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From "Antti Nissinen (JIRA)" <>
Subject [jira] [Created] (CASSANDRA-10195) TWCS experiments and improvement proposals
Date Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:42:45 GMT
Antti Nissinen created CASSANDRA-10195:

             Summary: TWCS experiments and improvement proposals
                 Key: CASSANDRA-10195
             Project: Cassandra
          Issue Type: Improvement
          Components: Core
            Reporter: Antti Nissinen
             Fix For: 2.1.x, 2.2.x
         Attachments: 20150814_1027_compaction_hierarchy.txt, node0_20150727_1250_time_graph.txt,
node0_20150810_1017_time_graph.txt, node0_20150812_1531_time_graph.txt, node0_20150813_0835_time_graph.txt,
node0_20150814_1054_time_graph.txt, node1_20150727_1250_time_graph.txt, node1_20150810_1017_time_graph.txt,
node1_20150812_1531_time_graph.txt, node1_20150813_0835_time_graph.txt, node1_20150814_1054_time_graph.txt,
node2_20150727_1250_time_graph.txt, node2_20150810_1017_time_graph.txt, node2_20150812_1531_time_graph.txt,
node2_20150813_0835_time_graph.txt, node2_20150814_1054_time_graph.txt, sstable_count_figure1.png,

This JIRA item describes experiments with DateTieredCompactionStartegy (DTCS) and TimeWindowCompactionStrategy
(TWCS) and proposes modifications to the TWCS. In a test system several crashes were caused
intentionally (and unintentionally) and repair operations were executed leading to flood of
small SSTables. Target was to be able compact those files are release disk space reserved
by duplicate data. Setup is following:

- Three nodes
- DateTieredCompactionStrategy, max_sstable_age_days = 5
    Cassandra 2.1.2

The setup and data format has been documented in detailed here

The test was started by dumping  few days worth of data to the database for 100 000 signals.
Time graphs of SStables from different nodes indicates that the DTCS has been working as expected
and SStables are nicely ordered in time wise.

See files:

|/ State=Normal/Leaving/Joining/Moving
--  Address        Load       Tokens  Owns    Host ID                               Rack
UN  188.87 GB  256     ?       dfc29863-c935-4909-9d7f-c59a47eda03d  rack1
UN  198.37 GB  256     ?       12e7628b-7f05-48f6-b7e4-35a82010021a  rack1
UN  191.88 GB  256     ?       26088392-f803-4d59-9073-c75f857fb332  rack1

All nodes crashed due to power failure (know beforehand) and repair operations were started
for each node one at the time. Below is the behavior of SSTable count on different nodes.
New data was dumped simultaneously with repair operation.

SEE FIGURE: sstable_count_figure1.png

Vertical lines indicate following events.

1) Cluster was down due to power shutdown and was restarted. At the first vertical line the
repair operation (nodetool repair -pr) was started for the first node
2) Repair for the second repair operation was started after the first node was successfully
3) Repair for the third repair operation was started
4) Third repair operation was finished
5) One of the nodes crashed (unknown reason in OS level)
6) Repair operation (nodetool repair -pr) was started for the first node
7) Repair operation for the second node was started
8) Repair operation for the third node was started
9) Repair operations finished

These repair operations are leading to huge amount of small SSTables covering the whole time
span of the data. The compaction horizon of DTCS was limited to 5 days (max_sstable_age_days)
due to the size of the SStables on the disc. Therefore, small SStables won't be compacted.
Below are the time graphs from SSTables after the second round of repairs.

|/ State=Normal/Leaving/Joining/Moving
--  Address        Load       Tokens  Owns    Host ID                               Rack
UN  xx.xx.xx.170  663.61 GB  256     ?       dfc29863-c935-4909-9d7f-c59a47eda03d  rack1
UN  xx.xx.xx.169  763.52 GB  256     ?       12e7628b-7f05-48f6-b7e4-35a82010021a  rack1
UN  xx.xx.xx.168  651.59 GB  256     ?       26088392-f803-4d59-9073-c75f857fb332  rack1

See files:

To get rid of the SStables the TimeWindowCompactionStrategy was taken into use. Window size
was set to 5 days. Cassandra version was updated to 2.1.8. Below figure shows the behavior
of SStable count. TWCS was taken into use 10.8.2015 at 13:10. The maximum amount of files
to be compacted in one task was limited to 32 files to avoid running out of disk space.

See Figure: sstable_count_figure2.png

Shape of the trend indicates clearly how selection of SStables for buckets based on size affects.
Combining files gets slower when files are getting bigger inside the time window. When the
time window does not have any more compactions to be done the next time window is started.
Combining small files is again fast and the number of SStables decreases quickly.  Below are
the time graphs for SStables when compactions were ready with TWCS. New data was not dumped
simultaneously with compactions.

See files:

Datacenter: datacenter1
|/ State=Normal/Leaving/Joining/Moving
--  Address        Load       Tokens  Owns    Host ID                               Rack
UN  xx.xx.xx.170  436.17 GB  256     ?       dfc29863-c935-4909-9d7f-c59a47eda03d  rack1
UN  xx.xx.xx.169  454.96 GB  256     ?       12e7628b-7f05-48f6-b7e4-35a82010021a  rack1
UN  xx.xx.xx.168  439.13 GB  256     ?       26088392-f803-4d59-9073-c75f857fb332  rack1

Data dumping was activated again and the SStable statistics were observed again on the next

See files:

Since the data was dumped to the history the newest data did not come into the current time
window that is determined from the system time. Since new small SSTables (approximately 30-
50 MB in size) are appearing continuously the compaction ended up compacting together one
large SStable with several small files. The code was modified so that the current time is
determined from the newest time stamp in the SStables (like in DTCS).This modification led
to much more reasonable compaction behavior for the case when historical data is pushed to
the database. Below are the time grahps from nodes after one day. Size tiered compaction was
now able to work with newest files as intended while dumping data in real-time.

See files:

The change in behavior is clearly visible in the compaction hierarchy graph below. TWCS modification
is visible starting from the line 39. See the description of the file format in

See file: 20150814_1027_compaction_hierarchy.txt

The behavior of the TWCS looks really promising and works also in practice!!!
We would like to propose some ideas for future development of the algorithm.

1) The current time window would be determined from the newest time stamp found in SSTables.
This allows the effective compaction of the SSTables when data is fed to the history in timely
order. In dumping process the time stamp of the column is set according to the time stamp
of the data sample.

2) The count of SSTables participating in one compaction could be limited either by the number
of files given by max_threshold OR by the sum of size of files selected for the compaction
bucket. File size limitation would prevent combining a large files together potentially causing
out of disk space situation or extremely long lasting compaction tasks.

3) Now time windows are handled one by one starting from the newest. This will not lead to
the fastest decrease in SStable count. An alternative might a round-robin approach in which
time windows are stepped through and only one compaction task for that given time window is
done and then moving to the next time window.

Side note: while observing the compaction process it appears that compaction is intermittently
using two threads for the compaction. However, sometimes during a long lasting compaction
task (hours) another thread was not kicking in and working with small SSTables even if there
were thousands of those available for compactions.

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