</code>             </td><td>LeveledCompactionStrategy       </td><td>5MB          </td><td>The target size (in MB) for sstables in the leveled strategy. Note that while sstable sizes should stay less or equal to <code>sstable_size_in_mb</code>, it is possible to exceptionally have a larger sstable as during compaction, data for a given partition key are never split into 2 sstables</td></tr><tr><td><code>timestamp_resolution</code>           </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>MICROSECONDS </td><td>The timestamp resolution used when inserting data, could be MILLISECONDS, MICROSECONDS etc (should be understandable by Java TimeUnit) - don&#8217;t change this unless you do mutations with USING TIMESTAMP <non_microsecond_timestam
 ps> (or equivalent directly in the client)</td></tr><tr><td><code>base_time_seconds</code>              </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>60           </td><td>The base size of the time windows. </td></tr><tr><td><code>max_sstable_age_days</code>           </td><td>DateTieredCompactionStrategy    </td><td>365          </td><td>SSTables only containing data that is older than this will never be compacted. </td></tr></table><h4 id="compressionOptions">Compression options</h4><p>For the <code>compression</code> property, the following sub-options are available:</p><table><tr><th>option                 </th><th>default        </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>class</code>                  </td><td>LZ4Compressor    </td><td>The compression algorithm to use. Default compressor are: LZ4Compressor, SnappyCompressor and DeflateCompressor. Use <code>'enabled' : false</code> to disable compression. Custom compressor can be provided by specifying the full class name a
 s a <a href="#constants">string constant</a>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>enabled</code>                </td><td>true             </td><td>By default compression is enabled. To disable it, set <code>enabled</code> to <code>false</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>chunk_length_in_kb</code>     </td><td>64KB             </td><td>On disk SSTables are compressed by block (to allow random reads). This defines the size (in KB) of said block. Bigger values may improve the compression rate, but increases the minimum size of data to be read from disk for a read </td></tr><tr><td><code>crc_check_chance</code>       </td><td>1.0              </td><td>When compression is enabled, each compressed block includes a checksum of that block for the purpose of detecting disk bitrot and avoiding the propagation of corruption to other replica. This option defines the probability with which those checksums are checked during read. By default they are always checked. Set to 0 to disable checksum checking and to 0.5
  for instance to check them every other read</td></tr></table><h4 id="cachingOptions">Caching options</h4><p>For the <code>caching</code> property, the following sub-options are available:</p><table><tr><th>option              </th><th>default        </th><th>description </th></tr><tr><td><code>keys</code>                 </td><td>ALL   </td><td>Whether to cache keys (&#8220;key cache&#8221;) for this table. Valid values are: <code>ALL</code> and <code>NONE</code>.</td></tr><tr><td><code>rows_per_partition</code>   </td><td>NONE   </td><td>The amount of rows to cache per partition (&#8220;row cache&#8221;). If an integer <code>n</code> is specified, the first <code>n</code> queried rows of a partition will be cached. Other possible options are <code>ALL</code>, to cache all rows of a queried partition, or <code>NONE</code> to disable row caching.</td></tr></table><h4 id="Otherconsiderations">Other considerations:</h4><ul><li>When <a href="#insertStmt">inserting</a> / <a href="#updat
 eStmt">updating</a> a given row, not all columns needs to be defined (except for those part of the key), and missing columns occupy no space on disk. Furthermore, adding new columns (see &lt;a href=#alterStmt><tt>ALTER TABLE</tt></a>) is a constant time operation. There is thus no need to try to anticipate future usage (or to cry when you haven&#8217;t) when creating a table.</li></ul><h3 id="alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;alter-table-stmt> ::= ALTER (TABLE | COLUMNFAMILY) &lt;tablename> &lt;instruction>
 
 &lt;instruction> ::= ALTER &lt;identifier> TYPE &lt;type>
                 | ADD   &lt;identifier> &lt;type>
@@ -275,17 +275,21 @@ INSERT INTO NerdMovies JSON '{"movie": "
                | &lt;identifier> '=' &lt;identifier> '+' &lt;map-literal>
                | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' '=' &lt;term>
 
-&lt;condition> ::= &lt;identifier> '=' &lt;term>
-              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' '=' &lt;term>
+&lt;condition> ::= &lt;identifier> &lt;op> &lt;term>
+              | &lt;identifier> IN (&lt;variable> | '(' ( &lt;term> ( ',' &lt;term> )* )? ')')
+              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' &lt;op> &lt;term>
+              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' IN &lt;term>
+
+&lt;op> ::= '&lt;' | '&lt;=' | '=' | '!=' | '>=' | '>'
 
 &lt;where-clause> ::= &lt;relation> ( AND &lt;relation> )*
 
 &lt;relation> ::= &lt;identifier> '=' &lt;term>
              | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' '=' &lt;term-tuple>
              | &lt;identifier> IN '(' ( &lt;term> ( ',' &lt;term>)* )? ')'
-             | &lt;identifier> IN '?'
+             | &lt;identifier> IN &lt;variable>
              | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN '(' ( &lt;term-tuple> ( ',' &lt;term-tuple>)* )? ')'
-             | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN '?'
+             | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN &lt;variable>
 
 &lt;option> ::= TIMESTAMP &lt;integer>
            | TTL &lt;integer>
@@ -296,7 +300,7 @@ SET director = 'Joss Whedon',
 WHERE movie = 'Serenity';
 
 UPDATE UserActions SET total = total + 2 WHERE user = B70DE1D0-9908-4AE3-BE34-5573E5B09F14 AND action = 'click';
-</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>UPDATE</code> statement writes one or more columns for a given row in a table. The <code>&lt;where-clause></code> is used to select the row to update and must include all columns composing the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code>. Other columns values are specified through <code>&lt;assignment></code> after the <code>SET</code> keyword.</p><p>Note that unlike in SQL, <code>UPDATE</code> does not check the prior existence of the row by default: the row is created if none existed before, and updated otherwise. Furthermore, there are no means to know whether a creation or update occurred.</p><p>It is however possible to use the conditions on some columns through <code>IF</code>, in which case the row will not be updated unless the conditions are met. But, please note that using <code>IF</code> conditions will incur a non-negligible performance cost (internally, Paxos will be used) so this should be used sparingly.</p><p>In an <code>UPDATE</code> statement, all updates
  within the same partition key are applied atomically and in isolation.</p><p>The <code>c = c + 3</code> form of <code>&lt;assignment></code> is used to increment/decrement counters. The identifier after the &#8249;=&#8250; sign <strong>must</strong> be the same than the one before the &#8249;=&#8250; sign (Only increment/decrement is supported on counters, not the assignment of a specific value).</p><p>The <code>id = id + &lt;collection-literal></code> and <code>id[value1] = value2</code> forms of <code>&lt;assignment></code> are for collections. Please refer to the <a href="#collections">relevant section</a> for more details.</p><h4 id="updateOptions"><code>&lt;options></code></h4><p>The <code>UPDATE</code> and <code>INSERT</code> statements support the following options:</p><ul><li><code>TIMESTAMP</code>: sets the timestamp for the operation. If not specified, the coordinator will use the current time (in microseconds) at the start of statement execution as the timestamp. This is
  usually a suitable default.</li><li><code>TTL</code>: specifies an optional Time To Live (in seconds) for the inserted values. If set, the inserted values are automatically removed from the database after the specified time. Note that the TTL concerns the inserted values, not the columns themselves. This means that any subsequent update of the column will also reset the TTL (to whatever TTL is specified in that update). By default, values never expire. A TTL of 0 or a negative value is equivalent to no TTL.</li></ul><h3 id="deleteStmt">DELETE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;delete-stmt> ::= DELETE ( &lt;selection> ( ',' &lt;selection> )* )?
+</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>UPDATE</code> statement writes one or more columns for a given row in a table. The <code>&lt;where-clause></code> is used to select the row to update and must include all columns composing the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code>. Other columns values are specified through <code>&lt;assignment></code> after the <code>SET</code> keyword.</p><p>Note that unlike in SQL, <code>UPDATE</code> does not check the prior existence of the row by default (except through the use of <code>&lt;condition></code>, see below): the row is created if none existed before, and updated otherwise. Furthermore, there are no means to know whether a creation or update occurred.</p><p>It is however possible to use the conditions on some columns through <code>IF</code>, in which case the row will not be updated unless the conditions are met. But, please note that using <code>IF</code> conditions will incur a non-negligible performance cost (internally, Paxos will be used) so this should be use
 d sparingly.</p><p>In an <code>UPDATE</code> statement, all updates within the same partition key are applied atomically and in isolation.</p><p>The <code>c = c + 3</code> form of <code>&lt;assignment></code> is used to increment/decrement counters. The identifier after the &#8216;=&#8217; sign <strong>must</strong> be the same than the one before the &#8216;=&#8217; sign (Only increment/decrement is supported on counters, not the assignment of a specific value).</p><p>The <code>id = id + &lt;collection-literal></code> and <code>id[value1] = value2</code> forms of <code>&lt;assignment></code> are for collections. Please refer to the <a href="#collections">relevant section</a> for more details.</p><h4 id="updateOptions"><code>&lt;options></code></h4><p>The <code>UPDATE</code> and <code>INSERT</code> statements support the following options:</p><ul><li><code>TIMESTAMP</code>: sets the timestamp for the operation. If not specified, the coordinator will use the current time (in microsec
 onds) at the start of statement execution as the timestamp. This is usually a suitable default.</li><li><code>TTL</code>: specifies an optional Time To Live (in seconds) for the inserted values. If set, the inserted values are automatically removed from the database after the specified time. Note that the TTL concerns the inserted values, not the columns themselves. This means that any subsequent update of the column will also reset the TTL (to whatever TTL is specified in that update). By default, values never expire. A TTL of 0 or a negative value is equivalent to no TTL.</li></ul><h3 id="deleteStmt">DELETE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;delete-stmt> ::= DELETE ( &lt;selection> ( ',' &lt;selection> )* )?
                   FROM &lt;tablename>
                   ( USING TIMESTAMP &lt;integer>)?
                   WHERE &lt;where-clause>
@@ -309,13 +313,17 @@ UPDATE UserActions SET total = total + 2
 &lt;relation> ::= &lt;identifier> &lt;op> &lt;term>
              | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' &lt;op> &lt;term-tuple>
              | &lt;identifier> IN '(' ( &lt;term> ( ',' &lt;term>)* )? ')'
-             | &lt;identifier> IN '?'
+             | &lt;identifier> IN &lt;variable>
              | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN '(' ( &lt;term-tuple> ( ',' &lt;term-tuple>)* )? ')'
-             | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN '?'
+             | '(' &lt;identifier> (',' &lt;identifier>)* ')' IN &lt;variable>
 
 &lt;op> ::= '=' | '&lt;' | '>' | '&lt;=' | '>='
-&lt;condition> ::= &lt;identifier> '=' &lt;term>
-              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' '=' &lt;term>
+
+&lt;condition> ::= &lt;identifier> (&lt;op> | '!=') &lt;term>
+              | &lt;identifier> IN (&lt;variable> | '(' ( &lt;term> ( ',' &lt;term> )* )? ')')
+              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' (&lt;op> | '!=') &lt;term>
+              | &lt;identifier> '[' &lt;term> ']' IN &lt;term>
+
 </pre></pre><p><br/><i>Sample:</i></p><pre class="sample"><pre>DELETE FROM NerdMovies USING TIMESTAMP 1240003134 WHERE movie = 'Serenity';
 
 DELETE phone FROM Users WHERE userid IN (C73DE1D3-AF08-40F3-B124-3FF3E5109F22, B70DE1D0-9908-4AE3-BE34-5573E5B09F14);
@@ -381,7 +389,7 @@ SELECT COUNT(*) FROM users;
 
 SELECT COUNT(*) AS user_count FROM users;
 
-</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>SELECT</code> statements reads one or more columns for one or more rows in a table. It returns a result-set of rows, where each row contains the collection of columns corresponding to the query.  If the <code>JSON</code> keyword is used, the results for each row will contain only a single column named &#171;json&#187;.  See the section on <a href="#selectJson"><code>SELECT JSON</code></a> for more details.</p><h4 id="selectSelection"><code>&lt;select-clause></code></h4><p>The <code>&lt;select-clause></code> determines which columns needs to be queried and returned in the result-set. It consists of either the comma-separated list of <selector> or the wildcard character (<code>*</code>) to select all the columns defined for the table.</p><p>A <code>&lt;selector></code> is either a column name to retrieve or a <code>&lt;function></code> of one or more @<term>@s. The function allowed are the same as for <code>&lt;term></code> and are described in the <a hre
 f="#functions">function section</a>. In addition to these generic functions, the <code>WRITETIME</code> (resp. <code>TTL</code>) function allows to select the timestamp of when the column was inserted (resp. the time to live (in seconds) for the column (or null if the column has no expiration set)).</p><p>Any <code>&lt;selector></code> can be aliased using <code>AS</code> keyword (see examples). Please note that <code>&lt;where-clause></code> and <code>&lt;order-by></code> clause should refer to the columns by their original names and not by their aliases.</p><p>The <code>COUNT</code> keyword can be used with parenthesis enclosing <code>*</code>. If so, the query will return a single result: the number of rows matching the query. Note that <code>COUNT(1)</code> is supported as an alias.</p><h4 id="selectWhere"><code>&lt;where-clause></code></h4><p>The <code>&lt;where-clause></code> specifies which rows must be queried. It is composed of relations on the columns that are part of the 
 <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> and/or have a <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary index</a> defined on them.</p><p>Not all relations are allowed in a query. For instance, non-equal relations (where <code>IN</code> is considered as an equal relation) on a partition key are not supported (but see the use of the <code>TOKEN</code> method below to do non-equal queries on the partition key). Moreover, for a given partition key, the clustering columns induce an ordering of rows and relations on them is restricted to the relations that allow to select a <strong>contiguous</strong> (for the ordering) set of rows. For instance, given</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE posts (
+</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>SELECT</code> statements reads one or more columns for one or more rows in a table. It returns a result-set of rows, where each row contains the collection of columns corresponding to the query.  If the <code>JSON</code> keyword is used, the results for each row will contain only a single column named &#8220;json&#8221;.  See the section on <a href="#selectJson"><code>SELECT JSON</code></a> for more details.</p><h4 id="selectSelection"><code>&lt;select-clause></code></h4><p>The <code>&lt;select-clause></code> determines which columns needs to be queried and returned in the result-set. It consists of either the comma-separated list of <selector> or the wildcard character (<code>*</code>) to select all the columns defined for the table.</p><p>A <code>&lt;selector></code> is either a column name to retrieve or a <code>&lt;function></code> of one or more @<term>@s. The function allowed are the same as for <code>&lt;term></code> and are described in the <a h
 ref="#functions">function section</a>. In addition to these generic functions, the <code>WRITETIME</code> (resp. <code>TTL</code>) function allows to select the timestamp of when the column was inserted (resp. the time to live (in seconds) for the column (or null if the column has no expiration set)).</p><p>Any <code>&lt;selector></code> can be aliased using <code>AS</code> keyword (see examples). Please note that <code>&lt;where-clause></code> and <code>&lt;order-by></code> clause should refer to the columns by their original names and not by their aliases.</p><p>The <code>COUNT</code> keyword can be used with parenthesis enclosing <code>*</code>. If so, the query will return a single result: the number of rows matching the query. Note that <code>COUNT(1)</code> is supported as an alias.</p><h4 id="selectWhere"><code>&lt;where-clause></code></h4><p>The <code>&lt;where-clause></code> specifies which rows must be queried. It is composed of relations on the columns that are part of th
 e <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> and/or have a <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary index</a> defined on them.</p><p>Not all relations are allowed in a query. For instance, non-equal relations (where <code>IN</code> is considered as an equal relation) on a partition key are not supported (but see the use of the <code>TOKEN</code> method below to do non-equal queries on the partition key). Moreover, for a given partition key, the clustering columns induce an ordering of rows and relations on them is restricted to the relations that allow to select a <strong>contiguous</strong> (for the ordering) set of rows. For instance, given</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE posts (
     userid text,
     blog_title text,
     posted_at timestamp,
@@ -394,10 +402,10 @@ SELECT COUNT(*) AS user_count FROM users
 </pre></pre><p>But the following one is not, as it does not select a contiguous set of rows (and we suppose no secondary indexes are set):</p><pre class="sample"><pre>// Needs a blog_title to be set to select ranges of posted_at
 SELECT entry_title, content FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND posted_at >= '2012-01-01' AND posted_at &lt; '2012-01-31'
 </pre></pre><p>When specifying relations, the <code>TOKEN</code> function can be used on the <code>PARTITION KEY</code> column to query. In that case, rows will be selected based on the token of their <code>PARTITION_KEY</code> rather than on the value. Note that the token of a key depends on the partitioner in use, and that in particular the RandomPartitioner won&#8217;t yield a meaningful order. Also note that ordering partitioners always order token values by bytes (so even if the partition key is of type int, <code>token(-1) > token(0)</code> in particular). Example:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE token(userid) > token('tom') AND token(userid) &lt; token('bob')
-</pre></pre><p>Moreover, the <code>IN</code> relation is only allowed on the last column of the partition key and on the last column of the full primary key.</p><p>It is also possible to &#171;group&#187; <code>CLUSTERING COLUMNS</code> together in a relation using the tuple notation. For instance:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND (blog_title, posted_at) > ('John''s Blog', '2012-01-01')
-</pre></pre><p>will request all rows that sorts after the one having &#171;John's Blog&#187; as <code>blog_tile</code> and &#8249;2012-01-01&#8250; for <code>posted_at</code> in the clustering order. In particular, rows having a <code>post_at &lt;= '2012-01-01'</code> will be returned as long as their <code>blog_title > 'John''s Blog'</code>, which wouldn&#8217;t be the case for:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND blog_title > 'John''s Blog' AND posted_at > '2012-01-01'
+</pre></pre><p>Moreover, the <code>IN</code> relation is only allowed on the last column of the partition key and on the last column of the full primary key.</p><p>It is also possible to &#8220;group&#8221; <code>CLUSTERING COLUMNS</code> together in a relation using the tuple notation. For instance:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND (blog_title, posted_at) > ('John''s Blog', '2012-01-01')
+</pre></pre><p>will request all rows that sorts after the one having &#8220;John's Blog&#8221; as <code>blog_tile</code> and &#8216;2012-01-01&#8217; for <code>posted_at</code> in the clustering order. In particular, rows having a <code>post_at &lt;= '2012-01-01'</code> will be returned as long as their <code>blog_title > 'John''s Blog'</code>, which wouldn&#8217;t be the case for:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND blog_title > 'John''s Blog' AND posted_at > '2012-01-01'
 </pre></pre><p>The tuple notation may also be used for <code>IN</code> clauses on <code>CLUSTERING COLUMNS</code>:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM posts WHERE userid='john doe' AND (blog_title, posted_at) IN (('John''s Blog', '2012-01-01), ('Extreme Chess', '2014-06-01'))
-</pre></pre><p>The <code>CONTAINS</code> operator may only be used on collection columns (lists, sets, and maps).  In the case of maps, <code>CONTAINS</code> applies to the map values. The <code>CONTAINS KEY</code> operator may only be used on map columns and applies to the map keys.</p><h4 id="selectOrderBy"><code>&lt;order-by></code></h4><p>The <code>ORDER BY</code> option allows to select the order of the returned results. It takes as argument a list of column names along with the order for the column (<code>ASC</code> for ascendant and <code>DESC</code> for descendant, omitting the order being equivalent to <code>ASC</code>). Currently the possible orderings are limited (which depends on the table <a href="#createTableOptions"><code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code></a> ):</p><ul><li>if the table has been defined without any specific <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code>, then then allowed orderings are the order induced by the clustering columns and the reverse of that one.</li><li>otherwise, th
 e orderings allowed are the order of the <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code> option and the reversed one.</li></ul><h4 id="selectLimit"><code>LIMIT</code></h4><p>The <code>LIMIT</code> option to a <code>SELECT</code> statement limits the number of rows returned by a query.</p><h4 id="selectAllowFiltering"><code>ALLOW FILTERING</code></h4><p>By default, CQL only allows select queries that don&#8217;t involve &#171;filtering&#187; server side, i.e. queries where we know that all (live) record read will be returned (maybe partly) in the result set. The reasoning is that those &#171;non filtering&#187; queries have predictable performance in the sense that they will execute in a time that is proportional to the amount of data <strong>returned</strong> by the query (which can be controlled through <code>LIMIT</code>).</p><p>The <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> option allows to explicitly allow (some) queries that require filtering. Please note that a query using <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> may th
 us have unpredictable performance (for the definition above), i.e. even a query that selects a handful of records <strong>may</strong> exhibit performance that depends on the total amount of data stored in the cluster.</p><p>For instance, considering the following table holding user profiles with their year of birth (with a secondary index on it) and country of residence:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE users (
+</pre></pre><p>The <code>CONTAINS</code> operator may only be used on collection columns (lists, sets, and maps).  In the case of maps, <code>CONTAINS</code> applies to the map values. The <code>CONTAINS KEY</code> operator may only be used on map columns and applies to the map keys.</p><h4 id="selectOrderBy"><code>&lt;order-by></code></h4><p>The <code>ORDER BY</code> option allows to select the order of the returned results. It takes as argument a list of column names along with the order for the column (<code>ASC</code> for ascendant and <code>DESC</code> for descendant, omitting the order being equivalent to <code>ASC</code>). Currently the possible orderings are limited (which depends on the table <a href="#createTableOptions"><code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code></a> ):</p><ul><li>if the table has been defined without any specific <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code>, then then allowed orderings are the order induced by the clustering columns and the reverse of that one.</li><li>otherwise, th
 e orderings allowed are the order of the <code>CLUSTERING ORDER</code> option and the reversed one.</li></ul><h4 id="selectLimit"><code>LIMIT</code></h4><p>The <code>LIMIT</code> option to a <code>SELECT</code> statement limits the number of rows returned by a query.</p><h4 id="selectAllowFiltering"><code>ALLOW FILTERING</code></h4><p>By default, CQL only allows select queries that don&#8217;t involve &#8220;filtering&#8221; server side, i.e. queries where we know that all (live) record read will be returned (maybe partly) in the result set. The reasoning is that those &#8220;non filtering&#8221; queries have predictable performance in the sense that they will execute in a time that is proportional to the amount of data <strong>returned</strong> by the query (which can be controlled through <code>LIMIT</code>).</p><p>The <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> option allows to explicitly allow (some) queries that require filtering. Please note that a query using <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> ma
 y thus have unpredictable performance (for the definition above), i.e. even a query that selects a handful of records <strong>may</strong> exhibit performance that depends on the total amount of data stored in the cluster.</p><p>For instance, considering the following table holding user profiles with their year of birth (with a secondary index on it) and country of residence:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE TABLE users (
     username text PRIMARY KEY,
     firstname text,
     lastname text,
@@ -409,7 +417,7 @@ CREATE INDEX ON users(birth_year);
 </pre></pre><p></p><p>Then the following queries are valid:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM users;
 SELECT firstname, lastname FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981;
 </pre></pre><p>because in both case, Cassandra guarantees that these queries performance will be proportional to the amount of data returned. In particular, if no users are born in 1981, then the second query performance will not depend of the number of user profile stored in the database (not directly at least: due to secondary index implementation consideration, this query may still depend on the number of node in the cluster, which indirectly depends on the amount of data stored.  Nevertheless, the number of nodes will always be multiple number of magnitude lower than the number of user profile stored). Of course, both query may return very large result set in practice, but the amount of data returned can always be controlled by adding a <code>LIMIT</code>.</p><p>However, the following query will be rejected:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT firstname, lastname FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981 AND country = 'FR';
-</pre></pre><p>because Cassandra cannot guarantee that it won&#8217;t have to scan large amount of data even if the result to those query is small. Typically, it will scan all the index entries for users born in 1981 even if only a handful are actually from France. However, if you &#171;know what you are doing&#187;, you can force the execution of this query by using <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> and so the following query is valid:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT firstname, lastname FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981 AND country = 'FR' ALLOW FILTERING;
+</pre></pre><p>because Cassandra cannot guarantee that it won&#8217;t have to scan large amount of data even if the result to those query is small. Typically, it will scan all the index entries for users born in 1981 even if only a handful are actually from France. However, if you &#8220;know what you are doing&#8221;, you can force the execution of this query by using <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> and so the following query is valid:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT firstname, lastname FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981 AND country = 'FR' ALLOW FILTERING;
 </pre></pre><h2 id="databaseRoles">Database Roles</h2><h3 id="createRoleStmt">CREATE ROLE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;create-role-stmt> ::= CREATE ROLE ( IF NOT EXISTS )? &lt;identifier> ( WITH &lt;option> ( AND &lt;option> )* )?
 
 &lt;option> ::= PASSWORD = &lt;string>
@@ -553,7 +561,7 @@ REVOKE DESCRIBE ON ALL ROLES FROM role_a
                     | set  '&lt;' &lt;native-type> '>'
                     | map  '&lt;' &lt;native-type> ',' &lt;native-type> '>'
 &lt;tuple-type> ::= tuple '&lt;' &lt;type> (',' &lt;type>)* '>'
-</pre></pre><p>Note that the native types are keywords and as such are case-insensitive. They are however not reserved ones.</p><p>The following table gives additional informations on the native data types, and on which kind of <a href="#constants">constants</a> each type supports:</p><table><tr><th>type    </th><th>constants supported</th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td><code>ascii</code>    </td><td>  strings            </td><td>ASCII character string</td></tr><tr><td><code>bigint</code>   </td><td>  integers           </td><td>64-bit signed long</td></tr><tr><td><code>blob</code>     </td><td>  blobs              </td><td>Arbitrary bytes (no validation)</td></tr><tr><td><code>boolean</code>  </td><td>  booleans           </td><td>true or false</td></tr><tr><td><code>counter</code>  </td><td>  integers           </td><td>Counter column (64-bit signed value). See <a href="#counters">Counters</a> for details</td></tr><tr><td><code>date</code>     </td><td>  integers, strings  </td>
 <td>A date (with no corresponding time value).  See <a href="#usingdates">Working with dates</a> below for more information.</td></tr><tr><td><code>decimal</code>  </td><td>  integers, floats   </td><td>Variable-precision decimal</td></tr><tr><td><code>double</code>   </td><td>  integers           </td><td>64-bit IEEE-754 floating point</td></tr><tr><td><code>float</code>    </td><td>  integers, floats   </td><td>32-bit IEEE-754 floating point</td></tr><tr><td><code>inet</code>     </td><td>  strings            </td><td>An IP address. It can be either 4 bytes long (IPv4) or 16 bytes long (IPv6). There is no <code>inet</code> constant, IP address should be inputed as strings</td></tr><tr><td><code>int</code>      </td><td>  integers           </td><td>32-bit signed int</td></tr><tr><td><code>smallint</code> </td><td>  integers           </td><td>16-bit signed int</td></tr><tr><td><code>text</code>     </td><td>  strings            </td><td>UTF8 encoded string</td></tr><tr><td><code>t
 ime</code>     </td><td>  integers, strings  </td><td>A time with nanosecond precision.  See <a href="#usingtime">Working with time</a> below for more information.</td></tr><tr><td><code>timestamp</code></td><td>  integers, strings  </td><td>A timestamp. Strings constant are allow to input timestamps as dates, see <a href="#usingtimestamps">Working with timestamps</a> below for more information.</td></tr><tr><td><code>timeuuid</code> </td><td>  uuids              </td><td>Type 1 UUID. This is generally used as a &#171;conflict-free&#187; timestamp. Also see the <a href="#timeuuidFun">functions on Timeuuid</a></td></tr><tr><td><code>tinyint</code>  </td><td>  integers           </td><td>8-bit signed int</td></tr><tr><td><code>uuid</code>     </td><td>  uuids              </td><td>Type 1 or type 4 UUID</td></tr><tr><td><code>varchar</code>  </td><td>  strings            </td><td>UTF8 encoded string</td></tr><tr><td><code>varint</code>   </td><td>  integers           </td><td>Arbitrary
 -precision integer</td></tr></table><p>For more information on how to use the collection types, see the <a href="#collections">Working with collections</a> section below.</p><h3 id="usingtimestamps">Working with timestamps</h3><p>Values of the <code>timestamp</code> type are encoded as 64-bit signed integers representing a number of milliseconds since the standard base time known as &#171;the epoch&#187;: January 1 1970 at 00:00:00 GMT.</p><p>Timestamp can be input in CQL as simple long integers, giving the number of milliseconds since the epoch, as defined above.</p><p>They can also be input as string literals in any of the following ISO 8601 formats, each representing the time and date Mar 2, 2011, at 04:05:00 AM, GMT.:</p><ul><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05+0000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05:00+0000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05:00.000+0000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05+0000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05:00+0000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05:00.
 000+0000</code></li></ul><p>The <code>+0000</code> above is an RFC 822 4-digit time zone specification; <code>+0000</code> refers to GMT. US Pacific Standard Time is <code>-0800</code>. The time zone may be omitted if desired&#8212; the date will be interpreted as being in the time zone under which the coordinating Cassandra node is configured.</p><ul><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05:00</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03 04:05:00.000</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05:00</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03T04:05:00.000</code></li></ul><p>There are clear difficulties inherent in relying on the time zone configuration being as expected, though, so it is recommended that the time zone always be specified for timestamps when feasible.</p><p>The time of day may also be omitted, if the date is the only piece that matters:</p><ul><li><code>2011-02-03</code></li><li><code>2011-02-03+0000</code></li></ul><p>In that case, the t
 ime of day will default to 00:00:00, in the specified or default time zone.</p><h3 id="usingdates">Working with dates</h3><p>Values of the <code>date</code> type are encoded as 32-bit unsigned integers representing a number of days with &#171;the epoch&#187; at the center of the range (2^31). Epoch is January 1st, 1970</p><p>A date can be input in CQL as an unsigned integer as defined above.</p><p>They can also be input as string literals in the following format:</p><ul><li><code>2014-01-01</code></li></ul><h3 id="usingtime">Working with time</h3><p>Values of the <code>time</code> type are encoded as 64-bit signed integers representing the number of nanoseconds since midnight.</p><p>A time can be input in CQL as simple long integers, giving the number of nanoseconds since midnight.</p><p>They can also be input as string literals in any of the following formats:</p><ul><li><code>08:12:54</code></li><li><code>08:12:54.123</code></li><li><code>08:12:54.123456</code></li><li><code>08:12
 :54.123456789</code></li></ul><h3 id="counters">Counters</h3><p>The <code>counter</code> type is used to define <em>counter columns</em>. A counter column is a column whose value is a 64-bit signed integer and on which 2 operations are supported: incrementation and decrementation (see <a href="#updateStmt"><code>UPDATE</code></a> for syntax).  Note the value of a counter cannot be set. A counter doesn&#8217;t exist until first incremented/decremented, and the first incrementation/decrementation is made as if the previous value was 0. Deletion of counter columns is supported but have some limitations (see the <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Counters">Cassandra Wiki</a> for more information).</p><p>The use of the counter type is limited in the following way:</p><ul><li>It cannot be used for column that is part of the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> of a table.</li><li>A table that contains a counter can only contain counters. In other words, either all the columns of a table outsid
 e the <code>PRIMARY KEY</code> have the counter type, or none of them have it.</li></ul><h3 id="collections">Working with collections</h3><h4 id="Noteworthycharacteristics">Noteworthy characteristics</h4><p>Collections are meant for storing/denormalizing relatively small amount of data. They work well for things like &#171;the phone numbers of a given user&#187;, &#171;labels applied to an email&#187;, etc. But when items are expected to grow unbounded (&#171;all the messages sent by a given user&#187;, &#171;events registered by a sensor&#187;, ...), then collections are not appropriate anymore and a specific table (with clustering columns) should be used. Concretely, collections have the following limitations:</p><ul><li>Collections are always read in their entirety (and reading one is not paged internally).</li><li>Collections cannot have more than 65535 elements. More precisely, while it may be possible to insert more than 65535 elements, it is not possible to read more than the
  65535 first elements (see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-5428">CASSANDRA-5428</a> for details).</li><li>While insertion operations on sets and maps never incur a read-before-write internally, some operations on lists do (see the section on lists below for details). It is thus advised to prefer sets over lists when possible.</li></ul><p>Please note that while some of those limitations may or may not be loosen in the future, the general rule that collections are for denormalizing small amount of data is meant to stay.</p><h4 id="map">Maps</h4><p>A <code>map</code> is a <a href="#types">typed</a> set of key-value pairs, where keys are unique. Furthermore, note that the map are internally sorted by their keys and will thus always be returned in that order. To create a column of type <code>map</code>, use the <code>map</code> keyword suffixed with comma-separated key and value types, enclosed in angle brackets.  For example:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE T
 ABLE users (

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