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From slebre...@apache.org
Subject [2/2] cassandra git commit: Merge branch 'cassandra-2.1' into cassandra-2.2
Date Fri, 30 Oct 2015 08:49:25 GMT
Merge branch 'cassandra-2.1' into cassandra-2.2


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/commit/6e929628
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/tree/6e929628
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/diff/6e929628

Branch: refs/heads/cassandra-2.2
Commit: 6e929628f65e47ca3d83bafa2593e56af41e2129
Parents: ca8e9a9 83fb3cc
Author: Sylvain Lebresne <sylvain@datastax.com>
Authored: Fri Oct 30 09:49:01 2015 +0100
Committer: Sylvain Lebresne <sylvain@datastax.com>
Committed: Fri Oct 30 09:49:01 2015 +0100

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 doc/native_protocol_v3.spec | 11 ++++++++---
 doc/native_protocol_v4.spec |  6 +++++-
 2 files changed, 13 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/6e929628/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
index f040323,0000000..7aca858
mode 100644,000000..100644
--- a/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
+++ b/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
@@@ -1,1162 -1,0 +1,1166 @@@
 +
 +                             CQL BINARY PROTOCOL v4
 +
 +
 +Table of Contents
 +
 +  1. Overview
 +  2. Frame header
 +    2.1. version
 +    2.2. flags
 +    2.3. stream
 +    2.4. opcode
 +    2.5. length
 +  3. Notations
 +  4. Messages
 +    4.1. Requests
 +      4.1.1. STARTUP
 +      4.1.2. AUTH_RESPONSE
 +      4.1.3. OPTIONS
 +      4.1.4. QUERY
 +      4.1.5. PREPARE
 +      4.1.6. EXECUTE
 +      4.1.7. BATCH
 +      4.1.8. REGISTER
 +    4.2. Responses
 +      4.2.1. ERROR
 +      4.2.2. READY
 +      4.2.3. AUTHENTICATE
 +      4.2.4. SUPPORTED
 +      4.2.5. RESULT
 +        4.2.5.1. Void
 +        4.2.5.2. Rows
 +        4.2.5.3. Set_keyspace
 +        4.2.5.4. Prepared
 +        4.2.5.5. Schema_change
 +      4.2.6. EVENT
 +      4.2.7. AUTH_CHALLENGE
 +      4.2.8. AUTH_SUCCESS
 +  5. Compression
 +  6. Data Type Serialization Formats
 +  7. User Defined Type Serialization
 +  8. Result paging
 +  9. Error codes
 +  10. Changes from v3
 +
 +
 +1. Overview
 +
 +  The CQL binary protocol is a frame based protocol. Frames are defined as:
 +
 +      0         8        16        24        32         40
 +      +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
 +      | version |  flags  |      stream       | opcode  |
 +      +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
 +      |                length                 |
 +      +---------+---------+---------+---------+
 +      |                                       |
 +      .            ...  body ...              .
 +      .                                       .
 +      .                                       .
 +      +----------------------------------------
 +
 +  The protocol is big-endian (network byte order).
 +
 +  Each frame contains a fixed size header (9 bytes) followed by a variable size
 +  body. The header is described in Section 2. The content of the body depends
 +  on the header opcode value (the body can in particular be empty for some
 +  opcode values). The list of allowed opcode is defined Section 2.3 and the
 +  details of each corresponding message is described Section 4.
 +
 +  The protocol distinguishes 2 types of frames: requests and responses. Requests
 +  are those frame sent by the clients to the server, response are the ones sent
 +  by the server. Note however that the protocol supports server pushes (events)
 +  so responses does not necessarily come right after a client request.
 +
 +  Note to client implementors: clients library should always assume that the
 +  body of a given frame may contain more data than what is described in this
 +  document. It will however always be safe to ignore the remaining of the frame
 +  body in such cases. The reason is that this may allow to sometimes extend the
 +  protocol with optional features without needing to change the protocol
 +  version.
 +
 +
 +
 +2. Frame header
 +
 +2.1. version
 +
 +  The version is a single byte that indicate both the direction of the message
 +  (request or response) and the version of the protocol in use. The up-most bit
 +  of version is used to define the direction of the message: 0 indicates a
 +  request, 1 indicates a responses. This can be useful for protocol analyzers to
 +  distinguish the nature of the packet from the direction which it is moving.
 +  The rest of that byte is the protocol version (4 for the protocol defined in
 +  this document). In other words, for this version of the protocol, version will
 +  have one of:
 +    0x04    Request frame for this protocol version
 +    0x84    Response frame for this protocol version
 +
 +  Please note that the while every message ship with the version, only one version
 +  of messages is accepted on a given connection. In other words, the first message
 +  exchanged (STARTUP) sets the version for the connection for the lifetime of this
 +  connection.
 +
 +  This document describe the version 3 of the protocol. For the changes made since
 +  version 3, see Section 10.
 +
 +
 +2.2. flags
 +
 +  Flags applying to this frame. The flags have the following meaning (described
 +  by the mask that allow to select them):
 +    0x01: Compression flag. If set, the frame body is compressed. The actual
 +          compression to use should have been set up beforehand through the
 +          Startup message (which thus cannot be compressed; Section 4.1.1).
 +    0x02: Tracing flag. For a request frame, this indicate the client requires
 +          tracing of the request. Note that not all requests support tracing.
 +          Currently, only QUERY, PREPARE and EXECUTE queries support tracing.
 +          Other requests will simply ignore the tracing flag if set. If a
 +          request support tracing and the tracing flag was set, the response to
 +          this request will have the tracing flag set and contain tracing
 +          information.
 +          If a response frame has the tracing flag set, its body contains
 +          a tracing ID. The tracing ID is a [uuid] and is the first thing in
 +          the frame body. The rest of the body will then be the usual body
 +          corresponding to the response opcode.
 +    0x04: Custom payload flag. For a request or response frame, this indicates
 +          that generic key-value custom payload for a custom QueryHandler
 +          implementation is present in the frame. Such custom payload is simply
 +          ignored by the default QueryHandler implementation.
 +          Currently, only QUERY, PREPARE, EXECUTE and BATCH requests support
 +          payload.
 +          Type of custom payload is [bytes map] (see below).
 +    0x08: Warning flag. The response contains warnings from the server which
 +          were generated by the server to go along with this response.
 +          If a response frame has the warning flag set, its body will contain the
 +          text of the warnings. The warnings are a [string list] and will be the
 +          first value in the frame body if the tracing flag is not set, or directly
 +          after the tracing ID if it is.
 +
 +  The rest of the flags is currently unused and ignored.
 +
 +2.3. stream
 +
 +  A frame has a stream id (a [short] value). When sending request messages, this
 +  stream id must be set by the client to a non-negative value (negative stream id
 +  are reserved for streams initiated by the server; currently all EVENT messages
 +  (section 4.2.6) have a streamId of -1). If a client sends a request message
 +  with the stream id X, it is guaranteed that the stream id of the response to
 +  that message will be X.
 +
 +  This allow to deal with the asynchronous nature of the protocol. If a client
 +  sends multiple messages simultaneously (without waiting for responses), there
 +  is no guarantee on the order of the responses. For instance, if the client
 +  writes REQ_1, REQ_2, REQ_3 on the wire (in that order), the server might
 +  respond to REQ_3 (or REQ_2) first. Assigning different stream id to these 3
 +  requests allows the client to distinguish to which request an received answer
 +  respond to. As there can only be 32768 different simultaneous streams, it is up
 +  to the client to reuse stream id.
 +
 +  Note that clients are free to use the protocol synchronously (i.e. wait for
 +  the response to REQ_N before sending REQ_N+1). In that case, the stream id
 +  can be safely set to 0. Clients should also feel free to use only a subset of
 +  the 32768 maximum possible stream ids if it is simpler for those
 +  implementation.
 +
 +2.4. opcode
 +
 +  An integer byte that distinguish the actual message:
 +    0x00    ERROR
 +    0x01    STARTUP
 +    0x02    READY
 +    0x03    AUTHENTICATE
 +    0x05    OPTIONS
 +    0x06    SUPPORTED
 +    0x07    QUERY
 +    0x08    RESULT
 +    0x09    PREPARE
 +    0x0A    EXECUTE
 +    0x0B    REGISTER
 +    0x0C    EVENT
 +    0x0D    BATCH
 +    0x0E    AUTH_CHALLENGE
 +    0x0F    AUTH_RESPONSE
 +    0x10    AUTH_SUCCESS
 +
 +  Messages are described in Section 4.
 +
 +  (Note that there is no 0x04 message in this version of the protocol)
 +
 +
 +2.5. length
 +
 +  A 4 byte integer representing the length of the body of the frame (note:
 +  currently a frame is limited to 256MB in length).
 +
 +
 +3. Notations
 +
 +  To describe the layout of the frame body for the messages in Section 4, we
 +  define the following:
 +
 +    [int]          A 4 bytes integer
 +    [long]         A 8 bytes integer
 +    [short]        A 2 bytes unsigned integer
 +    [string]       A [short] n, followed by n bytes representing an UTF-8
 +                   string.
 +    [long string]  An [int] n, followed by n bytes representing an UTF-8 string.
 +    [uuid]         A 16 bytes long uuid.
 +    [string list]  A [short] n, followed by n [string].
 +    [bytes]        A [int] n, followed by n bytes if n >= 0. If n < 0,
 +                   no byte should follow and the value represented is `null`.
 +    [value]        A [int] n, followed by n bytes if n >= 0.
 +                   If n == -1 no byte should follow and the value represented is `null`.
 +                   If n == -2 no byte should follow and the value represented is
 +                   `not set` not resulting in any change to the existing value.
 +                   n < -2 is an invalid value and results in an error.
 +    [short bytes]  A [short] n, followed by n bytes if n >= 0.
 +
 +    [option]       A pair of <id><value> where <id> is a [short] representing
 +                   the option id and <value> depends on that option (and can be
 +                   of size 0). The supported id (and the corresponding <value>)
 +                   will be described when this is used.
 +    [option list]  A [short] n, followed by n [option].
 +    [inet]         An address (ip and port) to a node. It consists of one
 +                   [byte] n, that represents the address size, followed by n
 +                   [byte] representing the IP address (in practice n can only be
 +                   either 4 (IPv4) or 16 (IPv6)), following by one [int]
 +                   representing the port.
 +    [consistency]  A consistency level specification. This is a [short]
 +                   representing a consistency level with the following
 +                   correspondance:
 +                     0x0000    ANY
 +                     0x0001    ONE
 +                     0x0002    TWO
 +                     0x0003    THREE
 +                     0x0004    QUORUM
 +                     0x0005    ALL
 +                     0x0006    LOCAL_QUORUM
 +                     0x0007    EACH_QUORUM
 +                     0x0008    SERIAL
 +                     0x0009    LOCAL_SERIAL
 +                     0x000A    LOCAL_ONE
 +
 +    [string map]      A [short] n, followed by n pair <k><v> where <k> and <v>
 +                      are [string].
 +    [string multimap] A [short] n, followed by n pair <k><v> where <k> is a
 +                      [string] and <v> is a [string list].
 +    [bytes map]       A [short] n, followed by n pair <k><v> where <k> is a
 +                      [string] and <v> is a [bytes].
 +
 +
 +4. Messages
 +
 +4.1. Requests
 +
 +  Note that outside of their normal responses (described below), all requests
 +  can get an ERROR message (Section 4.2.1) as response.
 +
 +4.1.1. STARTUP
 +
 +  Initialize the connection. The server will respond by either a READY message
 +  (in which case the connection is ready for queries) or an AUTHENTICATE message
 +  (in which case credentials will need to be provided using AUTH_RESPONSE).
 +
 +  This must be the first message of the connection, except for OPTIONS that can
 +  be sent before to find out the options supported by the server. Once the
 +  connection has been initialized, a client should not send any more STARTUP
 +  message.
 +
 +  The body is a [string map] of options. Possible options are:
 +    - "CQL_VERSION": the version of CQL to use. This option is mandatory and
 +      currenty, the only version supported is "3.0.0". Note that this is
 +      different from the protocol version.
 +    - "COMPRESSION": the compression algorithm to use for frames (See section 5).
 +      This is optional, if not specified no compression will be used.
 +
 +
 +4.1.2. AUTH_RESPONSE
 +
 +  Answers a server authentication challenge.
 +
 +  Authentication in the protocol is SASL based. The server sends authentication
 +  challenges (a bytes token) to which the client answer with this message. Those
 +  exchanges continue until the server accepts the authentication by sending a
 +  AUTH_SUCCESS message after a client AUTH_RESPONSE. It is however that client that
 +  initiate the exchange by sending an initial AUTH_RESPONSE in response to a
 +  server AUTHENTICATE request.
 +
 +  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token. The details of what this
 +  token contains (and when it can be null/empty, if ever) depends on the actual
 +  authenticator used.
 +
 +  The response to a AUTH_RESPONSE is either a follow-up AUTH_CHALLENGE message,
 +  an AUTH_SUCCESS message or an ERROR message.
 +
 +
 +4.1.3. OPTIONS
 +
 +  Asks the server to return what STARTUP options are supported. The body of an
 +  OPTIONS message should be empty and the server will respond with a SUPPORTED
 +  message.
 +
 +
 +4.1.4. QUERY
 +
 +  Performs a CQL query. The body of the message must be:
 +    <query><query_parameters>
 +  where <query> is a [long string] representing the query and
 +  <query_parameters> must be
 +    <consistency><flags>[<n>[name_1]<value_1>...[name_n]<value_n>][<result_page_size>][<paging_state>][<serial_consistency>][<timestamp>]
 +  where:
 +    - <consistency> is the [consistency] level for the operation.
 +    - <flags> is a [byte] whose bits define the options for this query and
 +      in particular influence what the remainder of the message contains.
 +      A flag is set if the bit corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported
 +      flags are, given there mask:
 +        0x01: Values. In that case, a [short] <n> followed by <n> [value]
 +              values are provided. Those value are used for bound variables in
 +              the query. Optionally, if the 0x40 flag is present, each value
 +              will be preceded by a [string] name, representing the name of
 +              the marker the value must be binded to. This is optional, and
 +              if not present, values will be binded by position.
 +        0x02: Skip_metadata. If present, the Result Set returned as a response
 +              to that query (if any) will have the NO_METADATA flag (see
 +              Section 4.2.5.2).
 +        0x04: Page_size. In that case, <result_page_size> is an [int]
 +              controlling the desired page size of the result (in CQL3 rows).
 +              See the section on paging (Section 8) for more details.
 +        0x08: With_paging_state. If present, <paging_state> should be present.
 +              <paging_state> is a [bytes] value that should have been returned
 +              in a result set (Section 4.2.5.2). If provided, the query will be
 +              executed but starting from a given paging state. This also to
 +              continue paging on a different node from the one it has been
 +              started (See Section 8 for more details).
 +        0x10: With serial consistency. If present, <serial_consistency> should be
 +              present. <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the
 +              serial phase of conditional updates. That consitency can only be
 +              either SERIAL or LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present, it defaults to
 +              SERIAL. This option will be ignored for anything else that a
 +              conditional update/insert.
 +        0x20: With default timestamp. If present, <timestamp> should be present.
 +              <timestamp> is a [long] representing the default timestamp for the query
 +              in microseconds (negative values are forbidden). If provided, this will
 +              replace the server side assigned timestamp as default timestamp.
 +              Note that a timestamp in the query itself will still override
 +              this timestamp. This is entirely optional.
 +        0x40: With names for values. This only makes sense if the 0x01 flag is set and
 +              is ignored otherwise. If present, the values from the 0x01 flag will
 +              be preceded by a name (see above). Note that this is only useful for
 +              QUERY requests where named bind markers are used; for EXECUTE statements,
 +              since the names for the expected values was returned during preparation,
 +              a client can always provide values in the right order without any names
 +              and using this flag, while supported, is almost surely inefficient.
 +
 +  Note that the consistency is ignored by some queries (USE, CREATE, ALTER,
 +  TRUNCATE, ...).
 +
 +  The server will respond to a QUERY message with a RESULT message, the content
 +  of which depends on the query.
 +
 +
 +4.1.5. PREPARE
 +
 +  Prepare a query for later execution (through EXECUTE). The body consists of
 +  the CQL query to prepare as a [long string].
 +
 +  The server will respond with a RESULT message with a `prepared` kind (0x0004,
 +  see Section 4.2.5).
 +
 +
 +4.1.6. EXECUTE
 +
 +  Executes a prepared query. The body of the message must be:
 +    <id><query_parameters>
 +  where <id> is the prepared query ID. It's the [short bytes] returned as a
 +  response to a PREPARE message. As for <query_parameters>, it has the exact
 +  same definition than in QUERY (see Section 4.1.4).
 +
 +  The response from the server will be a RESULT message.
 +
 +
 +4.1.7. BATCH
 +
 +  Allows executing a list of queries (prepared or not) as a batch (note that
 +  only DML statements are accepted in a batch). The body of the message must
 +  be:
 +    <type><n><query_1>...<query_n><consistency><flags>[<serial_consistency>][<timestamp>]
 +  where:
 +    - <type> is a [byte] indicating the type of batch to use:
 +        - If <type> == 0, the batch will be "logged". This is equivalent to a
 +          normal CQL3 batch statement.
 +        - If <type> == 1, the batch will be "unlogged".
 +        - If <type> == 2, the batch will be a "counter" batch (and non-counter
 +          statements will be rejected).
 +    - <flags> is a [byte] whose bits define the options for this query and
 +      in particular influence the remainder of the message contains. It is similar
 +      to the <flags> from QUERY and EXECUTE methods, except that the 4 rightmost
 +      bits must always be 0 as their corresponding option do not make sense for
 +      Batch. A flag is set if the bit corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported
 +      flags are, given there mask:
 +        0x10: With serial consistency. If present, <serial_consistency> should be
 +              present. <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the
 +              serial phase of conditional updates. That consitency can only be
 +              either SERIAL or LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present, it defaults to
 +              SERIAL. This option will be ignored for anything else that a
 +              conditional update/insert.
 +        0x20: With default timestamp. If present, <timestamp> should be present.
 +              <timestamp> is a [long] representing the default timestamp for the query
 +              in microseconds. If provided, this will replace the server side assigned
 +              timestamp as default timestamp. Note that a timestamp in the query itself
 +              will still override this timestamp. This is entirely optional.
 +        0x40: With names for values. If set, then all values for all <query_i> must be
 +              preceded by a [string] <name_i> that have the same meaning as in QUERY
-               requests.
++              requests [IMPORTANT NOTE: this feature does not work and should not be
++              used. It is specified in a way that makes it impossible for the server
++              to implement. This will be fixed in a future version of the native
++              protocol. See https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-10246 for
++              more details].
 +    - <n> is a [short] indicating the number of following queries.
 +    - <query_1>...<query_n> are the queries to execute. A <query_i> must be of the
 +      form:
 +        <kind><string_or_id><n>[<name_1>]<value_1>...[<name_n>]<value_n>
 +      where:
 +       - <kind> is a [byte] indicating whether the following query is a prepared
 +         one or not. <kind> value must be either 0 or 1.
 +       - <string_or_id> depends on the value of <kind>. If <kind> == 0, it should be
 +         a [long string] query string (as in QUERY, the query string might contain
 +         bind markers). Otherwise (that is, if <kind> == 1), it should be a
 +         [short bytes] representing a prepared query ID.
 +       - <n> is a [short] indicating the number (possibly 0) of following values.
 +       - <name_i> is the optional name of the following <value_i>. It must be present
 +         if and only if the 0x40 flag is provided for the batch.
 +       - <value_i> is the [value] to use for bound variable i (of bound variable <name_i>
 +         if the 0x40 flag is used).
 +    - <consistency> is the [consistency] level for the operation.
 +    - <serial_consistency> is only present if the 0x10 flag is set. In that case,
 +      <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the serial phase of
 +      conditional updates. That consitency can only be either SERIAL or
 +      LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present will defaults to SERIAL. This option will
 +      be ignored for anything else that a conditional update/insert.
 +
 +  The server will respond with a RESULT message.
 +
 +
 +4.1.8. REGISTER
 +
 +  Register this connection to receive some type of events. The body of the
 +  message is a [string list] representing the event types to register to. See
 +  section 4.2.6 for the list of valid event types.
 +
 +  The response to a REGISTER message will be a READY message.
 +
 +  Please note that if a client driver maintains multiple connections to a
 +  Cassandra node and/or connections to multiple nodes, it is advised to
 +  dedicate a handful of connections to receive events, but to *not* register
 +  for events on all connections, as this would only result in receiving
 +  multiple times the same event messages, wasting bandwidth.
 +
 +
 +4.2. Responses
 +
 +  This section describes the content of the frame body for the different
 +  responses. Please note that to make room for future evolution, clients should
 +  support extra informations (that they should simply discard) to the one
 +  described in this document at the end of the frame body.
 +
 +4.2.1. ERROR
 +
 +  Indicates an error processing a request. The body of the message will be an
 +  error code ([int]) followed by a [string] error message. Then, depending on
 +  the exception, more content may follow. The error codes are defined in
 +  Section 9, along with their additional content if any.
 +
 +
 +4.2.2. READY
 +
 +  Indicates that the server is ready to process queries. This message will be
 +  sent by the server either after a STARTUP message if no authentication is
 +  required, or after a successful CREDENTIALS message.
 +
 +  The body of a READY message is empty.
 +
 +
 +4.2.3. AUTHENTICATE
 +
 +  Indicates that the server require authentication, and which authentication
 +  mechanism to use.
 +
 +  The authentication is SASL based and thus consists on a number of server
 +  challenges (AUTH_CHALLENGE, Section 4.2.7) followed by client responses
 +  (AUTH_RESPONSE, Section 4.1.2). The Initial exchange is however boostrapped
 +  by an initial client response. The details of that exchange (including how
 +  much challenge-response pair are required) are specific to the authenticator
 +  in use. The exchange ends when the server sends an AUTH_SUCCESS message or
 +  an ERROR message.
 +
 +  This message will be sent following a STARTUP message if authentication is
 +  required and must be answered by a AUTH_RESPONSE message from the client.
 +
 +  The body consists of a single [string] indicating the full class name of the
 +  IAuthenticator in use.
 +
 +
 +4.2.4. SUPPORTED
 +
 +  Indicates which startup options are supported by the server. This message
 +  comes as a response to an OPTIONS message.
 +
 +  The body of a SUPPORTED message is a [string multimap]. This multimap gives
 +  for each of the supported STARTUP options, the list of supported values.
 +
 +
 +4.2.5. RESULT
 +
 +  The result to a query (QUERY, PREPARE, EXECUTE or BATCH messages).
 +
 +  The first element of the body of a RESULT message is an [int] representing the
 +  `kind` of result. The rest of the body depends on the kind. The kind can be
 +  one of:
 +    0x0001    Void: for results carrying no information.
 +    0x0002    Rows: for results to select queries, returning a set of rows.
 +    0x0003    Set_keyspace: the result to a `use` query.
 +    0x0004    Prepared: result to a PREPARE message.
 +    0x0005    Schema_change: the result to a schema altering query.
 +
 +  The body for each kind (after the [int] kind) is defined below.
 +
 +
 +4.2.5.1. Void
 +
 +  The rest of the body for a Void result is empty. It indicates that a query was
 +  successful without providing more information.
 +
 +
 +4.2.5.2. Rows
 +
 +  Indicates a set of rows. The rest of body of a Rows result is:
 +    <metadata><rows_count><rows_content>
 +  where:
 +    - <metadata> is composed of:
 +        <flags><columns_count>[<paging_state>][<global_table_spec>?<col_spec_1>...<col_spec_n>]
 +      where:
 +        - <flags> is an [int]. The bits of <flags> provides information on the
 +          formatting of the remaining informations. A flag is set if the bit
 +          corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported flags are, given there
 +          mask:
 +            0x0001    Global_tables_spec: if set, only one table spec (keyspace
 +                      and table name) is provided as <global_table_spec>. If not
 +                      set, <global_table_spec> is not present.
 +            0x0002    Has_more_pages: indicates whether this is not the last
 +                      page of results and more should be retrieve. If set, the
 +                      <paging_state> will be present. The <paging_state> is a
 +                      [bytes] value that should be used in QUERY/EXECUTE to
 +                      continue paging and retrieve the remained of the result for
 +                      this query (See Section 8 for more details).
 +            0x0004    No_metadata: if set, the <metadata> is only composed of
 +                      these <flags>, the <column_count> and optionally the
 +                      <paging_state> (depending on the Has_more_pages flage) but
 +                      no other information (so no <global_table_spec> nor <col_spec_i>).
 +                      This will only ever be the case if this was requested
 +                      during the query (see QUERY and RESULT messages).
 +        - <columns_count> is an [int] representing the number of columns selected
 +          by the query this result is of. It defines the number of <col_spec_i>
 +          elements in and the number of element for each row in <rows_content>.
 +        - <global_table_spec> is present if the Global_tables_spec is set in
 +          <flags>. If present, it is composed of two [string] representing the
 +          (unique) keyspace name and table name the columns return are of.
 +        - <col_spec_i> specifies the columns returned in the query. There is
 +          <column_count> such column specifications that are composed of:
 +            (<ksname><tablename>)?<name><type>
 +          The initial <ksname> and <tablename> are two [string] are only present
 +          if the Global_tables_spec flag is not set. The <column_name> is a
 +          [string] and <type> is an [option] that correspond to the description
 +          (what this description is depends a bit on the context: in results to
 +          selects, this will be either the user chosen alias or the selection used
 +          (often a colum name, but it can be a function call too). In results to
 +          a PREPARE, this will be either the name of the bind variable corresponding
 +          or the column name for the variable if it is "anonymous") and type of
 +          the corresponding result. The option for <type> is either a native
 +          type (see below), in which case the option has no value, or a
 +          'custom' type, in which case the value is a [string] representing
 +          the full qualified class name of the type represented. Valid option
 +          ids are:
 +            0x0000    Custom: the value is a [string], see above.
 +            0x0001    Ascii
 +            0x0002    Bigint
 +            0x0003    Blob
 +            0x0004    Boolean
 +            0x0005    Counter
 +            0x0006    Decimal
 +            0x0007    Double
 +            0x0008    Float
 +            0x0009    Int
 +            0x000B    Timestamp
 +            0x000C    Uuid
 +            0x000D    Varchar
 +            0x000E    Varint
 +            0x000F    Timeuuid
 +            0x0010    Inet
 +            0x0011    Date
 +            0x0012    Time
 +            0x0013    Smallint
 +            0x0014    Tinyint
 +            0x0020    List: the value is an [option], representing the type
 +                            of the elements of the list.
 +            0x0021    Map: the value is two [option], representing the types of the
 +                           keys and values of the map
 +            0x0022    Set: the value is an [option], representing the type
 +                            of the elements of the set
 +            0x0030    UDT: the value is <ks><udt_name><n><name_1><type_1>...<name_n><type_n>
 +                           where:
 +                              - <ks> is a [string] representing the keyspace name this
 +                                UDT is part of.
 +                              - <udt_name> is a [string] representing the UDT name.
 +                              - <n> is a [short] reprensenting the number of fields of
 +                                the UDT, and thus the number of <name_i><type_i> pair
 +                                following
 +                              - <name_i> is a [string] representing the name of the
 +                                i_th field of the UDT.
 +                              - <type_i> is an [option] representing the type of the
 +                                i_th field of the UDT.
 +            0x0031    Tuple: the value is <n><type_1>...<type_n> where <n> is a [short]
 +                             representing the number of value in the type, and <type_i>
 +                             are [option] representing the type of the i_th component
 +                             of the tuple
 +
 +    - <rows_count> is an [int] representing the number of rows present in this
 +      result. Those rows are serialized in the <rows_content> part.
 +    - <rows_content> is composed of <row_1>...<row_m> where m is <rows_count>.
 +      Each <row_i> is composed of <value_1>...<value_n> where n is
 +      <columns_count> and where <value_j> is a [bytes] representing the value
 +      returned for the jth column of the ith row. In other words, <rows_content>
 +      is composed of (<rows_count> * <columns_count>) [bytes].
 +
 +
 +4.2.5.3. Set_keyspace
 +
 +  The result to a `use` query. The body (after the kind [int]) is a single
 +  [string] indicating the name of the keyspace that has been set.
 +
 +
 +4.2.5.4. Prepared
 +
 +  The result to a PREPARE message. The body of a Prepared result is:
 +    <id><metadata><result_metadata>
 +  where:
 +    - <id> is [short bytes] representing the prepared query ID.
 +    - <metadata> is composed of:
 +        <flags><columns_count><pk_count>[<pk_index_1>...<pk_index_n>][<global_table_spec>?<col_spec_1>...<col_spec_n>]
 +      where:
 +        - <flags> is an [int]. The bits of <flags> provides information on the
 +          formatting of the remaining informations. A flag is set if the bit
 +          corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported masks and their flags
 +          are:
 +            0x0001    Global_tables_spec: if set, only one table spec (keyspace
 +                      and table name) is provided as <global_table_spec>. If not
 +                      set, <global_table_spec> is not present.
 +        - <columns_count> is an [int] representing the number of bind markers
 +          in the prepared statement.  It defines the number of <col_spec_i>
 +          elements.
 +        - <pk_count> is an [int] representing the number of <pk_index_i>
 +          elements to follow. If this value is zero, at least one of the
 +          partition key columns in the table that the statement acts on
 +          did not have a corresponding bind marker (or the bind marker
 +          was wrapped in a function call).
 +        - <pk_index_i> is a short that represents the index of the bind marker
 +          that corresponds to the partition key column in position i.
 +          For example, a <pk_index> sequence of [2, 0, 1] indicates that the
 +          table has three partition key columns; the full partition key
 +          can be constructed by creating a composite of the values for
 +          the bind markers at index 2, at index 0, and at index 1.
 +          This allows implementations with token-aware routing to correctly
 +          construct the partition key without needing to inspect table
 +          metadata.
 +        - <global_table_spec> is present if the Global_tables_spec is set in
 +          <flags>. If present, it is composed of two [string]s. The first
 +          [string] is the name of the keyspace that the statement acts on.
 +          The second [string] is the name of the table that the columns
 +          represented by the bind markers belong to.
 +        - <col_spec_i> specifies the bind markers in the prepared statement.
 +          There are <column_count> such column specifications, each with the
 +          following format:
 +            (<ksname><tablename>)?<name><type>
 +          The initial <ksname> and <tablename> are two [string] that are only
 +          present if the Global_tables_spec flag is not set. The <name> field
 +          is a [string] that holds the name of the bind marker (if named),
 +          or the name of the column, field, or expression that the bind marker
 +          corresponds to (if the bind marker is "anonymous").  The <type>
 +          field is an [option] that represents the expected type of values for
 +          the bind marker.  See the Rows documentation (section 4.2.5.2) for
 +          full details on the <type> field.
 +
 +    - <result_metadata> is defined exactly the same as <metadata> in the Rows
 +      documentation (section 4.2.5.2).  This describes the metadata for the
 +      result set that will be returned when this prepared statement is executed.
 +      Note that <result_metadata> may be empty (have the No_metadata flag and
 +      0 columns, See section 4.2.5.2) and will be for any query that is not a
 +      Select. In fact, there is never a guarantee that this will non-empty, so
 +      implementations should protect themselves accordingly. This result metadata
 +      is an optimization that allows implementations to later execute the
 +      prepared statement without requesting the metadata (see the Skip_metadata
 +      flag in EXECUTE).  Clients can safely discard this metadata if they do not
 +      want to take advantage of that optimization.
 +
 +  Note that prepared query ID return is global to the node on which the query
 +  has been prepared. It can be used on any connection to that node and this
 +  until the node is restarted (after which the query must be reprepared).
 +
 +4.2.5.5. Schema_change
 +
 +  The result to a schema altering query (creation/update/drop of a
 +  keyspace/table/index). The body (after the kind [int]) is the same
 +  as the body for a "SCHEMA_CHANGE" event, so 3 strings:
 +    <change_type><target><options>
 +  Please refer to the section 4.2.6 below for the meaning of those fields.
 +
 +  Note that queries to create and drop an index are considered as change
 +  updating the table the index is on.
 +
 +
 +4.2.6. EVENT
 +
 +  And event pushed by the server. A client will only receive events for the
 +  type it has REGISTER to. The body of an EVENT message will start by a
 +  [string] representing the event type. The rest of the message depends on the
 +  event type. The valid event types are:
 +    - "TOPOLOGY_CHANGE": events related to change in the cluster topology.
 +      Currently, events are sent when new nodes are added to the cluster, and
 +      when nodes are removed. The body of the message (after the event type)
 +      consists of a [string] and an [inet], corresponding respectively to the
 +      type of change ("NEW_NODE" or "REMOVED_NODE") followed by the address of
 +      the new/removed node.
 +    - "STATUS_CHANGE": events related to change of node status. Currently,
 +      up/down events are sent. The body of the message (after the event type)
 +      consists of a [string] and an [inet], corresponding respectively to the
 +      type of status change ("UP" or "DOWN") followed by the address of the
 +      concerned node.
 +    - "SCHEMA_CHANGE": events related to schema change. After the event type,
 +      the rest of the message will be <change_type><target><options> where:
 +        - <change_type> is a [string] representing the type of changed involved.
 +          It will be one of "CREATED", "UPDATED" or "DROPPED".
 +        - <target> is a [string] that can be one of "KEYSPACE", "TABLE", "TYPE",
 +          "FUNCTION" or "AGGREGATE" and describes what has been modified
 +          ("TYPE" stands for modifications related to user types, "FUNCTION"
 +          for modifications related to user defined functions, "AGGREGATE"
 +          for modifications related to user defined aggregates).
 +        - <options> depends on the preceding <target>:
 +          - If <target> is "KEYSPACE", then <options> will be a single [string]
 +            representing the keyspace changed.
 +          - If <target> is "TABLE" or "TYPE", then
 +            <options> will be 2 [string]: the first one will be the keyspace
 +            containing the affected object, and the second one will be the name
 +            of said affected object (either the table, user type, function, or
 +            aggregate name).
 +          - If <target> is "FUNCTION" or "AGGREGATE", multiple arguments follow:
 +            - [string] keyspace containing the user defined function / aggregate
 +            - [string] the function/aggregate name
 +            - [string list] one string for each argument type (as CQL type)
 +
 +  All EVENT messages have a streamId of -1 (Section 2.3).
 +
 +  Please note that "NEW_NODE" and "UP" events are sent based on internal Gossip
 +  communication and as such may be sent a short delay before the binary
 +  protocol server on the newly up node is fully started. Clients are thus
 +  advise to wait a short time before trying to connect to the node (1 seconds
 +  should be enough), otherwise they may experience a connection refusal at
 +  first.
 +
 +4.2.7. AUTH_CHALLENGE
 +
 +  A server authentication challenge (see AUTH_RESPONSE (Section 4.1.2) for more
 +  details).
 +
 +  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token. The details of what this
 +  token contains (and when it can be null/empty, if ever) depends on the actual
 +  authenticator used.
 +
 +  Clients are expected to answer the server challenge by an AUTH_RESPONSE
 +  message.
 +
 +4.2.8. AUTH_SUCCESS
 +
 +  Indicate the success of the authentication phase. See Section 4.2.3 for more
 +  details.
 +
 +  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token holding final information
 +  from the server that the client may require to finish the authentication
 +  process. What that token contains and whether it can be null depends on the
 +  actual authenticator used.
 +
 +
 +5. Compression
 +
 +  Frame compression is supported by the protocol, but then only the frame body
 +  is compressed (the frame header should never be compressed).
 +
 +  Before being used, client and server must agree on a compression algorithm to
 +  use, which is done in the STARTUP message. As a consequence, a STARTUP message
 +  must never be compressed.  However, once the STARTUP frame has been received
 +  by the server can be compressed (including the response to the STARTUP
 +  request). Frame do not have to be compressed however, even if compression has
 +  been agreed upon (a server may only compress frame above a certain size at its
 +  discretion). A frame body should be compressed if and only if the compressed
 +  flag (see Section 2.2) is set.
 +
 +  As of this version 2 of the protocol, the following compressions are available:
 +    - lz4 (https://code.google.com/p/lz4/). In that, note that the 4 first bytes
 +      of the body will be the uncompressed length (followed by the compressed
 +      bytes).
 +    - snappy (https://code.google.com/p/snappy/). This compression might not be
 +      available as it depends on a native lib (server-side) that might not be
 +      avaivable on some installation.
 +
 +
 +6. Data Type Serialization Formats
 +
 +  This sections describes the serialization formats for all CQL data types
 +  supported by Cassandra through the native protocol.  These serialization
 +  formats should be used by client drivers to encode values for EXECUTE
 +  messages.  Cassandra will use these formats when returning values in
 +  RESULT messages.
 +
 +  All values are represented as [bytes] in EXECUTE and RESULT messages.
 +  The [bytes] format includes an int prefix denoting the length of the value.
 +  For that reason, the serialization formats described here will not include
 +  a length component.
 +
 +  For legacy compatibility reasons, note that most non-string types support
 +  "empty" values (i.e. a value with zero length).  An empty value is distinct
 +  from NULL, which is encoded with a negative length.
 +
 +  As with the rest of the native protocol, all encodings are big-endian.
 +
 +6.1. ascii
 +
 +  A sequence of bytes in the ASCII range [0, 127].  Bytes with values outside of
 +  this range will result in a validation error.
 +
 +6.2 bigint
 +
 +  An eight-byte two's complement integer.
 +
 +6.3 blob
 +
 +  Any sequence of bytes.
 +
 +6.4 boolean
 +
 +  A single byte.  A value of 0 denotes "false"; any other value denotes "true".
 +  (However, it is recommended that a value of 1 be used to represent "true".)
 +
 +6.5 date
 +
 +  An unsigned integer representing days with epoch centered at 2^31.
 +  (unix epoch January 1st, 1970).
 +  A few examples:
 +    0:    -5877641-06-23
 +    2^31: 1970-1-1
 +    2^32: 5881580-07-11
 +
 +6.6 decimal
 +
 +  The decimal format represents an arbitrary-precision number.  It contains an
 +  [int] "scale" component followed by a varint encoding (see section 6.17)
 +  of the unscaled value.  The encoded value represents "<unscaled>E<-scale>".
 +  In other words, "<unscaled> * 10 ^ (-1 * <scale>)".
 +
 +6.7 double
 +
 +  An eight-byte floating point number in the IEEE 754 binary64 format.
 +
 +6.8 float
 +
 +  An four-byte floating point number in the IEEE 754 binary32 format.
 +
 +6.9 inet
 +
 +  A 4 byte or 16 byte sequence denoting an IPv4 or IPv6 address, respectively.
 +
 +6.10 int
 +
 +  A four-byte two's complement integer.
 +
 +6.11 list
 +
 +  A [int] n indicating the number of elements in the list, followed by n
 +  elements.  Each element is [bytes] representing the serialized value.
 +
 +6.12 map
 +
 +  A [int] n indicating the number of key/value pairs in the map, followed by
 +  n entries.  Each entry is composed of two [bytes] representing the key
 +  and value.
 +
 +6.13 set
 +
 +  A [int] n indicating the number of elements in the set, followed by n
 +  elements.  Each element is [bytes] representing the serialized value.
 +
 +6.14 smallint
 +
 +  A two-byte two's complement integer.
 +
 +6.15 text
 +
 +  A sequence of bytes conforming to the UTF-8 specifications.
 +
 +6.16 time
 +
 +  An eight-byte two's complement long representing nanoseconds since midnight.
 +  Valid values are in the range 0 to 86399999999999
 +
 +6.17 timestamp
 +
 +  An eight-byte two's complement integer representing a millisecond-precision
 +  offset from the unix epoch (00:00:00, January 1st, 1970).  Negative values
 +  represent a negative offset from the epoch.
 +
 +6.18 timeuuid
 +
 +  A 16 byte sequence representing a version 1 UUID as defined by RFC 4122.
 +
 +6.19 tinyint
 +
 +  A one-byte two's complement integer.
 +
 +6.20 tuple
 +
 +  A sequence of [bytes] values representing the items in a tuple.  The encoding
 +  of each element depends on the data type for that position in the tuple.
 +  Null values may be represented by using length -1 for the [bytes]
 +  representation of an element.
 +
 +  Within a tuple, all data types should use the v3 protocol serialization format.
 +
 +6.21 uuid
 +
 +  A 16 byte sequence representing any valid UUID as defined by RFC 4122.
 +
 +6.22 varchar
 +
 +  An alias of the "text" type.
 +
 +6.23 varint
 +
 +  A variable-length two's complement encoding of a signed integer.
 +
 +  The following examples may help implementors of this spec:
 +
 +  Value | Encoding
 +  ------|---------
 +      0 |     0x00
 +      1 |     0x01
 +    127 |     0x7F
 +    128 |   0x0080
 +    129 |   0x0081
 +     -1 |     0xFF
 +   -128 |     0x80
 +   -129 |   0xFF7F
 +
 +  Note that positive numbers must use a most-significant byte with a value
 +  less than 0x80, because a most-significant bit of 1 indicates a negative
 +  value.  Implementors should pad positive values that have a MSB >= 0x80
 +  with a leading 0x00 byte.
 +
 +7. User Defined Types
 +
 +  This section describes the serialization format for User defined types (UDT),
 +  as described in section 4.2.5.2.
 +
 +  A UDT value is composed of successive [bytes] values, one for each field of the UDT
 +  value (in the order defined by the type). A UDT value will generally have one value
 +  for each field of the type it represents, but it is allowed to have less values than
 +  the type has fields.
 +
 +  Within a user-defined type value, all data types should use the v3 protocol
 +  serialization format.
 +
 +
 +8. Result paging
 +
 +  The protocol allows for paging the result of queries. For that, the QUERY and
 +  EXECUTE messages have a <result_page_size> value that indicate the desired
 +  page size in CQL3 rows.
 +
 +  If a positive value is provided for <result_page_size>, the result set of the
 +  RESULT message returned for the query will contain at most the
 +  <result_page_size> first rows of the query result. If that first page of result
 +  contains the full result set for the query, the RESULT message (of kind `Rows`)
 +  will have the Has_more_pages flag *not* set. However, if some results are not
 +  part of the first response, the Has_more_pages flag will be set and the result
 +  will contain a <paging_state> value. In that case, the <paging_state> value
 +  should be used in a QUERY or EXECUTE message (that has the *same* query than
 +  the original one or the behavior is undefined) to retrieve the next page of
 +  results.
 +
 +  Only CQL3 queries that return a result set (RESULT message with a Rows `kind`)
 +  support paging. For other type of queries, the <result_page_size> value is
 +  ignored.
 +
 +  Note to client implementors:
 +  - While <result_page_size> can be as low as 1, it will likely be detrimental
 +    to performance to pick a value too low. A value below 100 is probably too
 +    low for most use cases.
 +  - Clients should not rely on the actual size of the result set returned to
 +    decide if there is more result to fetch or not. Instead, they should always
 +    check the Has_more_pages flag (unless they did not enabled paging for the query
 +    obviously). Clients should also not assert that no result will have more than
 +    <result_page_size> results. While the current implementation always respect
 +    the exact value of <result_page_size>, we reserve ourselves the right to return
 +    slightly smaller or bigger pages in the future for performance reasons.
 +
 +
 +9. Error codes
 +
 +  The supported error codes are described below:
 +    0x0000    Server error: something unexpected happened. This indicates a
 +              server-side bug.
 +    0x000A    Protocol error: some client message triggered a protocol
 +              violation (for instance a QUERY message is sent before a STARTUP
 +              one has been sent)
 +    0x0100    Bad credentials: CREDENTIALS request failed because Cassandra
 +              did not accept the provided credentials.
 +
 +    0x1000    Unavailable exception. The rest of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <cl><required><alive>
 +              where:
 +                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
 +                     the exception.
 +                <required> is an [int] representing the number of node that
 +                           should be alive to respect <cl>
 +                <alive> is an [int] representing the number of replica that
 +                        were known to be alive when the request has been
 +                        processed (since an unavailable exception has been
 +                        triggered, there will be <alive> < <required>)
 +    0x1001    Overloaded: the request cannot be processed because the
 +              coordinator node is overloaded
 +    0x1002    Is_bootstrapping: the request was a read request but the
 +              coordinator node is bootstrapping
 +    0x1003    Truncate_error: error during a truncation error.
 +    0x1100    Write_timeout: Timeout exception during a write request. The rest
 +              of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <cl><received><blockfor><writeType>
 +              where:
 +                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
 +                     the exception.
 +                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
 +                           acknowledged the request.
 +                <blockfor> is an [int] representing the number of replicas whose
 +                           acknowledgement is required to achieve <cl>.
 +                <writeType> is a [string] that describe the type of the write
 +                            that timeouted. The value of that string can be one
 +                            of:
 +                             - "SIMPLE": the write was a non-batched
 +                               non-counter write.
 +                             - "BATCH": the write was a (logged) batch write.
 +                               If this type is received, it means the batch log
 +                               has been successfully written (otherwise a
 +                               "BATCH_LOG" type would have been sent instead).
 +                             - "UNLOGGED_BATCH": the write was an unlogged
 +                               batch. No batch log write has been attempted.
 +                             - "COUNTER": the write was a counter write
 +                               (batched or not).
 +                             - "BATCH_LOG": the timeout occured during the
 +                               write to the batch log when a (logged) batch
 +                               write was requested.
 +    0x1200    Read_timeout: Timeout exception during a read request. The rest
 +              of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <cl><received><blockfor><data_present>
 +              where:
 +                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
 +                     the exception.
 +                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
 +                           answered the request.
 +                <blockfor> is an [int] representing the number of replicas whose
 +                           response is required to achieve <cl>. Please note that
 +                           it is possible to have <received> >= <blockfor> if
 +                           <data_present> is false. And also in the (unlikely)
 +                           case were <cl> is achieved but the coordinator node
 +                           timeout while waiting for read-repair
 +                           acknowledgement.
 +                <data_present> is a single byte. If its value is 0, it means
 +                               the replica that was asked for data has not
 +                               responded. Otherwise, the value is != 0.
 +    0x1300    Read_failure: A non-timeout exception during a read request. The rest
 +              of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <cl><received><blockfor><numfailures><data_present>
 +              where:
 +                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
 +                     the exception.
 +                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
 +                           answered the request.
 +                <blockfor> is an [int] representing the number of replicas whose
 +                           acknowledgement is required to achieve <cl>.
 +                <numfailures> is an [int] representing the number of nodes that
 +                              experience a failure while executing the request.
 +                <data_present> is a single byte. If its value is 0, it means
 +                               the replica that was asked for data had not
 +                               responded. Otherwise, the value is != 0.
 +    0x1400    Function_failure: A (user defined) function failed during execution.
 +              The rest of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <keyspace><function><arg_types>
 +              where:
 +                <keyspace> is the keyspace [string] of the failed function
 +                <function> is the name [string] of the failed function
 +                <arg_types> [string list] one string for each argument type (as CQL type) of the failed function
 +    0x1500    Write_failure: A non-timeout exception during a write request. The rest
 +              of the ERROR message body will be
 +                <cl><received><blockfor><numfailures><write_type>
 +              where:
 +                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
 +                     the exception.
 +                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
 +                           answered the request.
 +                <blockfor> is an [int] representing the number of replicas whose
 +                           acknowledgement is required to achieve <cl>.
 +                <numfailures> is an [int] representing the number of nodes that
 +                              experience a failure while executing the request.
 +                <writeType> is a [string] that describe the type of the write
 +                            that failed. The value of that string can be one
 +                            of:
 +                             - "SIMPLE": the write was a non-batched
 +                               non-counter write.
 +                             - "BATCH": the write was a (logged) batch write.
 +                               If this type is received, it means the batch log
 +                               has been successfully written (otherwise a
 +                               "BATCH_LOG" type would have been sent instead).
 +                             - "UNLOGGED_BATCH": the write was an unlogged
 +                               batch. No batch log write has been attempted.
 +                             - "COUNTER": the write was a counter write
 +                               (batched or not).
 +                             - "BATCH_LOG": the failure occured during the
 +                               write to the batch log when a (logged) batch
 +                               write was requested.
 +
 +    0x2000    Syntax_error: The submitted query has a syntax error.
 +    0x2100    Unauthorized: The logged user doesn't have the right to perform
 +              the query.
 +    0x2200    Invalid: The query is syntactically correct but invalid.
 +    0x2300    Config_error: The query is invalid because of some configuration issue
 +    0x2400    Already_exists: The query attempted to create a keyspace or a
 +              table that was already existing. The rest of the ERROR message
 +              body will be <ks><table> where:
 +                <ks> is a [string] representing either the keyspace that
 +                     already exists, or the keyspace in which the table that
 +                     already exists is.
 +                <table> is a [string] representing the name of the table that
 +                        already exists. If the query was attempting to create a
 +                        keyspace, <table> will be present but will be the empty
 +                        string.
 +    0x2500    Unprepared: Can be thrown while a prepared statement tries to be
 +              executed if the provide prepared statement ID is not known by
 +              this host. The rest of the ERROR message body will be [short
 +              bytes] representing the unknown ID.
 +
 +10. Changes from v3
 +
 +  * The format of "SCHEMA_CHANGE" events (Section 4.2.6) (and implicitly "Schema_change" results (Section 4.2.5.5))
 +    has been modified, and now includes changes related to user defined functions and user defined aggregates.
 +  * Read_failure error code was added.
 +  * Function_failure error code was added.
 +  * Add custom payload to frames for custom QueryHandler implementations (ignored by Cassandra's standard QueryHandler)
 +  * Add warnings to frames for responses for which the server generated a warning during processing, which the client needs to address.
 +  * Add the date and time data types
 +  * Add the tinyint and smallint data types


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