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From ble...@apache.org
Subject [5/9] cassandra git commit: Merge branch cassandra-2.2 into cassandra-3.0
Date Tue, 22 Sep 2015 20:13:16 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/format/SSTableReader.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/format/SSTableReader.java
index c4ef239,87891ae..8d23597
--- a/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/format/SSTableReader.java
+++ b/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/format/SSTableReader.java
@@@ -409,14 -399,9 +409,14 @@@ public abstract class SSTableReader ext
              System.exit(1);
          }
  
-         logger.info("Opening {} ({} bytes)", descriptor, new File(descriptor.filenameFor(Component.DATA)).length());
+         logger.debug("Opening {} ({} bytes)", descriptor, new File(descriptor.filenameFor(Component.DATA)).length());
 -        SSTableReader sstable = internalOpen(descriptor, components, metadata, partitioner, System.currentTimeMillis(),
 -                statsMetadata, OpenReason.NORMAL);
 +        SSTableReader sstable = internalOpen(descriptor,
 +                                             components,
 +                                             metadata,
 +                                             System.currentTimeMillis(),
 +                                             statsMetadata,
 +                                             OpenReason.NORMAL,
 +                                             header.toHeader(metadata));
  
          // special implementation of load to use non-pooled SegmentedFile builders
          try(SegmentedFile.Builder ibuilder = new BufferedSegmentedFile.Builder();
@@@ -465,15 -446,9 +465,15 @@@
              System.exit(1);
          }
  
-         logger.info("Opening {} ({} bytes)", descriptor, new File(descriptor.filenameFor(Component.DATA)).length());
+         logger.debug("Opening {} ({} bytes)", descriptor, new File(descriptor.filenameFor(Component.DATA)).length());
 -        SSTableReader sstable = internalOpen(descriptor, components, metadata, partitioner, System.currentTimeMillis(),
 -                                             statsMetadata, OpenReason.NORMAL);
 +        SSTableReader sstable = internalOpen(descriptor,
 +                                             components,
 +                                             metadata,
 +                                             System.currentTimeMillis(),
 +                                             statsMetadata,
 +                                             OpenReason.NORMAL,
 +                                             header == null ? null : header.toHeader(metadata));
 +
          try
          {
              // load index and filter
@@@ -1656,10 -1631,10 +1656,10 @@@
       * @return true if the this is the first time the file was marked obsolete.  Calling this
       * multiple times is usually buggy (see exceptions in Tracker.unmarkCompacting and removeOldSSTablesSize).
       */
 -    public boolean markObsolete(Tracker tracker)
 +    public void markObsolete(Runnable tidier)
      {
-         if (logger.isDebugEnabled())
-             logger.debug("Marking {} compacted", getFilename());
+         if (logger.isTraceEnabled())
+             logger.trace("Marking {} compacted", getFilename());
  
          synchronized (tidy.global)
          {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/metadata/MetadataSerializer.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/metadata/MetadataSerializer.java
index 9197b7a,30ed85b..635adcd
--- a/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/metadata/MetadataSerializer.java
+++ b/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/sstable/metadata/MetadataSerializer.java
@@@ -76,10 -75,10 +76,10 @@@ public class MetadataSerializer impleme
          }
      }
  
 -    public Map<MetadataType, MetadataComponent> deserialize(Descriptor descriptor, EnumSet<MetadataType> types) throws IOException
 +    public Map<MetadataType, MetadataComponent> deserialize( Descriptor descriptor, EnumSet<MetadataType> types) throws IOException
      {
          Map<MetadataType, MetadataComponent> components;
-         logger.debug("Load metadata for {}", descriptor);
+         logger.trace("Load metadata for {}", descriptor);
          File statsFile = new File(descriptor.filenameFor(Component.STATS));
          if (!statsFile.exists())
          {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/io/util/FileUtils.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/locator/TokenMetadata.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/IncomingStreamingConnection.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/IncomingTcpConnection.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/IncomingTcpConnection.java
index 8e8ce15,f6652b0..7054bcc
--- a/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/IncomingTcpConnection.java
+++ b/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/IncomingTcpConnection.java
@@@ -149,10 -148,10 +149,10 @@@ public class IncomingTcpConnection exte
  
          if (compressed)
          {
-             logger.debug("Upgrading incoming connection to be compressed");
+             logger.trace("Upgrading incoming connection to be compressed");
              if (version < MessagingService.VERSION_21)
              {
 -                in = new DataInputStream(new SnappyInputStream(socket.getInputStream()));
 +                in = new DataInputStreamPlus(new SnappyInputStream(socket.getInputStream()));
              }
              else
              {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/MessagingService.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/MessagingService.java
index 4fb67ec,2a63553..810d086
--- a/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/MessagingService.java
+++ b/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/net/MessagingService.java
@@@ -874,24 -847,17 +874,24 @@@ public final class MessagingService imp
  
      public void resetVersion(InetAddress endpoint)
      {
-         logger.debug("Resetting version for {}", endpoint);
+         logger.trace("Resetting version for {}", endpoint);
          Integer removed = versions.remove(endpoint);
 -        if (removed != null && removed <= VERSION_22)
 -            refreshAllNodesAtLeast22();
 +        if (removed != null && removed <= VERSION_30)
 +            refreshAllNodeMinVersions();
      }
  
 -    private void refreshAllNodesAtLeast22()
 +    private void refreshAllNodeMinVersions()
      {
 -        for (Integer version: versions.values())
 +        boolean anyNodeLowerThan30 = false;
 +        for (Integer version : versions.values())
          {
 -            if (version < VERSION_22)
 +            if (version < MessagingService.VERSION_30)
 +            {
 +                anyNodeLowerThan30 = true;
 +                allNodesAtLeast30 = false;
 +            }
 +
 +            if (version < MessagingService.VERSION_22)
              {
                  allNodesAtLeast22 = false;
                  return;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/aa60cde3/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/schema/SchemaKeyspace.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --cc src/java/org/apache/cassandra/schema/SchemaKeyspace.java
index 5f27d82,0000000..bc9da31
mode 100644,000000..100644
--- a/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/schema/SchemaKeyspace.java
+++ b/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/schema/SchemaKeyspace.java
@@@ -1,1708 -1,0 +1,1708 @@@
 +/*
 + * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
 + * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
 + * distributed with this work for additional information
 + * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
 + * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
 + * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
 + * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 + *
 + *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 + *
 + * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 + * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 + * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 + * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 + * limitations under the License.
 + */
 +package org.apache.cassandra.schema;
 +
 +import java.io.IOException;
 +import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
 +import java.nio.charset.CharacterCodingException;
 +import java.security.MessageDigest;
 +import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
 +import java.util.*;
 +import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 +import java.util.function.Function;
 +import java.util.stream.Collectors;
 +
 +import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;
 +import com.google.common.collect.MapDifference;
 +import com.google.common.collect.Maps;
 +import org.slf4j.Logger;
 +import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
 +
 +import org.apache.cassandra.config.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.config.ColumnDefinition.ClusteringOrder;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.cql3.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.cql3.functions.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.cql3.statements.SelectStatement;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.db.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.db.partitions.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.db.rows.*;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.db.view.View;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.exceptions.ConfigurationException;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.exceptions.InvalidRequestException;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.utils.ByteBufferUtil;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.utils.FBUtilities;
 +import org.apache.cassandra.utils.concurrent.OpOrder;
 +
 +import static org.apache.cassandra.cql3.QueryProcessor.executeOnceInternal;
 +
 +/**
 + * system_schema.* tables and methods for manipulating them.
 + */
 +public final class SchemaKeyspace
 +{
 +    private SchemaKeyspace()
 +    {
 +    }
 +
 +    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(SchemaKeyspace.class);
 +
 +    public static final String NAME = "system_schema";
 +
 +    public static final String KEYSPACES = "keyspaces";
 +    public static final String TABLES = "tables";
 +    public static final String COLUMNS = "columns";
 +    public static final String DROPPED_COLUMNS = "dropped_columns";
 +    public static final String TRIGGERS = "triggers";
 +    public static final String VIEWS = "views";
 +    public static final String TYPES = "types";
 +    public static final String FUNCTIONS = "functions";
 +    public static final String AGGREGATES = "aggregates";
 +    public static final String INDEXES = "indexes";
 +
 +
 +    public static final List<String> ALL =
 +        ImmutableList.of(KEYSPACES, TABLES, COLUMNS, TRIGGERS, VIEWS, TYPES, FUNCTIONS, AGGREGATES, INDEXES);
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Keyspaces =
 +        compile(KEYSPACES,
 +                "keyspace definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "durable_writes boolean,"
 +                + "replication frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name)))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Tables =
 +        compile(TABLES,
 +                "table definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "table_name text,"
 +                + "bloom_filter_fp_chance double,"
 +                + "caching frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "comment text,"
 +                + "compaction frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "compression frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "crc_check_chance double,"
 +                + "dclocal_read_repair_chance double,"
 +                + "default_time_to_live int,"
 +                + "extensions frozen<map<text, blob>>,"
 +                + "flags frozen<set<text>>," // SUPER, COUNTER, DENSE, COMPOUND
 +                + "gc_grace_seconds int,"
 +                + "id uuid,"
 +                + "max_index_interval int,"
 +                + "memtable_flush_period_in_ms int,"
 +                + "min_index_interval int,"
 +                + "read_repair_chance double,"
 +                + "speculative_retry text,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), table_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Columns =
 +        compile(COLUMNS,
 +                "column definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "table_name text,"
 +                + "column_name text,"
 +                + "clustering_order text,"
 +                + "column_name_bytes blob,"
 +                + "kind text,"
 +                + "position int,"
 +                + "type text,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), table_name, column_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData DroppedColumns =
 +        compile(DROPPED_COLUMNS,
 +                "dropped column registry",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "table_name text,"
 +                + "column_name text,"
 +                + "dropped_time timestamp,"
 +                + "type text,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), table_name, column_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Triggers =
 +        compile(TRIGGERS,
 +                "trigger definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "table_name text,"
 +                + "trigger_name text,"
 +                + "options frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), table_name, trigger_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Views =
 +        compile(VIEWS,
 +                "view definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "view_name text,"
 +                + "base_table_id uuid,"
 +                + "base_table_name text,"
 +                + "where_clause text,"
 +                + "bloom_filter_fp_chance double,"
 +                + "caching frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "comment text,"
 +                + "compaction frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "compression frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "crc_check_chance double,"
 +                + "dclocal_read_repair_chance double,"
 +                + "default_time_to_live int,"
 +                + "extensions frozen<map<text, blob>>,"
 +                + "gc_grace_seconds int,"
 +                + "id uuid,"
 +                + "include_all_columns boolean,"
 +                + "max_index_interval int,"
 +                + "memtable_flush_period_in_ms int,"
 +                + "min_index_interval int,"
 +                + "read_repair_chance double,"
 +                + "speculative_retry text,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), view_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Indexes =
 +        compile(INDEXES,
 +                "secondary index definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "table_name text,"
 +                + "index_name text,"
 +                + "kind text,"
 +                + "options frozen<map<text, text>>,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), table_name, index_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Types =
 +        compile(TYPES,
 +                "user defined type definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "type_name text,"
 +                + "field_names frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "field_types frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), type_name))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Functions =
 +        compile(FUNCTIONS,
 +                "user defined function definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "function_name text,"
 +                + "signature frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "argument_names frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "argument_types frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "body text,"
 +                + "language text,"
 +                + "return_type text,"
 +                + "called_on_null_input boolean,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), function_name, signature))");
 +
 +    private static final CFMetaData Aggregates =
 +        compile(AGGREGATES,
 +                "user defined aggregate definitions",
 +                "CREATE TABLE %s ("
 +                + "keyspace_name text,"
 +                + "aggregate_name text,"
 +                + "signature frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "argument_types frozen<list<text>>,"
 +                + "final_func text,"
 +                + "initcond blob,"
 +                + "return_type text,"
 +                + "state_func text,"
 +                + "state_type text,"
 +                + "PRIMARY KEY ((keyspace_name), aggregate_name, signature))");
 +
 +    public static final List<CFMetaData> ALL_TABLE_METADATA =
 +        ImmutableList.of(Keyspaces, Tables, Columns, Triggers, DroppedColumns, Views, Types, Functions, Aggregates, Indexes);
 +
 +    private static CFMetaData compile(String name, String description, String schema)
 +    {
 +        return CFMetaData.compile(String.format(schema, name), NAME)
 +                         .comment(description)
 +                         .gcGraceSeconds((int) TimeUnit.DAYS.toSeconds(7));
 +    }
 +
 +    public static KeyspaceMetadata metadata()
 +    {
 +        return KeyspaceMetadata.create(NAME, KeyspaceParams.local(), org.apache.cassandra.schema.Tables.of(ALL_TABLE_METADATA));
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Add entries to system_schema.* for the hardcoded system keyspaces
 +     */
 +    public static void saveSystemKeyspacesSchema()
 +    {
 +        KeyspaceMetadata system = Schema.instance.getKSMetaData(SystemKeyspace.NAME);
 +        KeyspaceMetadata schema = Schema.instance.getKSMetaData(NAME);
 +
 +        long timestamp = FBUtilities.timestampMicros();
 +
 +        // delete old, possibly obsolete entries in schema tables
 +        for (String schemaTable : ALL)
 +        {
 +            String query = String.format("DELETE FROM %s.%s USING TIMESTAMP ? WHERE keyspace_name = ?", NAME, schemaTable);
 +            for (String systemKeyspace : Schema.SYSTEM_KEYSPACE_NAMES)
 +                executeOnceInternal(query, timestamp, systemKeyspace);
 +        }
 +
 +        // (+1 to timestamp to make sure we don't get shadowed by the tombstones we just added)
 +        makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(system, timestamp + 1).apply();
 +        makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(schema, timestamp + 1).apply();
 +    }
 +
 +    public static List<KeyspaceMetadata> readSchemaFromSystemTables()
 +    {
 +        ReadCommand cmd = getReadCommandForTableSchema(KEYSPACES);
 +        try (ReadOrderGroup orderGroup = cmd.startOrderGroup(); PartitionIterator schema = cmd.executeInternal(orderGroup))
 +        {
 +            List<KeyspaceMetadata> keyspaces = new ArrayList<>();
 +
 +            while (schema.hasNext())
 +            {
 +                try (RowIterator partition = schema.next())
 +                {
 +                    if (isSystemKeyspaceSchemaPartition(partition.partitionKey()))
 +                        continue;
 +
 +                    DecoratedKey key = partition.partitionKey();
 +
 +                    readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(TYPES, key,
 +                        types -> readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(TABLES, key,
 +                        tables -> readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(VIEWS, key,
 +                        views -> readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(FUNCTIONS, key,
 +                        functions -> readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(AGGREGATES, key,
 +                        aggregates -> keyspaces.add(createKeyspaceFromSchemaPartitions(partition, tables, views, types, functions, aggregates))))))
 +                    );
 +                }
 +            }
 +            return keyspaces;
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    public static void truncate()
 +    {
 +        ALL.forEach(table -> getSchemaCFS(table).truncateBlocking());
 +    }
 +
 +    static void flush()
 +    {
 +        if (!Boolean.getBoolean("cassandra.unsafesystem"))
 +            ALL.forEach(table -> FBUtilities.waitOnFuture(getSchemaCFS(table).forceFlush()));
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Read schema from system keyspace and calculate MD5 digest of every row, resulting digest
 +     * will be converted into UUID which would act as content-based version of the schema.
 +     */
 +    public static UUID calculateSchemaDigest()
 +    {
 +        MessageDigest digest;
 +        try
 +        {
 +            digest = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");
 +        }
 +        catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e)
 +        {
 +            throw new RuntimeException(e);
 +        }
 +
 +        for (String table : ALL)
 +        {
 +            ReadCommand cmd = getReadCommandForTableSchema(table);
 +            try (ReadOrderGroup orderGroup = cmd.startOrderGroup();
 +                 PartitionIterator schema = cmd.executeInternal(orderGroup))
 +            {
 +                while (schema.hasNext())
 +                {
 +                    try (RowIterator partition = schema.next())
 +                    {
 +                        if (!isSystemKeyspaceSchemaPartition(partition.partitionKey()))
 +                            RowIterators.digest(partition, digest);
 +                    }
 +                }
 +            }
 +        }
 +        return UUID.nameUUIDFromBytes(digest.digest());
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * @param schemaTableName The name of the table responsible for part of the schema
 +     * @return CFS responsible to hold low-level serialized schema
 +     */
 +    private static ColumnFamilyStore getSchemaCFS(String schemaTableName)
 +    {
 +        return Keyspace.open(NAME).getColumnFamilyStore(schemaTableName);
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * @param schemaTableName The name of the table responsible for part of the schema.
 +     * @return low-level schema representation
 +     */
 +    private static ReadCommand getReadCommandForTableSchema(String schemaTableName)
 +    {
 +        ColumnFamilyStore cfs = getSchemaCFS(schemaTableName);
 +        return PartitionRangeReadCommand.allDataRead(cfs.metadata, FBUtilities.nowInSeconds());
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Collection<Mutation> convertSchemaToMutations()
 +    {
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, Mutation> mutationMap = new HashMap<>();
 +
 +        for (String table : ALL)
 +            convertSchemaToMutations(mutationMap, table);
 +
 +        return mutationMap.values();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void convertSchemaToMutations(Map<DecoratedKey, Mutation> mutationMap, String schemaTableName)
 +    {
 +        ReadCommand cmd = getReadCommandForTableSchema(schemaTableName);
 +        try (ReadOrderGroup orderGroup = cmd.startOrderGroup(); UnfilteredPartitionIterator iter = cmd.executeLocally(orderGroup))
 +        {
 +            while (iter.hasNext())
 +            {
 +                try (UnfilteredRowIterator partition = iter.next())
 +                {
 +                    if (isSystemKeyspaceSchemaPartition(partition.partitionKey()))
 +                        continue;
 +
 +                    DecoratedKey key = partition.partitionKey();
 +                    Mutation mutation = mutationMap.get(key);
 +                    if (mutation == null)
 +                    {
 +                        mutation = new Mutation(NAME, key);
 +                        mutationMap.put(key, mutation);
 +                    }
 +
 +                    mutation.add(PartitionUpdate.fromIterator(partition));
 +                }
 +            }
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> readSchemaForKeyspaces(String schemaTableName, Set<String> keyspaceNames)
 +    {
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> schema = new HashMap<>();
 +
 +        for (String keyspaceName : keyspaceNames)
 +        {
 +            // We don't to return the RowIterator directly because we should guarantee that this iterator
 +            // will be closed, and putting it in a Map make that harder/more awkward.
 +            readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(schemaTableName, keyspaceName,
 +                partition -> {
 +                    if (!partition.isEmpty())
 +                        schema.put(partition.partitionKey(), FilteredPartition.create(partition));
 +                    return null;
 +                }
 +            );
 +        }
 +
 +        return schema;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static ByteBuffer getSchemaKSKey(String ksName)
 +    {
 +        return AsciiType.instance.fromString(ksName);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static <T> T readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(String schemaTableName, String keyspaceName, Function<RowIterator, T> fct)
 +    {
 +        return readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(schemaTableName, getSchemaKSKey(keyspaceName), fct);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static <T> T readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(String schemaTableName, ByteBuffer keyspaceKey, Function<RowIterator, T> fct)
 +    {
 +        ColumnFamilyStore store = getSchemaCFS(schemaTableName);
 +        return readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(store, store.decorateKey(keyspaceKey), fct);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static <T> T readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(String schemaTableName, DecoratedKey keyspaceKey, Function<RowIterator, T> fct)
 +    {
 +        return readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(getSchemaCFS(schemaTableName), keyspaceKey, fct);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static <T> T readSchemaPartitionForKeyspaceAndApply(ColumnFamilyStore store, DecoratedKey keyspaceKey, Function<RowIterator, T> fct)
 +    {
 +        int nowInSec = FBUtilities.nowInSeconds();
 +        try (OpOrder.Group op = store.readOrdering.start();
 +             RowIterator partition = UnfilteredRowIterators.filter(SinglePartitionReadCommand.fullPartitionRead(store.metadata, nowInSec, keyspaceKey)
 +                                                                                             .queryMemtableAndDisk(store, op), nowInSec))
 +        {
 +            return fct.apply(partition);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    private static <T> T readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(String schemaTableName, String keyspaceName, String tableName, Function<RowIterator, T> fct)
 +    {
 +        ColumnFamilyStore store = getSchemaCFS(schemaTableName);
 +
 +        ClusteringComparator comparator = store.metadata.comparator;
 +        Slices slices = Slices.with(comparator, Slice.make(comparator, tableName));
 +        int nowInSec = FBUtilities.nowInSeconds();
 +        try (OpOrder.Group op = store.readOrdering.start();
 +             RowIterator partition =  UnfilteredRowIterators.filter(SinglePartitionSliceCommand.create(store.metadata, nowInSec, getSchemaKSKey(keyspaceName), slices)
 +                                                                                               .queryMemtableAndDisk(store, op), nowInSec))
 +        {
 +            return fct.apply(partition);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    private static boolean isSystemKeyspaceSchemaPartition(DecoratedKey partitionKey)
 +    {
 +        return Schema.isSystemKeyspace(UTF8Type.instance.compose(partitionKey.getKey()));
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Merge remote schema in form of mutations with local and mutate ks/cf metadata objects
 +     * (which also involves fs operations on add/drop ks/cf)
 +     *
 +     * @param mutations the schema changes to apply
 +     *
 +     * @throws ConfigurationException If one of metadata attributes has invalid value
 +     * @throws IOException If data was corrupted during transportation or failed to apply fs operations
 +     */
 +    public static synchronized void mergeSchema(Collection<Mutation> mutations) throws ConfigurationException, IOException
 +    {
 +        mergeSchema(mutations, true);
 +        Schema.instance.updateVersionAndAnnounce();
 +    }
 +
 +    public static synchronized void mergeSchema(Collection<Mutation> mutations, boolean doFlush) throws IOException
 +    {
 +        // compare before/after schemas of the affected keyspaces only
 +        Set<String> keyspaces = new HashSet<>(mutations.size());
 +        for (Mutation mutation : mutations)
 +            keyspaces.add(ByteBufferUtil.string(mutation.key().getKey()));
 +
 +        // current state of the schema
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldKeyspaces = readSchemaForKeyspaces(KEYSPACES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldColumnFamilies = readSchemaForKeyspaces(TABLES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldViews = readSchemaForKeyspaces(VIEWS, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldTypes = readSchemaForKeyspaces(TYPES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldFunctions = readSchemaForKeyspaces(FUNCTIONS, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> oldAggregates = readSchemaForKeyspaces(AGGREGATES, keyspaces);
 +
 +        mutations.forEach(Mutation::apply);
 +
 +        if (doFlush)
 +            flush();
 +
 +        // with new data applied
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newKeyspaces = readSchemaForKeyspaces(KEYSPACES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newColumnFamilies = readSchemaForKeyspaces(TABLES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newViews = readSchemaForKeyspaces(VIEWS, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newTypes = readSchemaForKeyspaces(TYPES, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newFunctions = readSchemaForKeyspaces(FUNCTIONS, keyspaces);
 +        Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> newAggregates = readSchemaForKeyspaces(AGGREGATES, keyspaces);
 +
 +        Set<String> keyspacesToDrop = mergeKeyspaces(oldKeyspaces, newKeyspaces);
 +        mergeTables(oldColumnFamilies, newColumnFamilies);
 +        mergeViews(oldViews, newViews);
 +        mergeTypes(oldTypes, newTypes);
 +        mergeFunctions(oldFunctions, newFunctions);
 +        mergeAggregates(oldAggregates, newAggregates);
 +
 +        // it is safe to drop a keyspace only when all nested ColumnFamilies where deleted
 +        keyspacesToDrop.forEach(Schema.instance::dropKeyspace);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Set<String> mergeKeyspaces(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        for (FilteredPartition newPartition : after.values())
 +        {
 +            String name = AsciiType.instance.compose(newPartition.partitionKey().getKey());
 +            KeyspaceParams params = createKeyspaceParamsFromSchemaPartition(newPartition.rowIterator());
 +
 +            FilteredPartition oldPartition = before.remove(newPartition.partitionKey());
 +            if (oldPartition == null || oldPartition.isEmpty())
 +                Schema.instance.addKeyspace(KeyspaceMetadata.create(name, params));
 +            else
 +                Schema.instance.updateKeyspace(name, params);
 +        }
 +
 +        // What's remain in old is those keyspace that are not in updated, i.e. the dropped ones.
 +        return asKeyspaceNamesSet(before.keySet());
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Set<String> asKeyspaceNamesSet(Set<DecoratedKey> keys)
 +    {
 +        Set<String> names = new HashSet<>(keys.size());
 +        for (DecoratedKey key : keys)
 +            names.add(AsciiType.instance.compose(key.getKey()));
 +        return names;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void mergeTables(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        diffSchema(before, after, new Differ()
 +        {
 +            public void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.dropTable(oldRow.getString("keyspace_name"), oldRow.getString("table_name"));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.addTable(createTableFromTableRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.updateTable(newRow.getString("keyspace_name"), newRow.getString("table_name"));
 +            }
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void mergeViews(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        diffSchema(before, after, new Differ()
 +        {
 +            public void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.dropView(oldRow.getString("keyspace_name"), oldRow.getString("view_name"));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.addView(createViewFromViewRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.updateView(newRow.getString("keyspace_name"), newRow.getString("view_name"));
 +            }
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void mergeTypes(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        diffSchema(before, after, new Differ()
 +        {
 +            public void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.dropType(createTypeFromRow(oldRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.addType(createTypeFromRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.updateType(createTypeFromRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void mergeFunctions(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        diffSchema(before, after, new Differ()
 +        {
 +            public void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.dropFunction(createFunctionFromFunctionRow(oldRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.addFunction(createFunctionFromFunctionRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.updateFunction(createFunctionFromFunctionRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void mergeAggregates(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after)
 +    {
 +        diffSchema(before, after, new Differ()
 +        {
 +            public void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.dropAggregate(createAggregateFromAggregateRow(oldRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.addAggregate(createAggregateFromAggregateRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +
 +            public void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow)
 +            {
 +                Schema.instance.updateAggregate(createAggregateFromAggregateRow(newRow));
 +            }
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    public interface Differ
 +    {
 +        void onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow);
 +        void onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row newRow);
 +        void onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row oldRow, UntypedResultSet.Row newRow);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void diffSchema(Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> before, Map<DecoratedKey, FilteredPartition> after, Differ differ)
 +    {
 +        for (FilteredPartition newPartition : after.values())
 +        {
 +            CFMetaData metadata = newPartition.metadata();
 +            DecoratedKey key = newPartition.partitionKey();
 +
 +            FilteredPartition oldPartition = before.remove(key);
 +
 +            if (oldPartition == null || oldPartition.isEmpty())
 +            {
 +                // Means everything is to be added
 +                for (Row row : newPartition)
 +                    differ.onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, row));
 +                continue;
 +            }
 +
 +            Iterator<Row> oldIter = oldPartition.iterator();
 +            Iterator<Row> newIter = newPartition.iterator();
 +
 +            Row oldRow = oldIter.hasNext() ? oldIter.next() : null;
 +            Row newRow = newIter.hasNext() ? newIter.next() : null;
 +            while (oldRow != null && newRow != null)
 +            {
 +                int cmp = metadata.comparator.compare(oldRow.clustering(), newRow.clustering());
 +                if (cmp < 0)
 +                {
 +                    differ.onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, oldRow));
 +                    oldRow = oldIter.hasNext() ? oldIter.next() : null;
 +                }
 +                else if (cmp > 0)
 +                {
 +
 +                    differ.onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, newRow));
 +                    newRow = newIter.hasNext() ? newIter.next() : null;
 +                }
 +                else
 +                {
 +                    if (!oldRow.equals(newRow))
 +                        differ.onUpdated(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, oldRow), UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, newRow));
 +
 +                    oldRow = oldIter.hasNext() ? oldIter.next() : null;
 +                    newRow = newIter.hasNext() ? newIter.next() : null;
 +                }
 +            }
 +
 +            while (oldRow != null)
 +            {
 +                differ.onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, oldRow));
 +                oldRow = oldIter.hasNext() ? oldIter.next() : null;
 +            }
 +            while (newRow != null)
 +            {
 +                differ.onAdded(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(metadata, key, newRow));
 +                newRow = newIter.hasNext() ? newIter.next() : null;
 +            }
 +        }
 +
 +        // What remains is those keys that were only in before.
 +        for (FilteredPartition partition : before.values())
 +            for (Row row : partition)
 +                differ.onDropped(UntypedResultSet.Row.fromInternalRow(partition.metadata(), partition.partitionKey(), row));
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Keyspace metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(String name, KeyspaceParams params, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Keyspaces, timestamp, name).clustering();
 +        return adder.add(KeyspaceParams.Option.DURABLE_WRITES.toString(), params.durableWrites)
 +                    .frozenMap(KeyspaceParams.Option.REPLICATION.toString(), params.replication.asMap())
 +                    .build();
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +
 +        keyspace.tables.forEach(table -> addTableToSchemaMutation(table, timestamp, true, mutation));
 +        keyspace.views.forEach(view -> addViewToSchemaMutation(view, timestamp, true, mutation));
 +        keyspace.types.forEach(type -> addTypeToSchemaMutation(type, timestamp, mutation));
 +        keyspace.functions.udfs().forEach(udf -> addFunctionToSchemaMutation(udf, timestamp, mutation));
 +        keyspace.functions.udas().forEach(uda -> addAggregateToSchemaMutation(uda, timestamp, mutation));
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeDropKeyspaceMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        int nowInSec = FBUtilities.nowInSeconds();
 +        Mutation mutation = new Mutation(NAME, Keyspaces.decorateKey(getSchemaKSKey(keyspace.name)));
 +
 +        for (CFMetaData schemaTable : ALL_TABLE_METADATA)
 +            mutation.add(PartitionUpdate.fullPartitionDelete(schemaTable, mutation.key(), timestamp, nowInSec));
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static KeyspaceMetadata createKeyspaceFromSchemaPartitions(RowIterator serializedParams,
 +                                                                       RowIterator serializedTables,
 +                                                                       RowIterator serializedViews,
 +                                                                       RowIterator serializedTypes,
 +                                                                       RowIterator serializedFunctions,
 +                                                                       RowIterator serializedAggregates)
 +    {
 +        String name = AsciiType.instance.compose(serializedParams.partitionKey().getKey());
 +
 +        KeyspaceParams params = createKeyspaceParamsFromSchemaPartition(serializedParams);
 +        Tables tables = createTablesFromTablesPartition(serializedTables);
 +        Views views = createViewsFromViewsPartition(serializedViews);
 +        Types types = createTypesFromPartition(serializedTypes);
 +
 +        Collection<UDFunction> udfs = createFunctionsFromFunctionsPartition(serializedFunctions);
 +        Collection<UDAggregate> udas = createAggregatesFromAggregatesPartition(serializedAggregates);
 +        Functions functions = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Functions.builder().add(udfs).add(udas).build();
 +
 +        return KeyspaceMetadata.create(name, params, tables, views, types, functions);
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize only Keyspace attributes without nested tables or types
 +     *
 +     * @param partition Keyspace attributes in serialized form
 +     */
 +
 +    private static KeyspaceParams createKeyspaceParamsFromSchemaPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, KEYSPACES);
 +        UntypedResultSet.Row row = QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).one();
 +
 +        return KeyspaceParams.create(row.getBoolean(KeyspaceParams.Option.DURABLE_WRITES.toString()),
 +                                     row.getFrozenTextMap(KeyspaceParams.Option.REPLICATION.toString()));
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * User type metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateTypeMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UserType type, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        addTypeToSchemaMutation(type, timestamp, mutation);
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    static void addTypeToSchemaMutation(UserType type, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Types, timestamp, mutation)
 +                                 .clustering(type.getNameAsString())
 +                                 .frozenList("field_names", type.fieldNames().stream().map(SchemaKeyspace::bbToString).collect(Collectors.toList()))
 +                                 .frozenList("field_types", type.fieldTypes().stream().map(AbstractType::toString).collect(Collectors.toList()));
 +
 +        adder.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static String bbToString(ByteBuffer bb)
 +    {
 +        try
 +        {
 +            return ByteBufferUtil.string(bb);
 +        }
 +        catch (CharacterCodingException e)
 +        {
 +            throw new RuntimeException(e);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation dropTypeFromSchemaMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UserType type, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        return RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Types, timestamp, mutation, type.name);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Types createTypesFromPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, TYPES);
 +        Types.Builder types = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Types.builder();
 +        QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).forEach(row -> types.add(createTypeFromRow(row)));
 +        return types.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static UserType createTypeFromRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String keyspace = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        ByteBuffer name = ByteBufferUtil.bytes(row.getString("type_name"));
 +        List<String> rawColumns = row.getFrozenList("field_names", UTF8Type.instance);
 +        List<String> rawTypes = row.getFrozenList("field_types", UTF8Type.instance);
 +
 +        List<ByteBuffer> columns = new ArrayList<>(rawColumns.size());
 +        for (String rawColumn : rawColumns)
 +            columns.add(ByteBufferUtil.bytes(rawColumn));
 +
 +        List<AbstractType<?>> types = new ArrayList<>(rawTypes.size());
 +        for (String rawType : rawTypes)
 +            types.add(parseType(rawType));
 +
 +        return new UserType(keyspace, name, columns, types);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Table metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateTableMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, CFMetaData table, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        addTableToSchemaMutation(table, timestamp, true, mutation);
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    static void addTableToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, long timestamp, boolean withColumnsAndTriggers, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Tables, timestamp, mutation).clustering(table.cfName);
 +
 +        addTableParamsToSchemaMutation(table.params, adder);
 +
 +        adder.add("id", table.cfId)
 +             .frozenSet("flags", CFMetaData.flagsToStrings(table.flags()))
 +             .build();
 +
 +        if (withColumnsAndTriggers)
 +        {
 +            for (ColumnDefinition column : table.allColumns())
 +                addColumnToSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +            for (CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column : table.getDroppedColumns().values())
 +                addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +            for (TriggerMetadata trigger : table.getTriggers())
 +                addTriggerToSchemaMutation(table, trigger, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +            for (IndexMetadata index : table.getIndexes())
 +                addIndexToSchemaMutation(table, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void addTableParamsToSchemaMutation(TableParams params, RowUpdateBuilder adder)
 +    {
 +        adder.add("bloom_filter_fp_chance", params.bloomFilterFpChance)
 +             .add("comment", params.comment)
 +             .add("dclocal_read_repair_chance", params.dcLocalReadRepairChance)
 +             .add("default_time_to_live", params.defaultTimeToLive)
 +             .add("gc_grace_seconds", params.gcGraceSeconds)
 +             .add("max_index_interval", params.maxIndexInterval)
 +             .add("memtable_flush_period_in_ms", params.memtableFlushPeriodInMs)
 +             .add("min_index_interval", params.minIndexInterval)
 +             .add("read_repair_chance", params.readRepairChance)
 +             .add("speculative_retry", params.speculativeRetry.toString())
 +             .add("crc_check_chance", params.crcCheckChance)
 +             .frozenMap("caching", params.caching.asMap())
 +             .frozenMap("compaction", params.compaction.asMap())
 +             .frozenMap("compression", params.compression.asMap())
 +             .frozenMap("extensions", params.extensions);
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeUpdateTableMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace,
 +                                                   CFMetaData oldTable,
 +                                                   CFMetaData newTable,
 +                                                   long timestamp,
 +                                                   boolean fromThrift)
 +    {
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +
 +        addTableToSchemaMutation(newTable, timestamp, false, mutation);
 +
 +        MapDifference<ByteBuffer, ColumnDefinition> columnDiff = Maps.difference(oldTable.getColumnMetadata(),
 +                                                                                 newTable.getColumnMetadata());
 +
 +        // columns that are no longer needed
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : columnDiff.entriesOnlyOnLeft().values())
 +        {
 +            // Thrift only knows about the REGULAR ColumnDefinition type, so don't consider other type
 +            // are being deleted just because they are not here.
 +            if (!fromThrift ||
 +                column.kind == ColumnDefinition.Kind.REGULAR ||
 +                (newTable.isStaticCompactTable() && column.kind == ColumnDefinition.Kind.STATIC))
 +            {
 +                dropColumnFromSchemaMutation(oldTable, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +            }
 +        }
 +
 +        // newly added columns
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : columnDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addColumnToSchemaMutation(newTable, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // old columns with updated attributes
 +        for (ByteBuffer name : columnDiff.entriesDiffering().keySet())
 +            addColumnToSchemaMutation(newTable, newTable.getColumnDefinition(name), timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // dropped columns
 +        MapDifference<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> droppedColumnDiff =
 +            Maps.difference(oldTable.getDroppedColumns(), newTable.getDroppedColumns());
 +
 +        // newly dropped columns
 +        for (CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column : droppedColumnDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(newTable, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // columns added then dropped again
 +        for (ByteBuffer name : droppedColumnDiff.entriesDiffering().keySet())
 +            addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(newTable, newTable.getDroppedColumns().get(name), timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        MapDifference<String, TriggerMetadata> triggerDiff = triggersDiff(oldTable.getTriggers(), newTable.getTriggers());
 +
 +        // dropped triggers
 +        for (TriggerMetadata trigger : triggerDiff.entriesOnlyOnLeft().values())
 +            dropTriggerFromSchemaMutation(oldTable, trigger, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // newly created triggers
 +        for (TriggerMetadata trigger : triggerDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addTriggerToSchemaMutation(newTable, trigger, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        MapDifference<String, IndexMetadata> indexesDiff = indexesDiff(oldTable.getIndexes(),
 +                                                                       newTable.getIndexes());
 +
 +        // dropped indexes
 +        for (IndexMetadata index : indexesDiff.entriesOnlyOnLeft().values())
 +            dropIndexFromSchemaMutation(oldTable, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // newly created indexes
 +        for (IndexMetadata index : indexesDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addIndexToSchemaMutation(newTable, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // updated indexes need to be updated
 +        for (MapDifference.ValueDifference<IndexMetadata> diff : indexesDiff.entriesDiffering().values())
 +        {
 +            addUpdatedIndexToSchemaMutation(newTable, diff.rightValue(), timestamp, mutation);
 +        }
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static MapDifference<String, IndexMetadata> indexesDiff(Indexes before, Indexes after)
 +    {
 +        Map<String, IndexMetadata> beforeMap = new HashMap<>();
 +        before.forEach(i -> beforeMap.put(i.name, i));
 +
 +        Map<String, IndexMetadata> afterMap = new HashMap<>();
 +        after.forEach(i -> afterMap.put(i.name, i));
 +
 +        return Maps.difference(beforeMap, afterMap);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static MapDifference<String, TriggerMetadata> triggersDiff(Triggers before, Triggers after)
 +    {
 +        Map<String, TriggerMetadata> beforeMap = new HashMap<>();
 +        before.forEach(t -> beforeMap.put(t.name, t));
 +
 +        Map<String, TriggerMetadata> afterMap = new HashMap<>();
 +        after.forEach(t -> afterMap.put(t.name, t));
 +
 +        return Maps.difference(beforeMap, afterMap);
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeDropTableMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, CFMetaData table, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +
 +        RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Tables, timestamp, mutation, table.cfName);
 +
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : table.allColumns())
 +            dropColumnFromSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        for (TriggerMetadata trigger : table.getTriggers())
 +            dropTriggerFromSchemaMutation(table, trigger, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        for (IndexMetadata index : table.getIndexes())
 +            dropIndexFromSchemaMutation(table, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    public static CFMetaData createTableFromName(String keyspace, String table)
 +    {
 +        return readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(TABLES, keyspace, table, partition ->
 +        {
 +            if (partition.isEmpty())
 +                throw new RuntimeException(String.format("%s:%s not found in the schema definitions keyspace.", keyspace, table));
 +
 +            return createTableFromTablePartition(partition);
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize tables from low-level schema representation, all of them belong to the same keyspace
 +     */
 +    private static Tables createTablesFromTablesPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, TABLES);
 +        Tables.Builder tables = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Tables.builder();
 +        QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).forEach(row -> tables.add(createTableFromTableRow(row)));
 +        return tables.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static List<ColumnDefinition> createColumnsFromColumnsPartition(RowIterator serializedColumns)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, COLUMNS);
 +        return createColumnsFromColumnRows(QueryProcessor.resultify(query, serializedColumns));
 +    }
 +
 +    private static CFMetaData createTableFromTablePartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, TABLES);
 +        return createTableFromTableRow(QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).one());
 +    }
 +
 +    public static CFMetaData createTableFromTablePartitionAndColumnsPartition(RowIterator tablePartition,
 +                                                                              RowIterator columnsPartition)
 +    {
 +        List<ColumnDefinition> columns = createColumnsFromColumnsPartition(columnsPartition);
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, TABLES);
 +        return createTableFromTableRowAndColumns(QueryProcessor.resultify(query, tablePartition).one(), columns);
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize table metadata from low-level representation
 +     *
 +     * @return Metadata deserialized from schema
 +     */
 +    private static CFMetaData createTableFromTableRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String keyspace = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String table = row.getString("table_name");
 +
 +        List<ColumnDefinition> columns =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(COLUMNS, keyspace, table, SchemaKeyspace::createColumnsFromColumnsPartition);
 +
 +        Map<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> droppedColumns =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(DROPPED_COLUMNS, keyspace, table, SchemaKeyspace::createDroppedColumnsFromDroppedColumnsPartition);
 +
 +        Triggers triggers =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(TRIGGERS, keyspace, table, SchemaKeyspace::createTriggersFromTriggersPartition);
 +
 +        CFMetaData cfm = createTableFromTableRowAndColumns(row, columns).droppedColumns(droppedColumns)
 +                                                                        .triggers(triggers);
 +
 +        // the CFMetaData itself is required to build the collection of indexes as
 +        // the column definitions are needed because we store only the name each
 +        // index's target columns and this is not enough to reconstruct a ColumnIdentifier
 +        org.apache.cassandra.schema.Indexes indexes =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(INDEXES, keyspace, table, rowIterator -> createIndexesFromIndexesPartition(cfm, rowIterator));
 +        cfm.indexes(indexes);
 +
 +        return cfm;
 +    }
 +
 +    public static CFMetaData createTableFromTableRowAndColumns(UntypedResultSet.Row row, List<ColumnDefinition> columns)
 +    {
 +        String keyspace = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String table = row.getString("table_name");
 +        UUID id = row.getUUID("id");
 +
 +        Set<CFMetaData.Flag> flags = row.has("flags")
 +                                   ? CFMetaData.flagsFromStrings(row.getFrozenSet("flags", UTF8Type.instance))
 +                                   : Collections.emptySet();
 +
 +        boolean isSuper = flags.contains(CFMetaData.Flag.SUPER);
 +        boolean isCounter = flags.contains(CFMetaData.Flag.COUNTER);
 +        boolean isDense = flags.contains(CFMetaData.Flag.DENSE);
 +        boolean isCompound = flags.contains(CFMetaData.Flag.COMPOUND);
 +
 +        return CFMetaData.create(keyspace,
 +                                 table,
 +                                 id,
 +                                 isDense,
 +                                 isCompound,
 +                                 isSuper,
 +                                 isCounter,
 +                                 false,
 +                                 columns,
 +                                 DatabaseDescriptor.getPartitioner())
 +                         .params(createTableParamsFromRow(row));
 +    }
 +
 +    private static TableParams createTableParamsFromRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        TableParams.Builder builder = TableParams.builder();
 +
 +        builder.bloomFilterFpChance(row.getDouble("bloom_filter_fp_chance"))
 +               .caching(CachingParams.fromMap(row.getFrozenTextMap("caching")))
 +               .comment(row.getString("comment"))
 +               .compaction(CompactionParams.fromMap(row.getFrozenTextMap("compaction")))
 +               .compression(CompressionParams.fromMap(row.getFrozenTextMap("compression")))
 +               .dcLocalReadRepairChance(row.getDouble("dclocal_read_repair_chance"))
 +               .defaultTimeToLive(row.getInt("default_time_to_live"))
 +               .gcGraceSeconds(row.getInt("gc_grace_seconds"))
 +               .maxIndexInterval(row.getInt("max_index_interval"))
 +               .memtableFlushPeriodInMs(row.getInt("memtable_flush_period_in_ms"))
 +               .minIndexInterval(row.getInt("min_index_interval"))
 +               .readRepairChance(row.getDouble("read_repair_chance"))
 +               .crcCheckChance(row.getDouble("crc_check_chance"))
 +               .speculativeRetry(SpeculativeRetryParam.fromString(row.getString("speculative_retry")));
 +
 +        if (row.has("extensions"))
 +            builder.extensions(row.getFrozenMap("extensions", UTF8Type.instance, BytesType.instance));
 +
 +        return builder.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Column metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    private static void addColumnToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, ColumnDefinition column, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Columns, timestamp, mutation).clustering(table.cfName, column.name.toString());
 +
 +        AbstractType<?> type = column.type;
 +        if (type instanceof ReversedType)
 +            type = ((ReversedType) type).baseType;
 +
 +        adder.add("column_name_bytes", column.name.bytes)
 +             .add("kind", column.kind.toString().toLowerCase())
 +             .add("position", column.isOnAllComponents() ? ColumnDefinition.NO_POSITION : column.position())
 +             .add("clustering_order", column.clusteringOrder().toString().toLowerCase())
 +             .add("type", type.toString())
 +             .build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void dropColumnFromSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, ColumnDefinition column, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        // Note: we do want to use name.toString(), not name.bytes directly for backward compatibility (For CQL3, this won't make a difference).
 +        RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Columns, timestamp, mutation, table.cfName, column.name.toString());
 +    }
 +
 +    private static List<ColumnDefinition> createColumnsFromColumnRows(UntypedResultSet rows)
 +{
 +        List<ColumnDefinition> columns = new ArrayList<>(rows.size());
 +        rows.forEach(row -> columns.add(createColumnFromColumnRow(row)));
 +        return columns;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static ColumnDefinition createColumnFromColumnRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String keyspace = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String table = row.getString("table_name");
 +
 +        ColumnIdentifier name = ColumnIdentifier.getInterned(row.getBytes("column_name_bytes"), row.getString("column_name"));
 +
 +        ColumnDefinition.Kind kind = ColumnDefinition.Kind.valueOf(row.getString("kind").toUpperCase());
 +
 +        int position = row.getInt("position");
 +        ClusteringOrder order = ClusteringOrder.valueOf(row.getString("clustering_order").toUpperCase());
 +
 +        AbstractType<?> type = parseType(row.getString("type"));
 +        if (order == ClusteringOrder.DESC)
 +            type = ReversedType.getInstance(type);
 +
 +        return new ColumnDefinition(keyspace, table, name, type, position, kind);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Dropped column metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    private static void addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(DroppedColumns, timestamp, mutation).clustering(table.cfName, column.name);
 +
 +        adder.add("dropped_time", new Date(TimeUnit.MICROSECONDS.toMillis(column.droppedTime)))
 +             .add("type", column.type.toString())
 +             .build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Map<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> createDroppedColumnsFromDroppedColumnsPartition(RowIterator serializedColumns)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, DROPPED_COLUMNS);
 +        Map<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> columns = new HashMap<>();
 +        for (CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column : createDroppedColumnsFromDroppedColumnRows(QueryProcessor.resultify(query, serializedColumns)))
 +            columns.put(UTF8Type.instance.decompose(column.name), column);
 +        return columns;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static List<CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> createDroppedColumnsFromDroppedColumnRows(UntypedResultSet rows)
 +    {
 +        List<CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> columns = new ArrayList<>(rows.size());
 +        rows.forEach(row -> columns.add(createDroppedColumnFromDroppedColumnRow(row)));
 +        return columns;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static CFMetaData.DroppedColumn createDroppedColumnFromDroppedColumnRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String name = row.getString("column_name");
 +        AbstractType<?> type = TypeParser.parse(row.getString("type"));
 +        long droppedTime = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS.toMicros(row.getLong("dropped_time"));
 +
 +        return new CFMetaData.DroppedColumn(name, type, droppedTime);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Trigger metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    private static void addTriggerToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, TriggerMetadata trigger, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        new RowUpdateBuilder(Triggers, timestamp, mutation)
 +            .clustering(table.cfName, trigger.name)
 +            .frozenMap("options", Collections.singletonMap("class", trigger.classOption))
 +            .build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void dropTriggerFromSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table, TriggerMetadata trigger, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Triggers, timestamp, mutation, table.cfName, trigger.name);
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize triggers from storage-level representation.
 +     *
 +     * @param partition storage-level partition containing the trigger definitions
 +     * @return the list of processed TriggerDefinitions
 +     */
 +    private static Triggers createTriggersFromTriggersPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        Triggers.Builder triggers = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Triggers.builder();
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, TRIGGERS);
 +        QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).forEach(row -> triggers.add(createTriggerFromTriggerRow(row)));
 +        return triggers.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static TriggerMetadata createTriggerFromTriggerRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String name = row.getString("trigger_name");
 +        String classOption = row.getFrozenTextMap("options").get("class");
 +        return new TriggerMetadata(name, classOption);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * View metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateViewMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, ViewDefinition view, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        addViewToSchemaMutation(view, timestamp, true, mutation);
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void addViewToSchemaMutation(ViewDefinition view, long timestamp, boolean includeColumns, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder builder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Views, timestamp, mutation)
 +            .clustering(view.viewName);
 +
 +        CFMetaData table = view.metadata;
 +
 +        builder.add("include_all_columns", view.includeAllColumns)
 +               .add("base_table_id", view.baseTableId)
 +               .add("base_table_name", view.baseTableMetadata().cfName)
 +               .add("where_clause", view.whereClause)
 +               .add("id", table.cfId);
 +
 +        addTableParamsToSchemaMutation(table.params, builder);
 +
 +        if (includeColumns)
 +        {
 +            for (ColumnDefinition column : table.allColumns())
 +                addColumnToSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +            for (CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column : table.getDroppedColumns().values())
 +                addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +        }
 +
 +        builder.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeDropViewMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, ViewDefinition view, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +
 +        RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Views, timestamp, mutation, view.viewName);
 +
 +        CFMetaData table = view.metadata;
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : table.allColumns())
 +            dropColumnFromSchemaMutation(table, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        for (IndexMetadata index : table.getIndexes())
 +            dropIndexFromSchemaMutation(table, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeUpdateViewMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace,
 +                                                  ViewDefinition oldView,
 +                                                  ViewDefinition newView,
 +                                                  long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +
 +        addViewToSchemaMutation(newView, timestamp, false, mutation);
 +
 +        MapDifference<ByteBuffer, ColumnDefinition> columnDiff = Maps.difference(oldView.metadata.getColumnMetadata(),
 +                                                                                 newView.metadata.getColumnMetadata());
 +
 +        // columns that are no longer needed
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : columnDiff.entriesOnlyOnLeft().values())
 +        {
 +            dropColumnFromSchemaMutation(oldView.metadata, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +        }
 +
 +        // newly added columns
 +        for (ColumnDefinition column : columnDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addColumnToSchemaMutation(newView.metadata, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // old columns with updated attributes
 +        for (ByteBuffer name : columnDiff.entriesDiffering().keySet())
 +            addColumnToSchemaMutation(newView.metadata, newView.metadata.getColumnDefinition(name), timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // dropped columns
 +        MapDifference<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> droppedColumnDiff =
 +        Maps.difference(oldView.metadata.getDroppedColumns(), oldView.metadata.getDroppedColumns());
 +
 +        // newly dropped columns
 +        for (CFMetaData.DroppedColumn column : droppedColumnDiff.entriesOnlyOnRight().values())
 +            addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(oldView.metadata, column, timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        // columns added then dropped again
 +        for (ByteBuffer name : droppedColumnDiff.entriesDiffering().keySet())
 +            addDroppedColumnToSchemaMutation(newView.metadata, newView.metadata.getDroppedColumns().get(name), timestamp, mutation);
 +
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    public static ViewDefinition createViewFromName(String keyspace, String view)
 +    {
 +        return readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(VIEWS, keyspace, view, partition ->
 +        {
 +            if (partition.isEmpty())
 +                throw new RuntimeException(String.format("%s:%s not found in the schema definitions keyspace.", keyspace, view));
 +
 +            return createViewFromViewPartition(partition);
 +        });
 +    }
 +
 +    private static ViewDefinition createViewFromViewPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, VIEWS);
 +        return createViewFromViewRow(QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).one());
 +    }
 +
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize views from storage-level representation.
 +     *
 +     * @param partition storage-level partition containing the view definitions
 +     * @return the list of processed ViewDefinitions
 +     */
 +    private static Views createViewsFromViewsPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        Views.Builder views = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Views.builder();
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, VIEWS);
 +        for (UntypedResultSet.Row row : QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition))
 +        {
 +            ViewDefinition view = createViewFromViewRow(row);
 +            views.add(view);
 +        }
 +        return views.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static ViewDefinition createViewFromViewRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String keyspace = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String view = row.getString("view_name");
 +        UUID id = row.getUUID("id");
 +        UUID baseTableId = row.getUUID("base_table_id");
 +        String baseTableName = row.getString("base_table_name");
 +        boolean includeAll = row.getBoolean("include_all_columns");
 +        String whereClause = row.getString("where_clause");
 +
 +        List<ColumnDefinition> columns =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(COLUMNS, keyspace, view, SchemaKeyspace::createColumnsFromColumnsPartition);
 +
 +        Map<ByteBuffer, CFMetaData.DroppedColumn> droppedColumns =
 +            readSchemaPartitionForTableAndApply(DROPPED_COLUMNS, keyspace, view, SchemaKeyspace::createDroppedColumnsFromDroppedColumnsPartition);
 +
 +        CFMetaData cfm = CFMetaData.create(keyspace,
 +                                           view,
 +                                           id,
 +                                           false,
 +                                           true,
 +                                           false,
 +                                           false,
 +                                           true,
 +                                           columns,
 +                                           DatabaseDescriptor.getPartitioner())
 +                                   .params(createTableParamsFromRow(row))
 +                                   .droppedColumns(droppedColumns);
 +
 +        String rawSelect = View.buildSelectStatement(baseTableName, columns, whereClause);
 +        SelectStatement.RawStatement rawStatement = (SelectStatement.RawStatement) QueryProcessor.parseStatement(rawSelect);
 +
 +        return new ViewDefinition(keyspace, view, baseTableId, baseTableName, includeAll, rawStatement, whereClause, cfm);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Secondary Index metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    private static void addIndexToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table,
 +                                                 IndexMetadata index,
 +                                                 long timestamp,
 +                                                 Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder builder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Indexes, timestamp, mutation).clustering(table.cfName, index.name);
 +
 +        builder.add("kind", index.kind.toString());
 +        builder.frozenMap("options", index.options);
 +        builder.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void dropIndexFromSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table,
 +                                                    IndexMetadata index,
 +                                                    long timestamp,
 +                                                    Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Indexes, timestamp, mutation, table.cfName, index.name);
 +    }
 +
 +    private static void addUpdatedIndexToSchemaMutation(CFMetaData table,
 +                                                        IndexMetadata index,
 +                                                        long timestamp,
 +                                                        Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        addIndexToSchemaMutation(table, index, timestamp, mutation);
 +    }
 +    /**
 +     * Deserialize secondary indexes from storage-level representation.
 +     *
 +     * @param partition storage-level partition containing the index definitions
 +     * @return the list of processed IndexMetadata
 +     */
 +    private static Indexes createIndexesFromIndexesPartition(CFMetaData cfm, RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        Indexes.Builder indexes = org.apache.cassandra.schema.Indexes.builder();
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, INDEXES);
 +        QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition).forEach(row -> indexes.add(createIndexMetadataFromIndexesRow(row)));
 +        return indexes.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static IndexMetadata createIndexMetadataFromIndexesRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String name = row.getString("index_name");
 +        IndexMetadata.Kind type = IndexMetadata.Kind.valueOf(row.getString("kind"));
 +        Map<String, String> options = row.getFrozenTextMap("options");
 +        return IndexMetadata.fromSchemaMetadata(name, type, options);
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * UDF metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateFunctionMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UDFunction function, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        addFunctionToSchemaMutation(function, timestamp, mutation);
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    static void addFunctionToSchemaMutation(UDFunction function, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Functions, timestamp, mutation)
 +                                 .clustering(function.name().name, functionSignatureWithTypes(function));
 +
 +        adder.add("body", function.body())
 +             .add("language", function.language())
 +             .add("return_type", function.returnType().toString())
 +             .add("called_on_null_input", function.isCalledOnNullInput())
 +             .frozenList("argument_names", function.argNames().stream().map((c) -> bbToString(c.bytes)).collect(Collectors.toList()))
 +             .frozenList("argument_types", function.argTypes().stream().map(AbstractType::toString).collect(Collectors.toList()));
 +
 +        adder.build();
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeDropFunctionMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UDFunction function, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        return RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Functions, timestamp, mutation, function.name().name, functionSignatureWithTypes(function));
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Collection<UDFunction> createFunctionsFromFunctionsPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        List<UDFunction> functions = new ArrayList<>();
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, FUNCTIONS);
 +        for (UntypedResultSet.Row row : QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition))
 +            functions.add(createFunctionFromFunctionRow(row));
 +        return functions;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static UDFunction createFunctionFromFunctionRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String ksName = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String functionName = row.getString("function_name");
 +        FunctionName name = new FunctionName(ksName, functionName);
 +
 +        List<ColumnIdentifier> argNames = new ArrayList<>();
 +        if (row.has("argument_names"))
 +            for (String arg : row.getFrozenList("argument_names", UTF8Type.instance))
 +                argNames.add(new ColumnIdentifier(arg, true));
 +
 +        List<AbstractType<?>> argTypes = new ArrayList<>();
 +        if (row.has("argument_types"))
 +            for (String type : row.getFrozenList("argument_types", UTF8Type.instance))
 +                argTypes.add(parseType(type));
 +
 +        AbstractType<?> returnType = parseType(row.getString("return_type"));
 +
 +        String language = row.getString("language");
 +        String body = row.getString("body");
 +        boolean calledOnNullInput = row.getBoolean("called_on_null_input");
 +
 +        org.apache.cassandra.cql3.functions.Function existing = Schema.instance.findFunction(name, argTypes).orElse(null);
 +        if (existing instanceof UDFunction)
 +        {
 +            // This check prevents duplicate compilation of effectively the same UDF.
 +            // Duplicate compilation attempts can occur on the coordinator node handling the CREATE FUNCTION
 +            // statement, since CreateFunctionStatement needs to execute UDFunction.create but schema migration
 +            // also needs that (since it needs to handle its own change).
 +            UDFunction udf = (UDFunction) existing;
 +            if (udf.argNames().equals(argNames) && // arg types checked in Functions.find call
 +                udf.returnType().equals(returnType) &&
 +                !udf.isAggregate() &&
 +                udf.language().equals(language) &&
 +                udf.body().equals(body) &&
 +                udf.isCalledOnNullInput() == calledOnNullInput)
 +            {
-                 logger.debug("Skipping duplicate compilation of already existing UDF {}", name);
++                logger.trace("Skipping duplicate compilation of already existing UDF {}", name);
 +                return udf;
 +            }
 +        }
 +
 +        try
 +        {
 +            return UDFunction.create(name, argNames, argTypes, returnType, calledOnNullInput, language, body);
 +        }
 +        catch (InvalidRequestException e)
 +        {
 +            logger.error(String.format("Cannot load function '%s' from schema: this function won't be available (on this node)", name), e);
 +            return UDFunction.createBrokenFunction(name, argNames, argTypes, returnType, calledOnNullInput, language, body, e);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    /*
 +     * Aggregate UDF metadata serialization/deserialization.
 +     */
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeCreateAggregateMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UDAggregate aggregate, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        addAggregateToSchemaMutation(aggregate, timestamp, mutation);
 +        return mutation;
 +    }
 +
 +    static void addAggregateToSchemaMutation(UDAggregate aggregate, long timestamp, Mutation mutation)
 +    {
 +        RowUpdateBuilder adder = new RowUpdateBuilder(Aggregates, timestamp, mutation)
 +                                 .clustering(aggregate.name().name, functionSignatureWithTypes(aggregate));
 +
 +        adder.add("return_type", aggregate.returnType().toString())
 +             .add("state_func", aggregate.stateFunction().name().name)
 +             .add("state_type", aggregate.stateType() != null ? aggregate.stateType().toString() : null)
 +             .add("final_func", aggregate.finalFunction() != null ? aggregate.finalFunction().name().name : null)
 +             .add("initcond", aggregate.initialCondition())
 +             .frozenList("argument_types", aggregate.argTypes().stream().map(AbstractType::toString).collect(Collectors.toList()))
 +             .build();
 +    }
 +
 +    private static Collection<UDAggregate> createAggregatesFromAggregatesPartition(RowIterator partition)
 +    {
 +        List<UDAggregate> aggregates = new ArrayList<>();
 +        String query = String.format("SELECT * FROM %s.%s", NAME, AGGREGATES);
 +        for (UntypedResultSet.Row row : QueryProcessor.resultify(query, partition))
 +            aggregates.add(createAggregateFromAggregateRow(row));
 +        return aggregates;
 +    }
 +
 +    private static UDAggregate createAggregateFromAggregateRow(UntypedResultSet.Row row)
 +    {
 +        String ksName = row.getString("keyspace_name");
 +        String functionName = row.getString("aggregate_name");
 +        FunctionName name = new FunctionName(ksName, functionName);
 +
 +        List<String> types = row.getFrozenList("argument_types", UTF8Type.instance);
 +
 +        List<AbstractType<?>> argTypes;
 +        if (types == null)
 +        {
 +            argTypes = Collections.emptyList();
 +        }
 +        else
 +        {
 +            argTypes = new ArrayList<>(types.size());
 +            for (String type : types)
 +                argTypes.add(parseType(type));
 +        }
 +
 +        AbstractType<?> returnType = parseType(row.getString("return_type"));
 +
 +        FunctionName stateFunc = new FunctionName(ksName, (row.getString("state_func")));
 +        FunctionName finalFunc = row.has("final_func") ? new FunctionName(ksName, row.getString("final_func")) : null;
 +        AbstractType<?> stateType = row.has("state_type") ? parseType(row.getString("state_type")) : null;
 +        ByteBuffer initcond = row.has("initcond") ? row.getBytes("initcond") : null;
 +
 +        try
 +        {
 +            return UDAggregate.create(name, argTypes, returnType, stateFunc, finalFunc, stateType, initcond);
 +        }
 +        catch (InvalidRequestException reason)
 +        {
 +            return UDAggregate.createBroken(name, argTypes, returnType, initcond, reason);
 +        }
 +    }
 +
 +    public static Mutation makeDropAggregateMutation(KeyspaceMetadata keyspace, UDAggregate aggregate, long timestamp)
 +    {
 +        // Include the serialized keyspace in case the target node missed a CREATE KEYSPACE migration (see CASSANDRA-5631).
 +        Mutation mutation = makeCreateKeyspaceMutation(keyspace.name, keyspace.params, timestamp);
 +        return RowUpdateBuilder.deleteRow(Aggregates, timestamp, mutation, aggregate.name().name, functionSignatureWithTypes(aggregate));
 +    }
 +
 +    private static AbstractType<?> parseType(String str)
 +    {
 +        return TypeParser.parse(str);
 +    }
 +
 +    // We allow method overloads, so a function is not uniquely identified by its name only, but
 +    // also by its argument types. To distinguish overloads of given function name in the schema
 +    // we use a "signature" which is just a list of it's CQL argument types (we could replace that by
 +    // using a "signature" UDT that would be comprised of the function name and argument types,
 +    // which we could then use as clustering column. But as we haven't yet used UDT in system tables,
 +    // We'll leave that decision to #6717).
 +    public static ByteBuffer functionSignatureWithTypes(AbstractFunction fun)
 +    {
 +        ListType<String> list = ListType.getInstance(UTF8Type.instance, false);
 +        List<String> strList = new ArrayList<>(fun.argTypes().size());
 +        for (AbstractType<?> argType : fun.argTypes())
 +            strList.add(argType.asCQL3Type().toString());
 +        return list.decompose(strList);
 +    }
 +}


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