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From "Stefania (JIRA)" <>
Subject [jira] [Commented] (CASSANDRA-8630) Faster sequential IO (on compaction, streaming, etc)
Date Fri, 07 Aug 2015 09:15:47 GMT


Stefania commented on CASSANDRA-8630:

About byte ordering, it seems OHC insists on native byte ordering, which is little-endian
on linux x86_64. Not a big problem, we can force the ordering to big-endian in the serializers.

However, I think this means we always pay the price of swapping bytes when using direct byte
buffers. Here is the implementation of {{getInt()}} in

private int getInt(long a) {
        if (unaligned) {
            int x = unsafe.getInt(a);
            return (nativeByteOrder ? x : Bits.swap(x));
        return Bits.getInt(a, bigEndian);

Forcing byte ordering to big-endian doesn't mean {{nativeByteOrder}] becomes true:

public final ByteBuffer order(ByteOrder bo) {
        bigEndian = (bo == ByteOrder.BIG_ENDIAN);
        nativeByteOrder =
            (bigEndian == (Bits.byteOrder() == ByteOrder.BIG_ENDIAN));
        return this;

where {{Bits.byteOrder()}} return the platform endianess. 

So wouldn't we be better off forcing native byte ordering rather than big-endian?

> Faster sequential IO (on compaction, streaming, etc)
> ----------------------------------------------------
>                 Key: CASSANDRA-8630
>                 URL:
>             Project: Cassandra
>          Issue Type: Improvement
>          Components: Core, Tools
>            Reporter: Oleg Anastasyev
>            Assignee: Stefania
>              Labels: compaction, performance
>             Fix For: 3.x
>         Attachments: 8630-FasterSequencialReadsAndWrites.txt, cpu_load.png, flight_recorder_001_files.tar.gz
> When node is doing a lot of sequencial IO (streaming, compacting, etc) a lot of CPU is
lost in calls to RAF's int read() and DataOutputStream's write(int).
> This is because default implementations of readShort,readLong, etc as well as their matching
write* are implemented with numerous calls of byte by byte read and write. 
> This makes a lot of syscalls as well.
> A quick microbench shows than just reimplementation of these methods in either way gives
8x speed increase.
> A patch attached implements<Type> and SequencialWriter.write<Type>
methods in more efficient way.
> I also eliminated some extra byte copies in CompositeType.split and ColumnNameHelper.maxComponents,
which were on my profiler's hotspot method list during tests.
> A stress tests on my laptop show that this patch makes compaction 25-30% faster  on uncompressed
sstables and 15% faster for compressed ones.
> A deployment to production shows much less CPU load for compaction. 
> (I attached a cpu load graph from one of our production, orange is niced CPU load - i.e.
compaction; yellow is user - i.e. not compaction related tasks)

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